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1.
Q J Exp Psychol (Hove) ; 75(1): 18-29, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34507509

RESUMO

We report a boundary paradigm eye movement experiment to investigate whether the predictability of the second character of a two-character compound word affects how it is processed prior to direct fixation during reading. The boundary was positioned immediately prior to the second character of the target word, which itself was either predictable or unpredictable. The preview was either a pseudocharacter (nonsense preview) or an identity preview. We obtained clear preview effects in all conditions, but more importantly, skipping probability for the second character of the target word and the whole target word from pretarget was greater when it was predictable than when it was not predictable from the preceding context. Interactive effects for later measures on the whole target word (gaze duration and go-past time) were also obtained. These results demonstrate that predictability information from preceding sentential context and information regarding the likely identity of upcoming characters are used concurrently to constrain the nature of lexical processing during natural Chinese reading.


Assuntos
Fixação Ocular , Leitura , Atenção , China , Movimentos Oculares , Fóvea Central , Humanos
2.
Br J Psychol ; 112(3): 662-689, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33469949

RESUMO

In two experiments, we investigated the correspondences between off-line word segmentation and on-line segmentation processing during Chinese reading. In Experiment 1, participants were asked to read sentences which contained critical four-character strings, and then, they were required to segment the same sentences into words in a later off-line word segmentation task. For each item, participants were split into 1-word segmenters (who segmented four-character strings as a single word) and 2-word segmenters (who segmented four-character strings as 2 two-character words). Thus, we split participants into two groups (1-word segmenters and 2-word segmenters) according to their off-line segmentation bias. The data analysis showed no reliable group effect on all the measures. In order to avoid the heterogeneity of participants and stimuli in Experiment 1, two groups of participants (1-word segmenters and 2-word segmenters) and three types of critical four-character string (1-word strings, ambiguous strings, and 2-word strings) were identified in a norming study in Experiment 2. Participants were required to read sentences containing these critical strings. There was no reliable group effect in Experiment 2, as was the case in Experiment 1. However, in Experiment 2, participants spent less time and made fewer fixations on 1-word strings compared to ambiguous and 2-word strings. These results indicate that the off-line word segmentation preferences do not necessarily reflect on-line word segmentation processing during Chinese reading and that Chinese readers exhibit flexibility such that word, or multiple constituent, segmentation commitments are made on-line.


Assuntos
Idioma , Leitura , Humanos
3.
J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn ; 46(4): 603-620, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31246059

RESUMO

Two experiments are reported to investigate whether Chinese readers skip a high-frequency preview word without taking the syntax of the sentence context into account. In Experiment 1, we manipulated target word syntactic category, frequency, and preview using the boundary paradigm (Rayner, 1975). For high-frequency verb targets, there were identity and pseudocharacter previews alongside a low-frequency noun preview. For low-frequency verb targets, there were identity and pseudocharacter previews alongside a high-frequency noun preview. Results showed that for high-frequency targets, skipping rates were higher for identical previews compared with the syntactically infelicitous alternative low-frequency preview and pseudocharacter previews, however for low-frequency targets, skipping rates were higher for high-frequency previews (even when they were syntactically infelicitous) compared with the other 2 previews. Furthermore, readers were more likely to skip the target when they had a high-frequency, syntactically felicitous preview compared to a high-frequency, syntactically infelicitous preview. The pattern of felicity effects was statistically robust when readers launched saccades from near the target. In Experiment 2, we assessed whether display change awareness influenced the patterns of results in Experiment 1. Results showed that the overall patterns held in Experiment 2 regardless of some readers being more likely to be aware of the display change than others. These results suggest that decisions to skip a word in Chinese reading are primarily based on parafoveal word familiarity, though the syntactic felicity of a parafoveal word also exerts a robust influence for high-frequency previews. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia , Psicolinguística , Leitura , Adulto , China , Medições dos Movimentos Oculares , Humanos
4.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0225819, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31851679

RESUMO

Participants' eye movements (EMs) and EEG signal were simultaneously recorded to examine foveal and parafoveal processing during sentence reading. All the words in the sentence were manipulated for inter-word spacing (intact spaces vs. spaces replaced by a random letter) and parafoveal preview (identical preview vs. random letter string preview). We observed disruption for unspaced text and invalid preview conditions in both EMs and fixation-related potentials (FRPs). Unspaced and invalid preview conditions received longer reading times than spaced and valid preview conditions. In addition, the FRP data showed that unspaced previews disrupted reading in earlier time windows of analysis, compared to string preview conditions. Moreover, the effect of parafoveal preview was greater for spaced relative to unspaced conditions, in both EMs and FRPs. These findings replicate well-established preview effects, provide novel insight into the neural correlates of reading with and without inter-word spacing and suggest that spatial selection precedes lexical processing.


