Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 8 de 8
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Ecol Evol ; 12(12): e9642, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36619714

RESUMO

The scalloped hammerhead shark, Sphyrna lewini, is a Critically Endangered, migratory species known for its tendency to form iconic and visually spectacular large aggregations. Herein, we investigated the population genetic dynamics of the scalloped hammerhead across much of its distribution in the Eastern Tropical Pacific (ETP), ranging from Costa Rica to Ecuador, focusing on young-of-year animals from putative coastal nursery areas and adult females from seasonal aggregations that form in the northern Galápagos Islands. Nuclear microsatellites and partial mitochondrial control region sequences showed little evidence of population structure suggesting that scalloped hammerheads in this ETP region comprise a single genetic stock. Galápagos aggregations of adults were not comprised of related individuals, suggesting that kinship does not play a role in the formation of the repeated, annual gatherings at these remote offshore locations. Despite high levels of fisheries exploitation of this species in the ETP, the adult scalloped hammerheads here showed greater genetic diversity compared with adult conspecifics from other parts of the species' global distribution. A phylogeographic analysis of available, globally sourced, mitochondrial control region sequence data (n = 1818 sequences) revealed that scalloped hammerheads comprise three distinct matrilines corresponding to the three major world ocean basins, highlighting the need for conservation of these evolutionarily unique lineages. This study provides the first view of the genetic properties of a scalloped hammerhead aggregation, and the largest sample size-based investigation of population structure and phylogeography of this species in the ETP to date.

2.
Rev. biol. trop ; 69(supl. 1)mar. 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1507789

RESUMO

Introduction: The bull shark, Carcharhinus leucas, is particularly vulnerable to anthropogenic actions because of its permanence in coastal ecosystems; populations depletion is registered in different places around the world. Aggregations of bull sharks have been reported in the North Pacific of Costa Rica, at Islas Murciélago, within the Guanacaste Conservation Area. Objective: To study the residency of bull sharks at San Pedrillo islet, Islas Murciélago. Methods: During the study period (June 2013 to February 2015) we used passive telemetry to tag 10 bull sharks. Results: All the sharks tagged were females, they were detected on 59 798 occasions by the acoustic receiver deployed in San Pedrillo. Acoustic signals from tagged sharks were received for a total period of 1 to 229 days (mean = 73.9 ± 71.3 days), with the last detections occurring on 9 January 2015. The Residency Index for each tagged shark across the entire monitoring period ranged from 0.41 to 1.00. The bull shark activity showed a significant pattern throughout the day at the receiver that specifically corresponded with the daily light cycle. Conclusions: This study concludes that San Pedrillo is an aggregation site (cleaning station) for bull sharks (C. leucas), possibly related to reproduction and not feeding behaviors.


Introducción: El tiburón toro (Carcharhinus leucas) es una especie tropical y subtropical que habita ríos, estuarios y aguas costeras. Objetivo: Estudiar la residencia del tiburón toro en San Perdillo, Islas Murciélago, Área de Conservación Guanacaste. Métodos: Durante el período de estudio (junio de 2013 a febrero de 2015) se marcaron 10 tiburones toro con telemetría acústica en San Pedrillo. Resultados: Los tiburones marcados fueron todos hembras y fueron detectados en 59 798 ocasiones por el receptor acústico desplegado en San Pedrillo. Las señales acústicas de los tiburones marcados se recibieron durante un período total de 1 a 229 días (media = 73.9 ± 71.3 días), y las últimas detecciones ocurrieron el 9 de enero de 2015. El índice de residencia de cada tiburón marcado durante todo el período de seguimiento osciló entre 0.41 y 1.00. La actividad del tiburón toro mostró un patrón significativo a lo largo del día en el receptor que se corresponde específicamente con el ciclo de luz diario. Conclusiones: Este estudio concluyó que San Pedrillo es un sitio de agregación (estación de limpieza) para el tiburón toro, posiblemente relacionado con comportamientos de reproducción y no de alimentación; y es un sitio crítico para la especie. Se necesitan más estudios para identificar áreas de alimentación y cría en el Área de Conservación de Guanacaste y áreas circundantes.

