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1.
Oral Dis ; 2019 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31837279

RESUMO

To evaluate the effect of herbal mouthrinses as an adjuvant to oral hygiene on dental plaque and gingival inflammation in subjects with gingivitis. Searches were conducted in the PubMed/MEDLINE, Cochrane-CENTRAL, EMBASE, Web of Science, LILACS/BIREME, Clinical Trials Registry and grey literature for Randomised Clinical Trials (RCTs) published up to April 2018 without language restrictions. From 4,013 paper found, 20 studies met the eligibility criteria and were included. The herbal mouthrinses achieved significant reductions in dental plaque and gingival inflammation compared to placebo rinses. Five herbal products (Camelia sinensis, Azadirachta indica, Anacardium occidentale Linn, Schinus terebinthifolius and Curcuma longa) showed better results than chlorhexidine in dental plaque and gingival inflammation reductions. However, the unclear risk of bias of most included RCTs precludes definitive conclusions. Therefore, it is necessary to improve the design of future RCT in other reduced potential bias that may affect the degree of precision of treatment outcomes in order to evaluate the effect size and clinical relevance of herbal mouthrinses.

2.
Braz Oral Res ; 33: e062, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31859706

RESUMO

Laboratory evidence has demonstrated the antimicrobial effect of Melaleuca alternifolia (MEL) against oral microorganisms. This randomized, double-blind, crossover clinical trial, compared the anti-biofilm and anti-inflammatory effects of MEL nanoparticles with 0.12% chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX) on biofilm-free (BF) and biofilm-covered (BC) surfaces. Before each experimental period, the participants refrained from all oral hygiene practices for 72 hours. The 60 participants were randomly assigned to professional prophylaxis in two quadrants (Q1-Q3 or Q2-Q4), and rinsed with MEL or CHX for four days. The Quigley & Hein plaque index (QHPI), gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) volume, and participants' perceptions were assessed. CHX showed significantly lower mean QHPI on BF (2.65 ± 0.34 vs. 3.34 ± 0.33, p < 0.05) and BC surfaces (2.84 ± 0.37 vs. 3.37 ± 0.33, p < 0.05). Intragroup comparisons indicated reductions in GCF in all the groups, with significant differences only for CHX on BF surfaces (p < 0.05). Intergroup comparisons revealed no significant differences (p > 0.05). Based on individual perceptions, CHX had better taste and biofilm control, but resulted in a greater change in taste. Nevertheless, MEL demonstrated anti-inflammatory effects similar to those of CHX. Further clinical trials testing different protocols, concentrations and follow-up periods are required to establish its clinical application.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Clorexidina/análogos & derivados , Placa Dentária/tratamento farmacológico , Melaleuca/química , Antissépticos Bucais/farmacologia , Nanopartículas/química , Adolescente , Adulto , Clorexidina/farmacologia , Estudos Cross-Over , Índice de Placa Dentária , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Líquido do Sulco Gengival/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Masculino , Higiene Bucal/métodos , Doenças Periodontais/microbiologia , Doenças Periodontais/prevenção & controle , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Propriedades de Superfície/efeitos dos fármacos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Escala Visual Analógica , Adulto Jovem
3.
Rev Saude Publica ; 53: 47, 2019 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31066825

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the sampling strategy of an epidemiological survey with the aid of satellite images, including details of the multistage probability sampling process. METHODS: A probability sample of individuals living in the rural area of Rosário do Sul, state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, aged 15 years old or more, was evaluated. Participants answered questionnaires (medical history, sociodemographic characteristics, habits, alcohol use, quality of life, stress, rumination, and self-perceived periodontal diseases), and were subjected to clinical oral examinations as well as anthropometric measurements (blood pressure, height, weight, abdominal and waist circumferences). Oral evaluation comprehended a complete periodontal exam at six sites per tooth, including the following assessments: furcation involvement; dental abrasion; tooth decay, including the indexing of missing and filled surfaces; O'Brien index; gingival abrasion; oral cavity and lip lesions; complete periapical radiographic exam, and use of prostheses. Besides this oral clinical approach, subgingival plaque, crevicular gingival fluid, saliva, and blood samples were collected. Examiners were trained and calibrated during previous evaluations. A pilot study allowed the logistic of the performed exams to be adjusted as needed. RESULTS: Among 1,087 eligible individuals, 688 were examined (63.3%). Age, sex, and skin color data were compared to data from the last demographic census (2010) of the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics, which served to validate the sampling strategy. CONCLUSIONS: The careful methods used in this study, in which satellite images were used in the delimitation of epidemiological areas, ensure the quality of the estimates obtained and allow for these estimates to be used in oral health surveillance and health policies improvements.


