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1.
Trends Pharmacol Sci ; 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31677920

RESUMO

B7x (B7 homolog x, also known as B7-H4, B7S1, and VTCN1) was discovered by ourselves and others in 2003 as the seventh member of the B7 family. It is an inhibitory immune checkpoint of great significance to human disease. Tissue-expressed B7x minimizes autoimmune and inflammatory responses. It is overexpressed in a broad spectrum of human cancers, where it suppresses antitumor immunity. Further, B7x and PD-L1 tend to have mutually exclusive expression in cancer cells. Therapeutics targeting B7x are effective in animal models of cancers and autoimmune disorders, and early-phase clinical trials are underway to determine the efficacy and safety of targeting B7x in human diseases. It took 15 years moving from the discovery of B7x to clinical trials. Further studies will be necessary to identify its receptors, reveal its physiological functions in organs, and combine therapies targeting B7x with other treatments.

2.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1172: 63-78, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31628651

RESUMO

The co-stimulation and co-inhibition signal pathways, immune checkpoints, are among the central mechanisms to regulate the T-cell immunity. Optimal signals involve intricate interactions of numerous ligands and receptors. Manipulation of these signals offers great clinical opportunities and has revolutionized the cancer treatment therapies. The 2018 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was awarded to James P. Allison and Tasuku Honjo in recognition of their discovery of cancer immunotherapy by inhibition of immune checkpoint molecules. Despite the landmark discovery in cancer immunotherapy, the efforts to harness immunity against cancer are also restricted by the limited knowledge on the co-stimulation and co-inhibition signaling networks. Understanding the structures of these molecules, in particular, tackling the interaction paradigms from the structural perspective, help to provide more accurate insights into the signaling mechanisms, which may further facilitate the development of novel biologics and improve the efficacy of the existing biologics against these targets. Here we review our current understanding on the structures of these co-stimulatory and co-inhibitory molecules. Specifically, we focus on the structural basis of several checkpoint molecules among the CD28-B7 family and discuss the therapeutic drugs against these targets for the treatment of human cancers, autoimmune disorders, and transplantation.


Assuntos
Antígenos CD28 , Linfócitos T , Doenças Autoimunes , Antígenos CD28/química , Antígenos CD28/imunologia , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Neoplasias/terapia , Transplante de Órgãos , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia
3.
JCI Insight ; 4(19)2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31578305

RESUMO

B7-H4 is a negative regulatory B7 family member. We investigated the role of host and donor B7-H4 in regulating acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Allogeneic donor T cells infused into B7-H4-/- versus WT recipients markedly accelerated GVHD-induced lethality. Chimera studies pointed toward B7-H4 expression on host hematopoietic cells as more critical than parenchymal cells in controlling GVHD. Rapid mortality in B7-H4-/- recipients was associated with increased donor T cell expansion, gut T cell homing and loss of intestinal epithelial integrity, increased T effector function (proliferation, proinflammatory cytokines, cytolytic molecules), and reduced apoptosis. Higher metabolic demands of rapidly proliferating donor T cells in B7-H4-/- versus WT recipients required multiple metabolic pathways, increased extracellular acidification rates (ECARs) and oxygen consumption rates (OCRs), and increased expression of fuel substrate transporters. During GVHD, B7-H4 expression was upregulated on allogeneic WT donor T cells. B7-H4-/- donor T cells given to WT recipients increased GVHD mortality and had function and biological properties similar to WT T cells from allogeneic B7-H4-/- recipients. Graft-versus-leukemia responses were intact regardless as to whether B7-H4-/- mice were used as hosts or donors. Taken together, these data provide new insights into the negative regulatory processes that control GVHD and provide support for developing therapeutic strategies directed toward the B7-H4 pathway.

5.
Blood ; 134(17): 1406-1414, 2019 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31467059

RESUMO

Immune checkpoint inhibitors are a powerful new tool in the treatment of cancer, with prolonged responses in multiple diseases, including hematologic malignancies, such as Hodgkin lymphoma. However, in a recent report, we demonstrated that the PD-1 inhibitor nivolumab led to rapid progression in patients with adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) (NCT02631746). We obtained primary cells from these patients to determine the cause of this hyperprogression. Analyses of clonality, somatic mutations, and gene expression in the malignant cells confirmed the report of rapid clonal expansion after PD-1 blockade in these patients, revealed a previously unappreciated origin of these malignant cells, identified a novel connection between ATLL cells and tumor-resident regulatory T cells (Tregs), and exposed a tumor-suppressive role for PD-1 in ATLL. Identifying the mechanisms driving this alarming outcome in nivolumab-treated ATLL may be broadly informative for the growing problem of rapid progression with immune checkpoint therapies.