Assuntos
Fixação Ocular/fisiologia , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia , Leitura , Adolescente , Adulto , Atenção , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Macula Lutea/fisiologia , Masculino , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
5.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett ; 29(23): 126718, 2019 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31678005

RESUMO

The first enantioselective total synthesis of the antifungal natural product (indole-N-isoprenyl)-tryptophan-valine diketopiperazine 5 was accomplished. Four stereoisomers of 5 were intentionally prepared, and the (R, R)-isomer is more favorable in enhancing the antifungal bioactivity. Divergent structural optimization of this attractive model was conducted from the chiral pool amino acids. Fine-tuning of the structure protruded the broad-spectrum antifungal 6b, which also showed good preventative efficacy against Sclerotinia scleotiorum. Compound 5d could accelerate both hypocotyl elongation and root growth of Eclipta prostrata even at the concentration of <2.5 ppm. This unique and easily accessible scaffold will be of prime importance in achieving agrochemical candidates with the novel scaffold.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos/uso terapêutico , Indóis/síntese química , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Humanos , Indóis/química , Estrutura Molecular , Estereoisomerismo , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
6.
Vision (Basel) ; 3(4)2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31735851

RESUMO

Currently there are several computational models of eye movement control that provide a good account of oculomotor behavior during reading of English and other alphabetic languages. I will provide an overview of two dominant models: E-Z Reader and SWIFT, as well as a recently proposed model: OB1-Reader. I will evaluate a critical issue of controversy among models, namely, whether words are lexically processed serially or in parallel. I will then consider reading in Chinese, a character-based, unspaced language with ambiguous word boundaries. Finally, I will evaluate the concepts of serialism and parallelism of process central to these models, and how these models might function in relation to lexical processing that is operationalized over parafoveal multi-constituent units.

7.
Front Psychol ; 10: 2211, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31749722

RESUMO

An event-related potential (ERP) study demonstrated that construction-based pragmatic constraints in Chinese (e.g., lian…dou that constrains a low-likelihood event and is similar to even in English) can rapidly influence sentence comprehension and the mismatch of such constraints would lead to increased neural activity on the mismatching word. Here we examine to what extent readers' eye movements can instantly reveal the difficulties of mismatching constraints when participants read sentences with the structure lian + determiner phrase + object noun + subject noun + dou + verb phrase (VP) + final commenting clause. By embedding high-likelihood or neutral events in the construction, we created incongruent and underspecified sentences and compared such sentences with congruent ones describing events of low expectedness. Relative to congruent sentences, the VP region of incongruent sentences showed no significant differences on first-pass reading time measures, but the total fixation duration was reliably longer. Moreover, readers made more regressions from the VP and the sentence-final region to previous regions in the incongruent than the congruent condition. These findings suggest that the effect of pragmatic constraints is observable during naturalistic sentence reading, reflecting the activation of the construction-based pragmatic information for the late integration of linguistic and extra-linguistic information at sentential level.

8.
J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform ; 45(6): 812-825, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31120302

RESUMO

Whether increased foveal load causes a reduction of parafoveal processing remains equivocal. The present study examined foveal load effects on parafoveal processing in natural Chinese reading. Parafoveal preview of a single-character parafoveal target word was manipulated by using the boundary paradigm (Rayner, 1975; pseudocharacter or identity previews) under high foveal load (low-frequency pretarget word) compared with low foveal load (high-frequency pretarget word) conditions. Despite an effective manipulation of foveal processing load, we obtained no evidence of any modulatory influence on parafoveal processing in first-pass reading times. However, our results clearly showed that saccadic targeting, in relation to forward saccade length from the pretarget word and in relation to target word skipping, was influenced by foveal load and this influence occurred independent of parafoveal preview. Given the optimal experimental conditions, these results provide very strong evidence that preview benefit is not modulated by foveal lexical load during Chinese reading. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Fixação Ocular/fisiologia , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia , Psicolinguística , Leitura , Movimentos Sacádicos/fisiologia , Adulto , Medições dos Movimentos Oculares , Feminino , Fóvea Central/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
9.
J Exp Psychol Gen ; 148(3): 453-474, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30335444