Assuntos
Inquéritos de Saúde Bucal/métodos , Métodos Epidemiológicos , Imagens de Satélites/métodos , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , População Rural , Distribuição por Sexo , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
4.
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 53: 47, jan. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1004501

RESUMO

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe the sampling strategy of an epidemiological survey with the aid of satellite images, including details of the multistage probability sampling process. METHODS A probability sample of individuals living in the rural area of Rosário do Sul, state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, aged 15 years old or more, was evaluated. Participants answered questionnaires (medical history, sociodemographic characteristics, habits, alcohol use, quality of life, stress, rumination, and self-perceived periodontal diseases), and were subjected to clinical oral examinations as well as anthropometric measurements (blood pressure, height, weight, abdominal and waist circumferences). Oral evaluation comprehended a complete periodontal exam at six sites per tooth, including the following assessments: furcation involvement; dental abrasion; tooth decay, including the indexing of missing and filled surfaces; O'Brien index; gingival abrasion; oral cavity and lip lesions; complete periapical radiographic exam, and use of prostheses. Besides this oral clinical approach, subgingival plaque, crevicular gingival fluid, saliva, and blood samples were collected. Examiners were trained and calibrated during previous evaluations. A pilot study allowed the logistic of the performed exams to be adjusted as needed. RESULTS Among 1,087 eligible individuals, 688 were examined (63.3%). Age, sex, and skin color data were compared to data from the last demographic census (2010) of the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics, which served to validate the sampling strategy. CONCLUSIONS The careful methods used in this study, in which satellite images were used in the delimitation of epidemiological areas, ensure the quality of the estimates obtained and allow for these estimates to be used in oral health surveillance and health policies improvements.

5.
Clin Oral Investig ; 23(8): 3193-3202, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30402699

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess with histological and inflammatory analysis the use of flossing as a diagnostic method for detecting proximal gingivitis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This is a diagnostic accuracy paper composed of two different studies. In the first study, three groups were identified based on papilla status: bleeding (+) with both methods (N = 26); bleeding (+) with dental floss, but no bleeding (-) with probing (N = 26); and no bleeding (-) with either method (N = 26). One papilla from all 78 participants was biopsied and analyzed for the determination of inflammatory infiltrate and percentage of collagen fibers. Sensibility, specificity, positive and negative predictive, and accuracy values were analyzed. In the second study, the volume of gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) was analyzed in 49 participants with flossing+/probing- and flossing-/probing- at contralateral proximal sites. The GCF volume was compared between these sites (n = 172). RESULTS: Significantly greater frequencies of moderate/intense inflammation were found in the flossing+/probing+ (100%) and flossing+/probing- (92.3%) groups compared to those in the flossing-/probing- (0%) group. Significantly different percentages of collagen fibers were found among the three groups (flossing+/probing+ (40.90 ± 3.68); flossing+/probing- (45.78 ± 4.55); flossing-/probing- (60.01 ± 36.66)) (P < 0.001). Dental floss increased the balance between sensitivity and specificity values and showed highest positive predictive (100%) and accuracy (97%) values. Among the 172 sites evaluated, positive bleeding sites had a significantly greater volume of GCF (38 (27-68)) than negative sites (25 (16-51)) (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that flossing can be used as a diagnostic method for proximal gingivitis in subjects with no history of periodontitis. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Dental floss can be used as a complementary diagnostic method for proximal gingivitis in adults without clinical attachment loss in clinical practice as well as epidemiology studies.


Assuntos
Gengivite , Periodontite , Adulto , Dispositivos para o Cuidado Bucal Domiciliar , Líquido do Sulco Gengival , Gengivite/diagnóstico , Humanos , Inflamação , Índice Periodontal
6.
Phytother Res ; 32(2): 230-242, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29235165

RESUMO

This is a systematic review of clinical and laboratory studies evaluating the effect of Melaleuca alternifolia on periodontopathogens, dental plaque, gingivitis, periodontitis, and inflammatory responses. The PubMed, Cochrane, Web of science, Bireme, Lilacs, Prospero, Open Grey, and Clinical Trials databases were searched to identify potentially eligible studies through October 2016. Of 1,654 potentially eligible studies, 25 were included in the systematic review. Their methodology was evaluated through the Cochrane Handbook for clinical studies and the GRADE system for in vivo/in vitro studies. Although clinical studies must be interpreted with caution due to methodological limitations, laboratory studies have found promising results. In vitro evidences showed that M. alternifolia has bactericidal and bacteriostatic effects against the most prevalent periodontopathogens. Clinical studies found comparable effects to chlorhexidine 0.12% in reducing gingival inflammation, although the antiplaque effect was lower. M. alternifolia also showed antioxidant properties, which are beneficial to the host, allied to the reduction on immune-inflammatory responses to pathogens. This systematic review suggests that the M. alternifolia has potential anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties, which can be easily applied to the periodontal tissues. However, further clinical trials are needed to elucidate the clinical relevance of its application.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Placa Dentária/tratamento farmacológico , Melaleuca/química , Doenças Periodontais/tratamento farmacológico , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Humanos
7.
Microb Pathog ; 113: 432-437, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29162482