6.
Mol Cell Biochem ; 460(1-2): 93-103, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31278587

RESUMO

Nicotinamide N-methyltransferase (NNMT) is an important methyltransferase involved in the biotransformation of many drugs and exogenous compounds. Abnormal expression of NNMT protein is closely associated with the onset and progression of many malignancies, but little is known about its role in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Therefore, we aimed to explore whether NNMT plays any roles in carcinogenesis and metastasis in ESCC. NNMT expression was determined by immunohistochemistry in ESCC and corresponding adjacent normal tissues. Functional experiments were performed to elucidate the effects of NNMT knockdown on the proliferation, apoptosis, cell cycle, migration, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in EC9706 and TE1 cells. NNMT expression was significantly elevated in ESCC tissues compared with corresponding adjacent normal tissues. Moreover, a significant association emerged between NNMT expression and lymph node metastasis. SiRNA-mediated knockdown of NNMT in ESCC cells can significantly suppress cell viability and migration, induce cell cycle arrest, and promote cell apoptosis. In addition, NNMT downregulation led to the reversal of EMT, as reflected by upregulation of the intercellular adhesion molecule E-cadherin and downregulation of the mesenchymal markers N-cadherin and Vimentin. Further study found that NNMT knockdown suppressed the Wnt/ß-catenin signaling pathway. Taken together, these findings indicate that NNMT is a critical regulator of EMT in ESCC and may be a potential therapeutic target for ESCC metastasis.

7.
Cell Metab ; 30(1): 12-13, 2019 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31269422

RESUMO

Highly suppressive tumor microenvironments often result in T cell dysfunction and inability to control tumors, but factors regulating this process remain elusive. A new study by Ma et al. (2019) reports that tumor cholesterol devitalizes T cells by modulating endoplasmic reticulum stress pathways, revealing a new mechanism underlying T cell exhaustion.

8.
Cells ; 8(6)2019 06 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31226820

RESUMO

Metastasis is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are a critical step in the metastatic cascade and a good tool to study this process. We isolated CTCs from a syngeneic mouse model of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and a human xenograft mouse model of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). From these models, novel primary tumor and CTC cell lines were established. CTCs exhibited greater migration than primary tumor-derived cells, as well as epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), as observed from decreased E-cadherin and increased SLUG and fibronectin expression. Additionally, when fibronectin was knocked down in CTCs, integrin B1 and SLUG were decreased, indicating regulation of these molecules by fibronectin. Investigation of cell surface molecules and secreted cytokines conferring immunomodulatory advantage to CTCs revealed decreased major histocompatibility complex class I (MHCI) expression and decreased endostatin, C-X-C motif chemokine 5 (CXCL5), and proliferin secretion by CTCs. Taken together, these findings indicate that CTCs exhibit distinct characteristics from primary tumor-derived cells. Furthermore, CTCs demonstrate enhanced migration in part through fibronectin regulation of integrin B1 and SLUG. Further study of CTC biology will likely uncover additional important mechanisms of cancer metastasis.

9.
J Hematol Oncol ; 12(1): 59, 2019 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31186046

RESUMO

Harnessing the power of the immune system to recognize and eliminate cancer cells is a longtime exploration. In the past decade, monoclonal antibody (mAb)-based immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) and chimeric antigen receptor T (CAR-T) cell therapy have proven to be safe and effective in hematologic malignancies. Despite the unprecedented success of ICB and CAR-T therapy, only a subset of patients can benefit partially due to immune dysfunction and lack of appropriate targets. Here, we review the preclinical and clinical advances of CTLA-4 and PD-L1/PD-1-based ICB and CD19-specific CAR-T cell therapy in hematologic malignancies. We also discuss the basic research and ongoing clinical trials on emerging immune checkpoints (Galectin-9/Tim-3, CD70/CD27, LAG-3, and LILRBs) and on new targets for CAR-T cell therapy (CD22, CD33, CD123, BCMA, CD38, and CD138) for the treatment of hematologic malignancies.