RESUMO

Participants' eye movements and electroencephalogram (EEG) signal were recorded as they read sentences displayed according to the gaze-contingent boundary paradigm. Two target words in each sentence were manipulated for lexical frequency (high vs. low frequency) and parafoveal preview of each target word (identical vs. string of random letters vs. string of Xs). Eye movement data revealed visual parafoveal-on-foveal (PoF) effects, as well as foveal visual and orthographic preview effects and word frequency effects. Fixation-related potentials (FRPs) showed visual and orthographic PoF effects as well as foveal visual and orthographic preview effects. Our results replicated the early preview positivity effect (Dimigen, Kliegl, & Sommer, 2012) in the X-string preview condition, and revealed different neural correlates associated with a preview comprised of a string of random letters relative to a string of Xs. The former effects seem likely to reflect difficulty associated with the integration of parafoveal and foveal information, as well as feature overlap, while the latter reflect inhibition, and potentially disruption, to processing underlying reading. Interestingly, and consistent with Kretzschmar, Schlesewsky, and Staub (2015), no frequency effect was reflected in the FRP measures. The findings provide insight into the neural correlates of parafoveal processing and written word recognition in reading and demonstrate the value of utilizing ecologically valid paradigms to study well established phenomena that occur as text is read naturally. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Movimentos Oculares/fisiologia , Fóvea Central/fisiologia , Leitura , Adolescente , Adulto , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Fixação Ocular/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform ; 44(12): 1831-1841, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30475051

RESUMO

A word's length in English is fundamental in determining whether readers fixate it, and how long they spend processing it during reading. Chinese is unspaced, and most words are two characters long: Is word length an important cue to eye guidance in Chinese reading? Eye movements were recorded as participants read sentences containing a one-, two-, or three-character word matched for frequency. Results showed that longer words took longer to process (primarily driven by refixations). Furthermore, skips were fewer, incoming saccades longer, and landing positions further to the right of long than short words. Additional analyses of a three-character region (matched stroke number) showed an incremental processing cost when character(s) belonged to different, rather than the same, word. These results demonstrate that word length affects both lexical identification and saccade target selection in Chinese reading. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Movimentos Oculares/fisiologia , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia , Psicolinguística , Leitura , Adulto , China , Medições dos Movimentos Oculares , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
11.
PLoS One ; 12(11): e0187656, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29136002

RESUMO

Readers' eye movements were recorded to examine the role of character positional frequency on Chinese lexical acquisition during reading and its possible modulation by word spacing. In Experiment 1, three types of pseudowords were constructed based on each character's positional frequency, providing congruent, incongruent, and no positional word segmentation information. Each pseudoword was embedded into two sets of sentences, for the learning and the test phases. In the learning phase, half the participants read sentences in word-spaced format, and half in unspaced format. In the test phase, all participants read sentences in unspaced format. The results showed an inhibitory effect of character positional frequency upon the efficiency of word learning when processing incongruent pseudowords both in the learning and test phase, and also showed facilitatory effect of word spacing in the learning phase, but not at test. Most importantly, these two characteristics exerted independent influences on word segmentation. In Experiment 2, three analogous types of pseudowords were created whilst controlling for orthographic neighborhood size. The results of the two experiments were consistent, except that the effect of character positional frequency was absent in the test phase in Experiment 2. We argue that the positional frequency of a word's constituent characters may influence the character-to-word assignment in a process that likely incorporates both lexical segmentation and identification.