RESUMO

Microbial biofilms represent a challenge in the treatment of infections, due to the low efficacy of the antimicrobials. This study evaluated the antimicrobial effect of nanoparticles of Melaleuca alternifolia (TTO) in dental biofilm. Thirty-eight volunteers used an oral device in situ in situ including four bovine enamel specimens for 07 days. From the fifth day four solutions were applied randomly for each specimen: Physiological Saline Solution (0.85% NaCl) (C+), Chlorhexidine 0.12% (CHX), M. alternifolia oil 0.3% (TTO), and a nanoparticle solution of 0.3% M. alternifolia oil (NPTTO). The nanoparticles of TTO were characterized for pH, IPD, medium size, zeta potential and Transmission Electron Microscopy. Antimicrobial activity was evaluated by viable microorganisms count and the structure of the biofilm by atomic force microscopy. The NPTTO presented pH 6.4, particle diameter of 197.9 ± 1 nm, polydispersion index of 0.242 ± 0.005, zeta potential of -7.12 mV and ±0:27 spherical shape. The C+ resulted in 100% of bacterial vitality, while CHX, TTO and NPTTO showed 34.2%, 51.4% and 25.8%, respectively. The AFM images showed biofilms with an average roughness of 350 nm for C+, 275 nm for CHX, 500 nm for TTO and 100 nm for NPTTO. The NPTTO demonstrated excellent antimicrobial activity in the biofilm formed in situ and will possibly be used in future for the treatment/prevention of oral biofilms.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Melaleuca/química , Nanopartículas/química , Exsudatos de Plantas/farmacologia , Adulto , Animais , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Aderência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Brasil , Bovinos , Clorexidina/farmacologia , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Esmalte Dentário/microbiologia , Placa Dentária/tratamento farmacológico , Placa Dentária/microbiologia , Placa Dentária/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Viabilidade Microbiana/efeitos dos fármacos , Tamanho da Partícula , Projetos Piloto , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia , Óleo de Melaleuca/farmacologia , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
8.
Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop ; 152(4): 477-482, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28962731

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In this study, we aimed to assess the effect of the duration of fixed orthodontic treatment on gingival enlargement (GE) in adolescents and young adults. METHODS: The sample consisted of 260 subjects (ages, 10-30 years) divided into 4 groups: patients with no fixed orthodontic appliances (G0) and patients undergoing orthodontic treatment for 1 year (G1), 2 years (G2), or 3 years (G3). Participants completed a structured questionnaire on sociodemographic characteristics and oral hygiene habits. Clinical examinations were conducted by a calibrated examiner and included the plaque index, the gingival index, and the Seymour index. Poisson regression models were used to assess the association between group and GE. RESULTS: We observed increasing means of plaque, gingivitis, and GE in G0, G1, and G2. No significant differences were observed between G2 and G3. Adjusted Poisson regression analysis showed that patients undergoing orthodontic treatment had a 20 to 28-fold increased risk for GE than did those without orthodontic appliances (G1, rate ratio [RR] = 20.2, 95% CI = 9.0-45.3; G2, RR = 27.0, 95% CI = 12.1-60.3; G3 = 28.1; 95% CI = 12.6-62.5). CONCLUSIONS: The duration of orthodontic treatment significantly influenced the occurrence of GE. Oral hygiene instructions and motivational activities should target adolescents and young adults undergoing orthodontic treatment.


Assuntos
Doenças da Gengiva/etiologia , Aparelhos Ortodônticos/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Índice Periodontal , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
9.
Community Dent Oral Epidemiol ; 45(5): 427-433, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28585271

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the performance of partial-mouth periodontal examination (PMPE) protocols with different cut-off points to the full-mouth examination (FME) in the assessment of the prevalence and extent of gingival bleeding in adolescents. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted involving 12-year-old adolescents. Following a systematic two-stage cluster sampling process, 1134 individuals were evaluated. Different PMPE protocols were compared to the FME with six sites per tooth. Sensitivity, specificity, area under the ROC curve (AUC), intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), relative and absolute biases and the inflation factor were assessed for each PMPE protocol with different cut-off points for the severity of gingival bleeding. RESULTS: The highest AUC values were found for the six-site two-diagonal quadrant (2-4) (0.97), six-site random half-mouth (0.95) and Community Periodontal Index (0.95) protocols. The assessment of three sites [mesiobuccal (MB), buccal (B) and distolingual (DL)] in two diagonal quadrants and the random half-mouth protocol had higher sensitivity and lower specificity than the same protocols with distobuccal (DB) sites. However, the use of DB sites led to better specificity and improved the balance between sensitivity and specificity, except for the two-diagonal quadrant (1-3) protocol. The ≥1 cut-off point led to the most discrepant results from the FME. CONCLUSION: Six-site two-diagonal quadrant (2-4) and random half-mouth assessments perform better in the evaluation of gingival bleeding in adolescents. However, when a faster protocol is needed, a two-diagonal quadrant assessment using only MB, B and DL sites can be used with no important loss of information.