10.
J Cell Physiol ; 234(12): 22400-22410, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31120582

RESUMO

Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is a malignant tumor with low survival rate, so new therapies are urgently needed. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) play a critical role in tumorigenesis, and HDACs inhibition is a potential therapeutic target in ESSC. In our study, we evaluated the effect and molecular mechanism of MS-275 (an inhibitor of HDACs) on ESCC cells. We found that HDAC1 and HDAC2 were overexpressed in ESCC tissues and related with clinical pathological features of patients with ESCC. MS-275 markedly reduced HDAC1 and HDAC2 expression, whereas increased the level of AcH3 and AcH2B. MS-275 suppressed proliferation and clonogenicity of ESCC cells in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, MS-275 induced apoptosis, arrested cell cycle, and inhibited migration, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and sphere-forming ability of ESCC cells in vitro. Moreover, p-Akt1 and p-mTOR were downregulated by MS-275. Finally, MS-275 significantly inhibited tumor growth in vivo. Taken together, HDAC1 and HDAC2 are associated with the progression of ESCC, and MS-275 hinders the progression and stemness of ESCC cells by suppressing the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway. Our findings show that MS-275 inhibits ESCC cells growth in vitro and in vivo, which is a potential drug for the ESCC therapy.

11.
Urol Oncol ; 37(11): 810.e1-810.e5, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31103336

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High T-cell receptor (TCR) repertoire clonality is associated with clinical response to immune checkpoint blockade in bladder cancer. OBJECTIVE: To determine if TCR repertoire is more clonal in tumors than in benign inflammation. METHODS: We prospectively identified 12 patients with bladder lesions undergoing transurethral resection. Specimens were collected at time of transurethral resection and stored at -80C. DNA was extracted and high throughput DNA sequencing of the CDR3 region of the TCR beta chain using the immunoSEQ assay (Adaptive Biotechnologies) was performed. T-cell fraction, clonal dominance, and maximum frequency of TCR clone were assessed. RESULTS: Of the 12 bladder lesions resected, 3 of 12 were cT0, 3 of 12 were cTa, 3 of 12 were cT1, and 3 of 12 were cT2 or greater. The median number of T cells in urothelial carcinoma specimens (UC+) and benign (UC-) specimens was 5,569 and 25,872, respectively. The number of unique TCRs sequenced in UC+ and UC- specimens was 3,069 and 9,680, respectively. The median tumor infiltrating lymphocyte percentage in UC+ and UC- specimens was 2% and 12%, respectively. The UC+ specimens demonstrated clonality as evidenced by identification of a specific T-cell clone being present in up to 17% of the total tumor infiltrating lymphocyte pool, in contrast to 2% among UC- specimens. CONCLUSIONS: Primary urothelial tumors contain clonally expanded T-cell populations. These data support the hypothesis that bladder tumors induce an antigen-driven immunogenic host response, in contrast to the benign inflammatory response, which does not appear to demonstrate any T-cell clonal dominance.

12.
Cell Death Dis ; 10(6): 407, 2019 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31138782

RESUMO

Maternal decidual CD8+ T (dCD8+ T) cells must integrate the antithetical demands of maternal-fetal tolerance and anti-viral immunity to establish a successful pregnancy. T-cell immunoglobulin mucin-3 (Tim-3) and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4) are two important co-inhibitory molecules that regulating CD8+ T cells responses during infection and tumor. In the present study, we examined the co-expression of Tim-3 and CTLA-4 on CD8+ T cells during pregnancy and found the higher frequency of Tim-3+CTLA-4+dCD8+ T cells in response to trophoblasts. This Tim-3+CTLA-4+dCD8+ T cells subset showed an active status and produced more anti-inflammatory cytokines. Furthermore, the decreased number and altered function of Tim-3+CTLA-4+dCD8+ T cells correlated to miscarriage. Combined blocking Tim-3 and CTLA-4 pathways were highly effective in inhibiting the production of anti-inflammatory cytokines and were detrimental to the maintenance of pregnancy. Together, these findings supported that Tim-3 and CTLA-4 pathways might play positive roles in the establishment and/or maintenance of maternal-fetal tolerance so to promote the maintenance of normal pregnancy. So the reproductive safety must be considered, especially when anti-Tim-3/CTLA-4 antibody (and other immune checkpoint inhibitors) are used in pregnancy.