3.
Rev. biol. trop ; 68mar. 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1507610

RESUMO

Introducción: El tiburón punta blanca (Triaenodon obesus) es una especie de arrecife de aguas tropicales, no migratoria, que ha demostrado no tener una alta conectividad costera, como la observada para otras especies de tiburón, sin embargo posee la distribución más amplia de todas las demás especies de tiburón de arrecife del Indo-Pacífico. T. obesus, es una de las especies de tiburón más comunes en el Parque Nacional Isla del Coco (PNIC), y no presenta una estacionalidad marcada. En las bahías localizadas en el norte del PNIC, Bahía Chatham y Bahía Wafer, reside una saludable población del tiburón punta blanca de arrecife. A pesar de ser una especie abundante en las bahías Chatham y Wafer del PNIC, la información sobre su residencia resulta escaza. Objetivo: Conocer sobre el uso de hábitat y los movimientos del tiburón punta blanca de arrecife mejorará su manejo en el PNIC y en otros lugares del Pacífico Tropical Oriental. Para esto se realizó un estudio preliminar sobre la residencia en las bahías Chatham y Wafer del PNIC, utilizando telemetría acústica. Métodos: Se realizó una expedición de marcaje de tiburones al Parque Nacional Isla del Coco entre el 25 de noviembre al 5 de diciembre del 2014. Durante esta expedición se realizaron 2 giras nocturnas entre las 18:00 y las 22:00 a Bahía Chatham y Bahía Wafer y se marcaron 8 individuos de T. obesus con telemetría acústica y se instalaron dos receptores, uno en cada bahía. Resultados: Entre noviembre 2014 y diciembre 2015 los tiburones punta blanca marcados fueron detectados por los receptores instalados en las bahías en un total de 278 706 ocasiones. Los tiburones T. obesus marcados permanecieron largos periodos en las bahías Chatham y Wafer, El índice de Residencia (IR) medio de los T. obesus marcados fue de 0.97±0,03, reportando una tendencia en la baja del número total de detecciones durante las horas nocturnas. Los tiburones punta blanca de arrecife mostraron una alta fidelidad al sitio de marcaje, que se ve reflejado en los elevados índices de residencia reportados, particularmente altos en comparación con otras especies de tiburón de arrecife. Las detecciones de los tiburones en las bahías tienden a disminuir a partir de las 18:00 horas, cuando el tiburón punta blanca se vuelve activo para cazar en el arrecife. Conclusiones: En conclusión, los tiburones punta blanca poseen una alta residencia y fidelidad, lo cual confirma su bajo rango de hogar. El Área Marina Protegida de la Isla del Coco probablemente brinda una protección efectiva a la población del tiburón punta blanca de la pesca ilegal.


Introduction: The whitetip reef shark (Triaenodon obesus) is a non-migratory tropical reef species that has shown no high coastal connectivity, as observed for other shark species. At the same time, has the widest distribution of all Indo-Pacific reef shark species. Triaenodon obesus is one of the most common shark species at Isla del Coco National Park (PNIC) and it is present year-round. In the bays located in the north of the PNIC, Chatham Bay and Wafer Bay, there is a large population of whitetip reef sharks. Despite that, information about its residency is scarce. Objective: The aim of this initiative is to study the hábitat use and the movements of the whitetip reef sharks, in order to improve the management of its population at the Isla del Coco National Park and other áreas of Eastern Tropical Pacific. A preliminary study on the residency in the Chatham and Wafer bays of the PNIC was conducted, using acoustic telemetry. Methods: A shark tagging expedition was made to Isla del Coco National Park from November 25 to December 5, 2014. During this expedition, two night trips were made between 6:00 pm and 10:00 pm at Chatham Bay and Wafer Bay. Results: A total of 8 individuals of T. obesus were fitted with acoustic tags and two receivers were installed, one in each bay. Sharks were monitored between November 2014 and December 2015, the sharks were detected on 278 706 occasions. The sharks remained long periods in the Chatham and Wafer bays. Their average Residency Index (IR) was 0.97 ± 0.03, reporting less number of detections during the night hours. Detections of sharks in the bays tend to diminish after 18:00, when the whitetip shark becomes active to hunt on the reef. Conclusions: In conclusion, white tip sharks have a high residence and fidelity, which confirms their low home range. The Protected Marine Area of Isla del Coco probably provides effective protection to the white tip shark population for the illegal fisheries.