Assuntos
Diagnóstico Bucal/métodos , Hemorragia Gengival/diagnóstico , Hemorragia Gengival/epidemiologia , Índice Periodontal , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
10.
J Periodontol ; 88(7): 693-701, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28398112

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is not clear how using partial-mouth periodontal examination (PMPE) protocols affects estimates of the association between gingival bleeding (GB) and oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL). The aim of the present study is to assess impact of different PMPEs on the association between GB and OHRQoL in 12-year-old adolescents. METHODS: A total of 1,134 adolescents were evaluated for clinical and subjective variables. GB was determined by full-mouth examination (FME) of six sites (disto-buccal [DB], mid-buccal [B], mesio-buccal [MB], disto-lingual [DL], mid-lingual, and mesio-lingual [ML]) and different PMPEs were calculated using a 15% cut-off point: 1) full-mouth (MB-B-DB/MB-B-DL); 2) two diagonal quadrants (six sites/MB-B-DB/MB-B-DL); 3) two randomly selected half-mouth quadrants (six sites/MB-B-DB/ MB-B-DL/MB-DB-ML-DL); and 4) the community periodontal index. OHRQoL was assessed using the Child Perceptions Questionnaire (CPQ11-14). Adjusted negative binomial regression models were used to calculate the rate ratio of CPQ11-14 scores for each PMPE. RESULTS: Adolescents with GB showed significantly poorer OHRQoL than their counterparts when FME was used. In contrast, more than half of PMPE protocols did not detect significant associations between GB and CPQ11-14 scores in the adjusted analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Using PMPE to assess GB in adolescents significantly affects associations with OHRQoL outcomes, depending on the protocol used. PMPEs that evaluated MB-B-DL sites of randomly selected half-mouth quadrants (1 or 2 and 3 or 4) achieved results closer to those obtained with FME.


Assuntos
Assistência Odontológica para Crianças/métodos , Hemorragia Gengival/diagnóstico , Saúde Bucal , Doenças Periodontais/diagnóstico , Qualidade de Vida , Brasil , Criança , Feminino , Hemorragia Gengival/etiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Doenças Periodontais/complicações
11.
J Public Health Dent ; 77(1): 21-29, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27333867

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the associations of gingival bleeding with individual and community social variables among schoolchildren. METHODS: This cross-sectional study evaluated a representative, multistage, random sample of 1,134 12-year-old schoolchildren from Santa Maria, a city in southern Brazil. The participants were examined clinically, and full-mouth gingival bleeding was recorded according to the Community Periodontal Index criteria (scored as healthy or bleeding). The children's parents or guardians answered questions regarding their socioeconomic status and social capital, and an assessment of the associations was performed using multilevel Poisson regression models. RESULTS: The prevalence of gingival bleeding was 96.21 percent. The multilevel adjusted assessment revealed that socioeconomic, clinical, and social capital variables at the individual level were associated with higher levels of gingival bleeding. Children whose fathers had a low educational level, children who had dental plaque and dental crowding, and children who never/almost never attended religious meetings exhibited significantly higher levels of gingival bleeding than their counterparts. This social gradient remained significant even after adjusting for contextual-level covariates. CONCLUSION: The results indicate that the socioeconomic status and features of social capital are associated with the levels of gingival bleeding among schoolchildren.


Assuntos
Hemorragia Gengival/epidemiologia , Capital Social , Classe Social , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Amostragem , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
Rev. odontol. UNESP (Online) ; 45(5): 302-307, Sept.-Oct. 2016. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: lil-798164