Assuntos
Idioma , Aprendizagem , Adulto , China , Movimentos Oculares , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
12.
J Agric Food Chem ; 65(41): 9013-9021, 2017 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28949528

RESUMO

With structural diversity and versatile biological properties, drimane meroterpenoids have drawn remarkable attention in drug development. The stagnant progress made in the structure optimization and SAR study of this kind of natural product for agrochemicals was mainly a result of inefficient construction. Compared with the reported challenging coupling reaction ("1 + 1" tactic), "carbon assimilation" was conceived and used for the rapid construction of drimanyl meroterpenoid mimics, in which the newly formed covalent bond was directly from the old one of the drimanyl subunit ("2 + 0" tactic), which features atom economy, step economy, and facile preparation. The accompanying introduction of versatile heterocycles and application of easily available feedstocks are beneficial for novel green agrochemical discovery, in view of economic efficiency and improvement of physicochemical properities. Heterocyclic mimics 3a and 3c are presented as potent fungicidal leads with novel skeletons against Botrytis cinerea, >25-fold and >40-fold more promising than the commercial fungicide carbendazim, respectively. Our design was also rationalized by the 6-step synthesis and antifungal assay of the original model of natural meroterpenoids. This tactic can also be fostered or transferred directly to the design of novel natural product mimics for medicinal chemistry or other related biological exploration.


Assuntos
Botrytis/efeitos dos fármacos , Carbono/química , Fungicidas Industriais/farmacologia , Sesquiterpenos/química , Botrytis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Desenho de Fármacos , Fungicidas Industriais/síntese química , Estrutura Molecular , Sesquiterpenos Policíclicos , Sesquiterpenos/farmacologia
13.
Q J Exp Psychol (Hove) ; : 1-10, 2017 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27998212

RESUMO

How do readers decide whether to skip or fixate a word? Angele and Rayner [2013. Processing the in the parafovea: Are articles skipped automatically? Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 39, 649-662] showed that English readers base skipping decisions on the parafoveal information available, but not the sentential context. Due to the increased visual density of the language, Chinese readers may be able to process a parafoveal word and integrate it with the sentence context to a greater extent than English readers. Consequently, influences on skipping decisions in Chinese may differ from those in English. In a boundary paradigm experiment, participants read sentences containing a single-character target verb (e.g., meaning get) whose preview was manipulated in three conditions: identity preview; a preview consisting of the syntactically anomalous high-frequency structural particle de (), or a pseudocharacter preview. The results showed that Chinese readers were more likely to skip the target when the preview was de than in either of the other conditions, suggesting that de-skipping is triggered by the parafoveal preview of a highly frequent particle word rather than on the likelihood of the upcoming word given the sentential context..

14.
Q J Exp Psychol (Hove) ; 69(3): 548-60, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26145449

RESUMO

In an eye-tracking experiment we examined whether Chinese readers were sensitive to information concerning how often a Chinese character appears as a single-character word versus the first character in a two-character word, and whether readers use this information to segment words and adjust the amount of parafoveal processing of subsequent characters during reading. Participants read sentences containing a two-character target word with its first character more or less likely to be a single-character word. The boundary paradigm was used. The boundary appeared between the first character and the second character of the target word, and we manipulated whether readers saw an identity or a pseudocharacter preview of the second character of the target. Linear mixed-effects models revealed reduced preview benefit from the second character when the first character was more likely to be a single-character word. This suggests that Chinese readers use probabilistic combinatorial information about the likelihood of a Chinese character being single-character word or a two-character word online to modulate the extent of parafoveal processing.


Assuntos
Sinais (Psicologia) , Movimentos Oculares/fisiologia , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia , Probabilidade , Leitura , Vocabulário , Atenção , China , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Semântica , Estudantes , Universidades
15.
Q J Exp Psychol (Hove) ; 69(7): 1409-25, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26366620