4.
Rev. biol. trop ; 63(supl.1): 319-327, abr. 2015. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-958143

RESUMO

Resumen Entre mayo 2010 y mayo 2011 se analizaron las rayas látigo (Dasytis longa) capturadas por pescadores artesanales de Golfo Dulce, Pacífico Sur de Costa Rica. En total se realizaron 30 faenas en diferentes zonas con fondos lodosos y rocosos de baja profundidad (menos de 30m). Durante las 30 faenas de pesca se capturaron 872 organismos, de estos, 112 (13.1%) fueron rayas. La especie más abundante fue D. longa, aportando el 75.7% de las rayas y más del 10% de la captura total. Los análisis revelaron una proporción sexual de 1.33 machos por cada hembra para las rayas látigo y una longitud media del ancho del disco de 84.63±12.11cm. Con respecto a la captura por unidad de esfuerzo (CPUE), las mayores CPUE se obtuvieron en enero y febrero que se capturaron en promedio de 0.006 rayas látigo por anzuelo por hora. La condición de captura, el bajo valor comercial y la disponibilidad de los pescadores, permitió liberar el 99% de las rayas capturadas. Debido a la alta sobrevivencia y capturas de D. longa en las pesquerías artesanales, se recomienda regular la línea de fondo durante enero-febrero en Los Bajos, Pique Fijo y La Ciénaga (Zona externa Golfo Dulce).


Abstract From May 2010 until May 2011, the longtail stingrays (Dasytis longa), caught by artisanal fishermen in Golfo Dulce, south Pacific of Costa Rica, were analyzed. We observed a total of 30 artisanal fishing operations in different areas of Golfo Dulce, with muddy bottoms and very shallow waters (less than 30m). The areas called "Los Bajos" and "Pique Fijo" represented the 26.7% and 23.3% of all the operations, respectively. Other important areas were "La Cienaga" (20.0%), "Lapa-Ríos" (6.7%) "Piedra del Sombrero" (6.7%) and "Pavones" (6.7%). "Matapalo", "Corcovado" and "Punta Banco" were less used by fishermen (9.9% of trips). In the captures, 345 (39.6%) were sharks (Sphyrnidae Carcharhinidae, Heterodontidae, Ginglymostomatidae and Triakidae), 228 (26.1%) bait fish (Aridae), 112 (13.1%) rays (Dasyatidae, Myliobatidae, Rhinobatidae and Mobulidae) and 111 (12.7%) commercial fish (Lutjanidae, Serranidae, Sciaenidae). The most abundant ray was D. longa, with 75.7% of total rays caught, n=112), and more than 10% of total catch. The longtail stingrays male: female ratio was 1.33:1. Mean width disc length was 84.63±12.11cm. The highest Catch per unit effort, CPUE, was in January-February (0.006 stingrays per hook per hour). The lowest was in July and August (0.0004). Nearly all rays caught were released. We recommend regulations on the artisanal bottom line during from January to February in the areas of Los Bajos, Pique Fijo, and La Cienega. Rev. Biol. Trop. 63 (Suppl. 1): 319-327. Epub 2015 April 01.