RESUMO

Abstract Objective To compare the antimicrobial efficacy of a 0.12% chlorhexidine (CHX) and herbal green tea (Camellia sinensis) solution on established biofilms formed at different oxygen tensions in an in situ model. Method Twenty-five dental students were eligible for the study. In situ devices with standardized enamel specimens (ES) facing the palatal and buccal sides were inserted in the mouths of volunteers for a 7 day period. No agent was applied during the first four days. From the fifth day onward, both agents were applied to the test ES group and no agent was applied to the control ES group. After 7 days the ES fragments were removed from the devices, sonicated, plated on agar, and incubated for 24 h at 37 °C to determine and quantify the colony forming units (CFUs). Result CHX had significantly higher efficacy compared to green tea on the buccal (1330 vs. 2170 CFU/µL) and palatal (2250 vs. 2520 CFU/µL) ES. In addition, intragroup comparisons showed significantly higher efficacy in buccal ES over palatal ES (1330 vs. 2250 CFU/µL for CHX and 2170 vs, 2520 CFU/µL for CV) for both solutions. Analysis of the ES controls showed significantly higher biofilm formation in palatal ES compared to buccal ES. Conclusion CHX has higher efficacy than green tea on 4-day biofilms. The efficacy of both agents was reduced for biofilms grown in a low oxygen tension environment. Therefore, the oxygen tension environment seems to influence the efficacy of the tested agents.


Resumo Objetivo Comparar a eficácia antimicrobiana de clorexidina 0,12% (CHX) e solução de chá verde (CV) (Camellia sinensis) em biofilmes formados em diferentes tensões de oxigênio em um modelo in situ. Método Vinte e cinco estudantes de odontologia foram elegíveis. Um dispositivo com espécimes de esmalte (EE) padronizados, voltado para o palato e para vestibular foram inseridos nos voluntários por 7 dias. Durante os primeiros quatro dias nenhum agente foi aplicado. A partir do quinto dia, ambos os agentes foram aplicados nos EEs no grupo teste e nenhum agente foi aplicado no grupo EE controle. Após 7 dias, os fragmentos EEs foram removidos dos dispositivos, sonicados, plaqueados em ágar, e incubado durante 24 h a 37 °C para determinar unidades formadoras de colonias (UFCs). Resultado CHX teve significativamente melhor eficácia em comparação com CV nos EEs para vestibular (1.330 vs. 2.170 UFC/mL) e EEs voltados para o palatal (2.250 vs. 2.520 UFC/mL). Comparações intragrupos mostraram maior eficácia em EEs vestibulares do que as EEs voltadas para o palato (1.330 vs. 2.250 UFC/mL para CHX e 2170 vs, 2520 UFC/mL para CV) em ambas as soluções. Análise dos controles, mostrou a formação de biofilme significativamente maior em comparação com EEs palatinas e bucais. Conclusão CHX tem uma eficácia maior do que o chá verde em biofilmes formados por 4 dias. A eficácia dos agentes foi reduzida para os biofilmes em ambiente com baixa tensão de oxigênio. A tensão de oxigênio parece influenciar na eficácia dos agentes testados.

13.
Braz Oral Res ; 30(1)2016 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27223134

RESUMO

This study evaluated the clinical diagnosis of proximal gingivitis by comparing two methods: dental flossing and the gingival bleeding index (GBI). One hundred subjects (aged at least 18 years, with 15% of positive proximal sites for GBI, without proximal attachment loss) were randomized into five evaluation protocols. Each protocol consisted of two assessments with a 10-minute interval between them: first GBI/second floss, first floss/second GBI, first GBI/second GBI, first tooth floss/second floss, and first gum floss-second floss. The dental floss was slid against the tooth surface (TF) and the gingival tissue (GF). The evaluated proximal sites should present teeth with established point of contact and probing depth ≤ 3mm. One trained and calibrated examiner performed all the assessments. The mean percentages of agreement and disagreement were calculated for the sites with gingival bleeding in both evaluation methods (GBI and flossing). The primary outcome was the percentage of disagreement between the assessments in the different protocols. The data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA, McNemar, chi-square and Tukey's post hoc tests, with a 5% significance level. When gingivitis was absent in the first assessment (negative GBI), bleeding was detected in the second assessment by TF and GF in 41.7% (p < 0.001) and 50.7% (p < 0.001) of the sites, respectively. In the absence of gingivitis in the second assessment (negative GBI), TF and GF detected bleeding in the first assessment in 38.9% (p = 0.004) and 58.3% (p < 0.001) of the sites, respectively. TF and GF appears to be a better diagnostic indicator of proximal gingivitis than GBI.


Assuntos
Dispositivos para o Cuidado Bucal Domiciliar , Gengivite/diagnóstico , Índice Periodontal , Adulto , Análise de Variância , Calibragem , Feminino , Hemorragia Gengival , Humanos , Masculino , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Distribuição Aleatória , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Adulto Jovem
14.
J Clin Periodontol ; 43(3): 250-60, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26790108