RESUMO

Research using alphabetic languages shows that, compared to young adults, older adults employ a risky reading strategy in which they are more likely to guess word identities and skip words to compensate for their slower processing of text. However, little is known about how ageing affects reading behaviour for naturally unspaced, logographic languages like Chinese. Accordingly, to assess the generality of age-related changes in reading strategy across different writing systems we undertook an eye movement investigation of adult age differences in Chinese reading. Participants read sentences containing a target word (a single Chinese character) that had a high or low frequency of usage and was constructed from either few or many character strokes, and so either visually simple or complex. Frequency and complexity produced similar patterns of influence for both age groups on skipping rates and fixation times for target words. Both groups therefore demonstrated sensitivity to these manipulations. But compared to the young adults, the older adults made more and longer fixations and more forward and backward eye movements overall. They also fixated the target words for longer, especially when these were visually complex. Crucially, the older adults skipped words less and made shorter progressive saccades. Therefore, in contrast with findings for alphabetic languages, older Chinese readers appear to use a careful reading strategy according to which they move their eyes cautiously along lines of text and skip words infrequently. We propose they use this more careful reading strategy to compensate for increased difficulty processing word boundaries in Chinese.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Movimentos Oculares/fisiologia , Leitura , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Vocabulário , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Atenção , Compreensão , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Semântica , Adulto Jovem
16.
J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform ; 39(3): 720-34, 2013 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23067120

RESUMO

The present study examined children and adults' eye movement behavior when reading word spaced and unspaced Chinese text. The results showed that interword spacing reduced children and adults' first pass reading times and refixation probabilities indicating spaces between words facilitated word identification. Word spacing effects occurred to a similar degree for both children and adults, though there were differential landing position effects for single and multiple fixation situations in both groups; clear preferred viewing location effects occurred for single fixations, whereas landing positions were closer to word beginnings, and further into the word for adults than children for multiple fixation situations. Furthermore, adults targeted refixations contingent on initial landing positions to a greater degree than did children. Overall, the results indicate that some aspects of children's eye movements during reading show similar levels of maturity to adults, while others do not.


Assuntos
Movimentos Oculares/fisiologia , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia , Leitura , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Medições dos Movimentos Oculares , Fixação Ocular/fisiologia , Humanos , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Exp Psychol Appl ; 18(2): 192-202, 2012 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22545927

RESUMO

The effect of spacing in relation to word segmentation was examined for four groups of non-native Chinese speakers (American, Korean, Japanese, and Thai) who were learning Chinese as second language. Chinese sentences with four types of spacing information were used: unspaced text, word-spaced text, character-spaced text, and nonword-spaced text. Also, participants' native languages were different in terms of their basic characteristics: English and Korean are spaced, whereas the other two are unspaced; Japanese is character based whereas the other three are alphabetic. Thus, we assessed whether any spacing effects were modulated by native language characteristics. Eye movement measures showed least disruption to reading for word-spaced text and longer reading times for unspaced than character-spaced text, with nonword-spaced text yielding the most disruption. These effects were uninfluenced by native language (though reading times differed between groups as a result of Chinese reading experience). Demarcation of word boundaries through spacing reduces non-native readers' uncertainty about the characters that constitute a word, thereby speeding lexical identification, and in turn, reading. More generally, the results indicate that words have psychological reality for those who are learning to read Chinese as a second language, and that segmentation of text into words is more beneficial to successful comprehension than is separating individual Chinese characters with spaces.


Assuntos
Movimentos Oculares , Aprendizagem , Multilinguismo , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos , Leitura , Adolescente , Adulto , Medições dos Movimentos Oculares , Feminino , Humanos , Idioma , Masculino
18.
J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform ; 34(5): 1277-87, 2008 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18823210

RESUMO

Native Chinese readers' eye movements were monitored as they read text that did or did not demark word boundary information. In Experiment 1, sentences had 4 types of spacing: normal unspaced text, text with spaces between words, text with spaces between characters that yielded nonwords, and finally text with spaces between every character. The authors investigated whether the introduction of spaces into unspaced Chinese text facilitates reading and whether the word or, alternatively, the character is a unit of information that is of primary importance in Chinese reading. Global and local measures indicated that sentences with unfamiliar word spaced format were as easy to read as visually familiar unspaced text. Nonword spacing and a space between every character produced longer reading times. In Experiment 2, highlighting was used to create analogous conditions: normal Chinese text, highlighting that marked words, highlighting that yielded nonwords, and highlighting that marked each character. The data from both experiments clearly indicated that words, and not individual characters, are the unit of primary importance in Chinese reading.


Assuntos
Movimentos Oculares , Idioma , Leitura , China , Fixação Ocular , Humanos , Psicolinguística , Movimentos Sacádicos
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