Assuntos
Animais , Tubarões/classificação , Rajidae/classificação , Indústria Pesqueira , Costa Rica
5.
Rev. biol. trop ; 63(supl.1): 307-317, abr. 2015. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-958142

RESUMO

Resumen En Golfo Dulce, Costa Rica, se han reportado capturas incidentales de S. lewini por pescadores artesanales. Debido a esto, este estudio tiene como objetivo caracterizar las capturas del tiburón martillo en Golfo Dulce, y recomendar pautas de manejo. Entre mayo 2010 y mayo 2011 se recopiló información biológica-pesquera de tiburones capturados durante faenas artesanales en Golfo Dulce. Se estimó la captura por unidad de esfuerzo a lo largo del año. Se analizaron un total de 315 tiburones, todos juveniles, con una longitud total media de 74.3±17.4cm. Las longitudes totales y la abundancia relativa tuvieron tendencias opuestas: en julio-agosto cuando las longitudes totales medias fueron menores, las capturas por unidad de esfuerzo fueron mayores. Debido a esto, se recomienda implementar vedas temporales durante el periodo de nacimiento de las crías de tiburón martillo (junio-agosto) en sitios donde se reportaron las mayores capturas.


Abstract Incidental catch of S. lewini by artisanal fishermen in Golfo Dulce, Costa Rica, suggest that this could be one of the coastal locations used by the species. This study aims to characterize the scalloped hammerhead shark population in Golfo Dulce, in order to best guide management actions for the conservation and sustainable use of the species. Fisheries-dependent biological data (size-TL, sex, reproductive status) were gathered for S. lewini between May 2010 and May 2011 in the communities of Puerto Jimenez and Pavones, Golfo Dulce during artisanal fishing trips. Catch per unit effort (CPUE) throughout the year was also estimated from catch data. We sampled a total of 315 sharks. Mean total length was estimated at 74.3±17.4cm. Both pups and juveniles were reported, which presented a male: female ratio of 1:1.2 (p>0.05). Total length and relative abundance of S. lewini had opposite tendencies, with the smallest TL (64cm) recorded during July-August, when CPUE was highest. (0.0075). Temporary closures from June to August are therefore recommended at areas of highest reported catch (Pique Fijo, Los Bajos y La Ciénaga), in order to protect newly born S. lewini, and promote the sustainability of the species in the ETPS Closures should be complemented with a long-term study that can further clarify whether Golfo Dulce is a nursery area for S. lewini. Rev. Biol. Trop. 63 (Suppl. 1): 307-317. Epub 2015 April 01.


Assuntos
Animais , Tubarões/classificação , Indústria Pesqueira , Pesqueiros , Costa Rica
6.
Rev. biol. trop ; 63(supl.1): 183-198, abr. 2015. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-958134

RESUMO

Resumen De mayo 2010 a mayo 2011 se recolectó información referente a 67 faenas pesqueras artesanal con línea de fondo (44.8% observaciones abordo y 55.2% observaciones de descargas en centros de acopio) realizadas en Golfo Dulce, Pacífico Sur de Costa Rica. Durante las 67 faenas de pesca se analizaron en total 609 tiburones pertenecientes a diez especies. De estas, sobresalen S. lewini (más de 51.8% del total de tiburones analizados), M. lunulatus (23.5%), R. longurio, (13.8%) y C. limbatus (8.9%). Otras especies G. cirratum, G. cuvier, N.velox, S. tiburo y H. mexicanus fueron muy esporádicas ya que aportaron cerca del 2.0% del total. La condición de captura, el bajo valor comercial y la disponibilidad de los pescadores, permitió liberar con vida y sin anzuelos un total de 65 tiburones y 111 rayas, de las cuales 75.7% fueron rayas látigo (D. longa), 12.6% rayas gavilana (A. narinari), 5.4% rayas nariz de vaca (R. steindachneri), 5.4% rayas guitarra (R. leucorhynchus), 2.7% rayas de puntos (U. chilenis), 0.9% rayas mariposa (G. marmorata) y 0.9% mobula (Mobula sp.). Los análisis de CPUE en Golfo Dulce revelaron las mayores CPUE de tiburones en julio-agosto, mientras las mayores capturas de rayas se presentaron en enero-febrero.