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adjuvant antibiotics have been suggested to improve periodontal therapy in diabetic subjects. AIM: The aim of this study was to systematically review randomized clinical trials assessing systemic antimicrobial use adjuvant to scaling and root planing (SRP) versus SRP alone in diabetic subjects. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EMBASE, TRIP, Web of Science and LILACS databases and the grey literature were searched through May 2015. Of 2534 potentially eligible studies, 13 were included in the systematic review. Weighted mean differences (WMDs) in probing depth (PD) reduction and clinical attachment level (CAL) gain (primary outcomes), and plaque index (PI) and bleeding on probing (BOP) reductions, were estimated using a random effect model. RESULTS: The WMD in PD reduction [-0.15 mm, n = 11, p = 0.001, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.24, -0.06] favoured antibiotic use. WMDs in CAL gain, PI and BOP reductions (-0.14 mm, n = 9, p = 0.11, 95% CI -0.32, 0.03; 4.01%, n = 7, p = 0.05, 95% CI -0.04, 8.07; and -1.91%, n = 7, p = 0.39, 95% CI -6.32, 2.51 respectively) did not favour adjunctive antibiotic use. CONCLUSION: Adjunctive therapy may improve the efficacy of SRP in reducing PD in diabetic subjects.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Raspagem Dentária , Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Perda da Inserção Periodontal/tratamento farmacológico , Índice Periodontal , Bolsa Periodontal/tratamento farmacológico , Aplainamento Radicular
15.
Texto & contexto enferm ; 25(4): e4530014, 2016. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-962850

RESUMO

ABSTRACT This study aimed to identify the factors associated with violence among students of public schools located in the central region of Rio Grande do Sul. It is an observational, transversal and analytical study. The sample was made up of 435 students aged from 10 to 19 years old. The data were collected through a structured questionnaire applied via interview. Associations between the dependent and independent variables were taken from the Poisson regression model. Once analyzed, the data evidenced greater prevalence between violence and the following variables: male sex, larger number of siblings, and a low income; while religion was associated as an indicator of protection for psychological violence. It is concluded that interdepartmental, interdisciplinary and multidimensional approaches constitute an important strategy for promoting health and reducing violence in schools, above all in communities with indicators of vulnerability. Specific strategies for the work of the nurse are indicated for preventing risks associated with violence.


RESUMEN El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo identificar factores asociados a violencia en estudiantes de escuelas públicas de la región central del Río Grande do Sul. Estudio observacional, analítico y transversal. La muestra estuvo conformada por 435 estudiantes de quinto grado de escuela primaria hasta el nivel secundario. Los datos fueron recolectados por medio de entrevistas utilizando cuestionario estructurado. Las asociaciones entre variables dependientes e independientes se tomaron del modelo de regresión de Poisson. El análisis de datos indicó un aumentó en la prevalencia entre violencia y variables de sexo masculino, mayor número de hermanos y bajos ingresos, mientras que la religión se asoció como indicador de protección de violencia psicológica. Se concluye que los enfoques intersectoriales, interdisciplinarios y multidimensionales se revelan como estrategias para acciones de enfrentamiento a la violencia. Algunas estrategias específicas de intervenciones de enfermería son indicadas para prevenir los riesgos asociados a violencia.


RESUMO Objetivou-se identificar os fatores associados à violência em alunos de escolas públicas localizadas na região central do Rio Grande do Sul. Estudo observacional, transversal e analítico. Amostra foi constituída por 435 alunos de 10 a 19 anos. Os dados foram coletados por meio de questionário estruturado aplicado em forma de entrevista. Associações entre as variáveis dependentes e independentes foram retiradas do modelo de regressão de Poisson. Os dados analisados evidenciaram maior prevalência entre violência e as variáveis sexo masculino, maior número de irmãos e baixa renda, enquanto que a religião foi associada como indicador de proteção para a violência psicológica. Conclui-se que as abordagens intersetoriais, interdisciplinares e multidimensionais se constituem em importante estratégia para promoção da saúde e redução da violência escolar, sobretudo em comunidades com indicadores de vulnerabilidade. Estratégias específicas de atuação do enfermeiro são indicadas para prevenção de riscos associados a violência.

16.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 30(1): e68, 2016. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-952027

RESUMO

ABSTRACT This study evaluated the clinical diagnosis of proximal gingivitis by comparing two methods: dental flossing and the gingival bleeding index (GBI). One hundred subjects (aged at least 18 years, with 15% of positive proximal sites for GBI, without proximal attachment loss) were randomized into five evaluation protocols. Each protocol consisted of two assessments with a 10-minute interval between them: first GBI/second floss, first floss/second GBI, first GBI/second GBI, first tooth floss/second floss, and first gum floss-second floss. The dental floss was slid against the tooth surface (TF) and the gingival tissue (GF). The evaluated proximal sites should present teeth with established point of contact and probing depth ≤ 3mm. One trained and calibrated examiner performed all the assessments. The mean percentages of agreement and disagreement were calculated for the sites with gingival bleeding in both evaluation methods (GBI and flossing). The primary outcome was the percentage of disagreement between the assessments in the different protocols. The data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA, McNemar, chi-square and Tukey's post hoc tests, with a 5% significance level. When gingivitis was absent in the first assessment (negative GBI), bleeding was detected in the second assessment by TF and GF in 41.7% (p < 0.001) and 50.7% (p < 0.001) of the sites, respectively. In the absence of gingivitis in the second assessment (negative GBI), TF and GF detected bleeding in the first assessment in 38.9% (p = 0.004) and 58.3% (p < 0.001) of the sites, respectively. TF and GF appears to be a better diagnostic indicator of proximal gingivitis than GBI.

