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Neural Regen Res ; 17(6): 1299-1309, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34782575


During acute reperfusion, the expression profiles of long noncoding RNAs in adult rats with focal cerebral ischemia undergo broad changes. However, whether long noncoding RNAs are involved in neuroprotective effects following focal ischemic stroke in rats remains unclear. In this study, RNA isolation and library preparation was performed for long noncoding RNA sequencing, followed by determining the coding potential of identified long noncoding RNAs and target gene prediction. Differential expression analysis, long noncoding RNA functional enrichment analysis, and co-expression network analysis were performed comparing ischemic rats with and without ischemic postconditioning rats. Rats were subjected to ischemic postconditioning via the brief and repeated occlusion of the middle cerebral artery or femoral artery. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was used to detect the expression levels of differentially expressed long noncoding RNAs after ischemic postconditioning in a rat model of ischemic stroke. The results showed that ischemic postconditioning greatly affected the expression profile of long noncoding RNAs and mRNAs in the brains of rats that underwent ischemic stroke. The predicted target genes of some of the identified long noncoding RNAs (cis targets) were related to the cellular response to ischemia and stress, cytokine signal transduction, inflammation, and apoptosis signal transduction pathways. In addition, 15 significantly differentially expressed long noncoding RNAs were identified in the brains of rats subjected to ischemic postconditioning. Nine candidate long noncoding RNAs that may be related to ischemic postconditioning were identified by a long noncoding RNA expression profile and long noncoding RNA-mRNA co-expression network analysis. Expression levels were verified by quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. These results suggested that the identified long noncoding RNAs may be involved in the neuroprotective effects associated with ischemic postconditioning following ischemic stroke. The experimental animal procedures were approved by the Animal Experiment Ethics Committee of Kunming Medical University (approval No. KMMU2018018) in January 2018.

Biomed Pharmacother ; 144: 112273, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34700232


Neurogenesis in the adult brain is well recognized and plays a critical role in the maintenance of brain function and homeostasis. However, whether neurogenesis also occurs in the adult peripheral nervous system remains unknown. Here, using sensory ganglia (dorsal root ganglia, DRGs) as a model, we show that neurogenesis also occurs in the peripheral nervous system, but in a manner different from that in the central nervous system. Satellite glial cells (SGCs) express the neuronal precursor markers Nestin, POU domain, class 4, transcription factor 1, and p75 pan-neurotrophin receptor. Following sciatic nerve injury, the suppression of endogenous proBDNF by proBDNF antibodies resulted in the transformation of proliferating SGCs into doublecortin-positive cells in the DRGs. Using purified SGCs migrating out from the DRGs, the inhibition of endogenous proBDNF promoted the conversion of SGCs into neuronal phenotypes in vitro. Our findings suggest that SGCs are neuronal precursors, and that proBDNF maintains the SGC phenotype. Furthermore, the suppression of proBDNF signaling is necessary for neuronal phenotype acquisition by SGCs. Thus, we propose that peripheral neurogenesis may occur via the direct conversion of SGCs into neurons, and that this process is negatively regulated by proBDNF.

Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/metabolismo , Gânglios Espinais/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Neurais/metabolismo , Neurogênese , Neuroglia/metabolismo , Traumatismos dos Nervos Periféricos/metabolismo , Precursores de Proteínas/metabolismo , Potenciais de Ação , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/genética , Transdiferenciação Celular , Células Cultivadas , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Gânglios Espinais/patologia , Gânglios Espinais/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Células-Tronco Neurais/patologia , Neuroglia/patologia , Traumatismos dos Nervos Periféricos/patologia , Traumatismos dos Nervos Periféricos/fisiopatologia , Fenótipo , Precursores de Proteínas/genética , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Receptores de Fator de Crescimento Neural/genética , Receptores de Fator de Crescimento Neural/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
Ann Transl Med ; 9(22): 1694, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34988203


BACKGROUND: The NOD-like receptor family pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome is an important mediator of neuroinflammatory responses that regulates inflammatory injury following cerebral ischemia and may be a potential target. Salidroside (Sal) has good anti-inflammatory effects; however, it remains unclear whether Sal can regulate NLRP3 inflammasome activation through the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)/nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathway after cerebral ischemia to alleviate inflammatory injury. METHODS: We established an oxygen-glucose deprivation and reoxygenation (OGD/R) model of BV2 cells and a middle cerebral artery occlusion/reperfusion (MCAO/R) rat model. Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8), flow cytometry and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay were used to detect the viability and apoptosis of BV2 cells. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to detect the level of inflammatory factors. 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining and modified Neurological Severity Score (mNSS) were used to detect cerebral infarction volume and neurological deficit in rats. Western blot, immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence staining were used to detect the protein expression levels. RESULTS: Our results showed that Sal increased viability, inhibited lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, and reduced apoptosis in OGD/R-induced BV2 cells. Sal reduced the levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-8. Following induction by OGD/R, BV2 cells exhibited NLRP3 inflammasome activation and increased protein levels of NLRP3, apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD (ASC), caspase-1, IL-1ß, and IL-18. Protein levels of key TLR4 signaling pathway elements, such as TLR4, myeloid differentiation primary response 88 (MyD88), and phosphorylated nuclear factor kappa B p65 (p-NF-κB p65)/NF-κB p65 were upregulated. Interestingly, it was revealed that Sal could reverse these changes. In addition, TAK242, a specific inhibitor of TLR4, had the same effect as Sal treatment on BV2 cells following induction by OGD/R. In the MCAO/R rat model, Sal was also observed to inhibit NLRP3 inflammasome activation in microglia, reduce cerebral infarction volume, and inhibit apoptosis. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, we found that Sal inhibited NLRP3 inflammasome activation and apoptosis in microglia induced by cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury by inhibiting the TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway, thus playing a protective role. Therefore, Sal may be a promising drug for the clinical treatment of ischemic stroke.