Abstract Since May 2010 until May 2011 biological and fishery information regarding 67 artisanal fishing operations were collected in different areas of Golfo Dulce. A total of 30 (44.8%) onboard operations and 37 (55.2%) landings were observed. During onboard operations, a total of 872 fish were caught: 345 (39.6%) were sharks (Sphyrnidae, Carcharhinidae, Heterodontidae, Ginglymostomatidae and Triakidae), 228 (26.1%) "bait" fish (Aridae), 112 (13.1%) rays (Dasyatidae, Myliobatidae, Rhinobatidae and Mobulidae) and 111 (12.7%) commercial fish (Lutjanidae, Serranidae Sciaenidae). The capture condition (dead or alive), the low commercial value and the availability of fishermen, allowed us to release 65 sharks and 111 rays, all of them were alive and without hooks. Of these 75.7% were stingrays (D. longa), 12.6% eagle ray (A. narinari), 5.4% cownose rays (R. steindachneri), 5.4% guitar fish (R. leucorhynchus), the spoited ray 2.7% (U. chilenis), 0.9% butterfly ray (G. marmorata), and 0.9% mobula (Mobula sp.). The CPUE rate shows that the sharks and rays contributed more than 50% of the total catch of fishing operations. However, the months when the fishermen caught more sharks, the rays were not abundant. July and August were the months with the highest shark CPUE, while January-February were the months with the highest ray catches. Regarding the 37 landings observations, a total of 264 sharks were analyzed, being the scalloped hammerhead shark the most abundant (S. lewini, n=163), with 61.7%, followed by the common soothhound shark (M. lunulatus, n=48) (18.2%), the blacktip shark (C. limbatus, n=27) (10.2%) the pacific sharpnose shark (R. longurio, n=24) (9.1%), whitenose shark (0.4%) (Nasolamia velox, n=1) and the bonnethead shark (0.4%) (Sphyrna tiburo, n=1). The fusion of biological and fishery data from onboard observations and landings made it possible to analyze a total 609 sharks belonging to ten species. Of these, S. lewini represented more than 51.8% of total sharks analyzed; M. lunulatus, 23.5% R. longurio, 13.8% and C. limbatus, 8.9%. Other species G. cirratum, G. cuvier, N. velox, shovel head shark (S. tiburo) and the horn shark H. mexicanus were very sporadic since they contributed only 2.0% of the total. Analyses of length of S. lewini showed that they are mostly juveniles (74.31±17.4cm). Similar situation was found with individuals of R. longurio, M. lunulatus and C. limbatus whose mean total lengths were of 65.22±14.04cm, 94.08±23.64cm 4.44cm respectively 76.65cm. Rev. Biol. Trop. 63 (2): 183-198. Epub 2015 June 01.


Assuntos
Animais , Tubarões/classificação , Rajidae/classificação , Pesqueiros/tendências , Peixes/classificação , Costa Rica
7.
Rev. biol. trop ; 60(supl.3): 339-346, nov. 2012. ilus, graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: lil-672100