17.
Clín. int. j. braz. dent ; 11(3): 228-237, jul.-set.2015. ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-790478

RESUMO

Incisivos laterais conoides apresentam a coroa dental com dimensões reduzidas e formato cônico, prejudicando a harmonia do sorriso. As facetas de porcelana têm se mostrado uma opção restauradora estética, conservadora e com resultados duradouros para essas situações clínicas. O presente relato de caso descreve o tratamento multidisciplinar para a recuperação estética do sorriso. O tratamento consistiu no clareamento dental, confecção de facetas de porcelana e realização de cirurgia de aumento de coroa clínica. O resultado final demonstra melhora da estética do sorriso com procedimentos minimamente invasivos...


Peg-shaped lateral incisors have small-sized, conical-shaped tooth crowns, which compromise the harmony of the smile. Porcelain veneers are an esthetic and conservative restorative option for this situation, with long-lasting results. This clinical report describes a multidisciplinary treatment to reestablish the esthetic of the smile. The treatment comprised in tooth bleaching, porcelain veneers and crown lengthening surgery. The final result demonstrates improved aesthetics with minimally invasive procedures...


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Aumento da Coroa Clínica , Porcelana Dentária , Facetas Dentárias , Estética Dentária , Anormalidades Dentárias , Clareamento Dental
18.
Braz Dent J ; 26(1): 26-32, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25672380

RESUMO

Although the use of injectable anesthesia prior to subgingival scaling and root planing (SRP) reduces pain, many patients report fear and prolonged numbness of adjacent tissues. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of a eutectic mixture containing 25 mg/g of lidocaine and 25 mg/g of prilocaine, injectable 2% lidocaine, topical 2% benzocaine and a placebo substance on reducing pain during SRP. In this randomized, split-mouth, masked clinical trial, thirty-two patients presenting more than two teeth with probing depth and clinical attachment level ≥ 5 mm in at least 4 sextants were randomly allocated to four groups: EMLA(r); injectable 2% lidocaine; topical 2% benzocaine and placebo. Pain and discomfort were measured using a visual analogue scale (VAS) and verbal scale (VS). Repeated-measures analysis of variance and Poisson regression were used for analysis. Patient satisfaction with the anesthesia was determined at the end of each treatment session. VAS and VS scores did not differ between injectable 2% lidocaine and EMLA (p > 0.05) and both substances showed significantly better pain control compared to 2% benzocaine and placebo (p < 0.05). 93.7% and 81.2% of the individuals were satisfied with the injectable anesthetic and EMLA, respectively (p = 0.158). Dissatisfaction with benzocaine and placebo was approximately 10 times greater than injectable anesthesia (p = 0.001). In conclusion, EMLA showed an equivalent effect on pain control when compared to the injectable anesthesia and performed better than 2% benzocaine in SRP. Thus, EMLA is a viable anesthetic option during scaling and root planning, despite the frequent need for second application.


Assuntos
Anestesia Dentária/métodos , Anestesia Local/métodos , Anestésicos Locais/uso terapêutico , Raspagem Dentária , Gengivite/terapia , Benzocaína/uso terapêutico , Combinação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Lidocaína/uso terapêutico , Combinação Lidocaína e Prilocaína , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Manejo da Dor , Medição da Dor , Satisfação do Paciente , Prilocaína/uso terapêutico , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Aplainamento Radicular , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Braz. dent. j ; 26(1): 26-32, Jan-Feb/2015. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-735845

RESUMO

Although the use of injectable anesthesia prior to subgingival scaling and root planing (SRP) reduces pain, many patients report fear and prolonged numbness of adjacent tissues. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of a eutectic mixture containing 25 mg/g of lidocaine and 25 mg/g of prilocaine, injectable 2% lidocaine, topical 2% benzocaine and a placebo substance on reducing pain during SRP. In this randomized, split-mouth, masked clinical trial, thirty-two patients presenting more than two teeth with probing depth and clinical attachment level ≥5 mm in at least 4 sextants were randomly allocated to four groups: EMLA(r); injectable 2% lidocaine; topical 2% benzocaine and placebo. Pain and discomfort were measured using a visual analogue scale (VAS) and verbal scale (VS). Repeated-measures analysis of variance and Poisson regression were used for analysis. Patient satisfaction with the anesthesia was determined at the end of each treatment session. VAS and VS scores did not differ between injectable 2% lidocaine and EMLA (p>0.05) and both substances showed significantly better pain control compared to 2% benzocaine and placebo (p<0.05). 93.7% and 81.2% of the individuals were satisfied with the injectable anesthetic and EMLA, respectively (p=0.158). Dissatisfaction with benzocaine and placebo was approximately 10 times greater than injectable anesthesia (p=0.001). In conclusion, EMLA showed an equivalent effect on pain control when compared to the injectable anesthesia and performed better than 2% benzocaine in SRP. Thus, EMLA is a viable anesthetic option during scaling and root planning, despite the frequent need for second application.


Embora a anestesia injetável previamente a raspagem e alisamento subgengival (RASUB) reduza a dor, muitos pacientes relatam medo e amortecimento prolongado dos tecidos adjacentes. O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar o efeito de uma mistura eutética contendo 25mg/g de lidocaína e 25 mg/g de prilocaína, lidocaína 2% injetável, benzocaína 2% tópica e um placebo na redução da dor durante a RASUB. Neste ensaio clínico randomizado, cego de boca dividida, trinta e dois pacientes que apresentavam mais que dois dentes com profundidade de sondagem e nível de inserção clínica ≥ 5 mm, em no mínimo 4 sextantes, foram randomicamente alocados em 4 grupos: EMLA(r), lidocaína 2% injetável, benzocaína 2% tópica ou placebo. Dor e desconforto foram mensurados usando uma Escala Visual Analógica (EVA) e Escala Verbal (EV). A satisfação dos pacientes com a anestesia foi determinada ao final de cada consulta. Análise de variância de medidas repetidas e regressão de Poisson foram usadas para análise. Os escores da EVA e EV não demonstraram diferenças estatisticamente significantes entre lidocaína injetável e EMLA(r) (p > 0,05) e ambas as substâncias demonstraram significativamente melhor controle da dor comparadas a benzocaína 2% e placebo (p<0,05). 93,7% e 81,2% dos indivíduos ficaram satisfeitos com o anestésico injetável e EMLA(r), respectivamente (p=0,158). A insatisfação com a benzocaína e placebo foi aproximadamente 10 vezes maior do que com a anestesia injetável (p=0,001). Em conclusão, o EMLA(r) demonstrou um efeito equivalente no controle da dor quando comparado com a anestesia injetável e melhor do que a benzocaína 2% em RASUB. Assim, o EMLA(r) é uma opção anestésica viável durante a raspagem e alisamento radicular, apesar da necessidade frequente de segunda aplicação.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Anestesia Dentária/métodos , Anestesia Local/métodos , Anestésicos Locais/uso terapêutico , Raspagem Dentária , Gengivite/terapia , Benzocaína/uso terapêutico , Combinação de Medicamentos , Lidocaína/uso terapêutico , Manejo da Dor , Medição da Dor , Satisfação do Paciente , Prilocaína/uso terapêutico , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Aplainamento Radicular , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Dental Press J Orthod ; 19(3): 59-66, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25162567

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the association among gingival enlargement (GE), periodontal conditions and socio-demographic characteristics in subjects undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment. METHODS: A sample of 330 patients undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment for at least 6 months were examined by a single calibrated examiner for plaque and gingival indexes, probing pocket depth, clinical attachment loss and gingival enlargement. Socio-economic background, orthodontic treatment duration and use of dental floss were assessed by oral interviews. Associations were assessed by means of unadjusted and adjusted Poisson's regression models. RESULTS: The presence of gingival bleeding (RR 1.01; 95% CI 1.00-1.01) and excess resin around brackets (RR 1.02; 95% CI 1.02-1.03) were associated with an increase in GE. No associations were found between socio-demographic characteristics and GE. CONCLUSION: Proximal anterior gingival bleeding and excess resin around brackets are associated with higher levels of anterior gingival enlargement in subjects under orthodontic treatment.


Assuntos
Crescimento Excessivo da Gengiva/etiologia , Gengivite/etiologia , Braquetes Ortodônticos , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Dispositivos para o Cuidado Bucal Domiciliar/estatística & dados numéricos , Índice de Placa Dentária , Escolaridade , Feminino , Hemorragia Gengival/etiologia , Humanos , Renda/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Higiene Bucal/estatística & dados numéricos , Braquetes Ortodônticos/efeitos adversos , Perda da Inserção Periodontal/etiologia , Índice Periodontal , Bolsa Periodontal/etiologia , Cimentos de Resina/efeitos adversos , Classe Social , Propriedades de Superfície , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
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