RESUMO

Approximately 12 species of shark inhabit at Coco Island National Park (PNIC); some are migratory, such as the hammerhead shark (Sphyrna lewini) and whale shark (Rincodon typus), and others are resident, like the whitetip shark (Triaenodon obesus). The whitetip shark is a species related to coral reefs, it inhabits coastal environments and is nocturnal and, it is very common in tropical waters, but there are few studies worldwide. In fact, only short researches have been done about their behavior at PNIC. Therefore, this study aimed to give data about the abundance, size and population structure of the whitetip shark at Chatham Bay in Coco Island National Park, providing baseline information for monitoring its population which is also very vulnerable to climate change. In order to accomplish this aim, a mark-recapture method was used, as well as underwater visual counts to determine their relative abundance and visual recaptures at Chatham Bay. The most effective hours for tagging were between 18:00 and 22:00 (sunset), when the whitetip sharks were more active probably related to foraging behavior. In addition, the depth was a relevant factor for tagging, sharks were caught in shallow water (10.9±1.9m). This species prefers to feed in shallow water and this behavior is probably related to the distribution and occurrence of rock and coral reefs in Chatham Bay. Based on the results, whitetip shark do not have a defined spatial ontogenic segregation, since in the same sites both juveniles and adults were found. The study confirmed that whitetip shark use specific residence sites: during the tagging trips, different individuals were recaptured; and during the underwater counts, at least 32.76% of tagged sharks were observed. The average length of the tagged sharks was 101.8±12.1cm (130.0cm maximum and 71.0cm minimum). The relative abundance of the whitetip shark in Chatham Bay observed was estimated on 49.5±10.4 sharks/hour. Furthermore, using the recapture data obtained during the night tagging expeditions, a population of 408 (IC = 181-1050) sharks was estimated.


Doce especies de tiburones habitan las aguas del Parque Nacional Isla del Coco (PNIC) y uno de los más abundantes es el tiburón punta blanca de arrecife, Triaenodon obesus. El presente estudio determinó la abundancia, tallas y estructura de la población de esta especie en la zona de Bahía Chatham, PNIC. Se utilizó el método de marcaje y recaptura y se realizaron conteos subacuáticos visuales, con el fin de determinar su abundancia relativa y contabilizar recapturas visuales. Los tiburones punta blanca de Bahía Chatham no presentan segregación ontogénica espacial definida; pero si una alta fidelidad a los a sitios de residencia dentro de esta bahía. La longitud total promedio de los tiburones marcados fue de 101.8±12.1cm, con una longitud total máxima de 130.0cm y una mínima de 71.0cm. La mediana de las longitudes totales de los tiburones machos (103.5±21.33cm) y hembras (100.1±11.2cm) no difirieron significativamente (H = 1.78; p=0.1818). La abundancia relativa en Bahía Chatham, PNIC fue de 49.5±10.4 tiburones/h. El tamaño estimado de la población usando el método de de captura-recaptura fue de 408 (IC=181-1050).


Assuntos
Água Costeira/análise , Biodiversidade , Recifes de Corais , Peixes , Tubarões/classificação , Costa Rica
8.
Rev. biol. trop ; 60(supl.3): 275-278, nov. 2012. ilus, mapas
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: lil-672095

RESUMO

The blacktip reef shark Carcharhinus melanopterus, is one of the most common Indo-Pacific reef sharks. On April 29, 2012, a juvenile male blacktip reef shark measuring 89 cm total length (TL), was incidentally caught during a research expedition in Chatham Bay, Isla del Coco National Park, Costa Rica, located in the Tropical Eastern Pacific. This is the first record of the species from Isla del Coco National Park, Costa Rica, and from the Tropical Eastern Pacific.


El tiburón punta negra de arrecife, Carcharhinus melanopterus, es uno de los tiburones de arrecife más comunes del Indo-Pacífico. Durante una expedición científica al Parque Nacional Isla del Coco, Costa Rica, Pacífico Tropical Oriental, un tiburón punta negra de arrecife fue capturado en Bahía Chatham, Parque Nacional Isla del Coco, el 29 de abril 2012. El espécimen capturado era un macho juvenil de 89 cm. Este es el primer informe de esta especie para el Parque Nacional Isla del Coco, Costa Rica y para el Pacífico Tropical Oriental.


Assuntos
Tubarões/anatomia & histologia , Recifes de Corais , Ilhas do Pacífico , Costa Rica
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...