13.
Int J Biochem Cell Biol ; 111: 19-26, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30959201

RESUMO

Chimeric RNAs are transcripts composed of RNA fragments from different genes and are traditionally well-known cancer-causing genetic events. Recent studies show chimeric RNAs being present in multiple non-neoplastic tissues and cells, suggesting that at least some may have roles in normal physiology. However, chimeric RNAs and their implications in brain development and neural differentiation have not been formally studied. Here, we firstly characterized the landscape of chimeric RNAs in human infant brain tissues and identified 599 chimeric RNAs. Through a series of filtering, 22 were selected and tested in a neural differentiation process starting from stem cells. Ten were validated experimentally. One of these ten chimeric RNAs, DUS4L-BCAP29, dramatically increased when human umbilical mesenchymal stem cells were induced for neural differentiation. Consistently, we found that overexpressed DUS4L-BCAP29 effectively promoted neural differentiation. Our results support the important role(s) chimeric RNAs play in neural differentiation, and are consistent with the new notion that chimeric RNAs also exist in normal physiology, and likely serve biological purposes.

14.
Clin Cancer Res ; 25(12): 3589-3601, 2019 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30862694

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate therapeutic activity of PAK inhibition in ATLL and to characterize the role of PAK isoforms in cell proliferation, survival, and adhesion of ATLL cells in preclinical models. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Frequency and prognostic impact of PAK2 amplification were evaluated in an ATLL cohort of 370 cases. Novel long-term cultures and in vivo xenograft models were developed using primary ATLL cells from North American patients. Two PAK inhibitors were used to block PAK kinase activity pharmacologically. siRNA-based gene silencing approach was used to genetically knockdown (KD) PAK1 and PAK2 in ATLL cell lines. RESULTS: PAK1/2/4 are the three most abundantly expressed PAK family members in ATLL. PAK2 amplifications are seen in 24% of ATLLs and are associated with worse prognosis in a large patient cohort. The pan-PAK inhibitor PF-3758309 (PF) has strong in vitro and in vivo activity in a variety of ATLL preclinical models. These activities of PF are likely attributed to its ability to target several PAK isoforms simultaneously because genetic silencing of either PAK1 or PAK2 produced more modest effects. PAK2 plays a major role in CADM1-mediated stromal interaction, which is an important step in systemic dissemination of the disease. This finding is consistent with the observation that PAK2 amplification is more frequent in aggressive ATLLs and correlates with inferior outcome. CONCLUSIONS: PAK2, a gene frequently amplified in ATLL, facilitates CADM1-mediated stromal interaction and promotes survival of ATLL cells. Taken together, PAK inhibition may hold significant promise as a targeted therapy for aggressive ATLLs.

15.
Cell Mol Immunol ; 2019 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30778166

RESUMO

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which are pluripotent cells with immunomodulatory properties, have been considered good candidates for the therapy of several immune disorders, such as inflammatory bowel diseases, concanavalin A-induced liver injury, and graft-versus-host disease. The embryo is a natural allograft to the maternal immune system. A successful pregnancy depends on the timely extinction of the inflammatory response induced by embryo implantation, followed by the switch to a tolerant immune microenvironment in both the uterus and the system. Excessive infiltration of immune cells and serious inflammatory responses are triggers for embryo rejection, which results in miscarriage. Here, we demonstrated that adoptive transfer of MSCs could prevent fetal loss in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced abortion model and immune response-mediated spontaneous abortion model. The immunosuppressive MSCs alleviated excessive inflammation by inhibiting CD4 + T cell proliferation and promoting the decidual macrophage switch to M2 in a tumor necrosis factor-stimulated gene-6 (TSG-6)-dependent manner. Cell-to-cell contact with proinflammatory macrophages increased the TSG-6 production by the MSCs, thereby enhancing the suppressive regulation of T cells and macrophages. Moreover, proinflammatory macrophages in contact with the MSCs upregulated the expression of CD200 on the stem cells and facilitated the reprogramming of macrophages towards an anti-inflammatory skew through the interaction of CD200 with CD200R on proinflammatory macrophages. Therefore, the results demonstrate that a TSG-6-mediated paracrine effect, reinforced by cell-to-cell contact between MSCs and proinflammatory macrophages, is involved in the mechanism of MSC-mediated abortion relief through the induction of immune tolerance. Our study also indicates the potential application of MSCs in clinical recurrent miscarriages.

16.
Cell Death Dis ; 10(1): 15, 2019 01 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30622243

RESUMO

The single and/or combination use of immune checkpoint blockade therapies in human infectious diseases and cancer are rapidly expanding. Despite early efforts, substantial uncertainty remains about the safety and efficacy of immune checkpoint blockade in some populations. Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4) and T-cell immunoglobulin mucin-3 (Tim-3) are the major targetable co-inhibitory receptors on T cells. Here we showed that in animal studies, treatment with either CTLA-4- or Tim-3-blocking antibody caused greater susceptibility to fetal loss with altered cytokine profiles by decidual CD4+T (dCD4+T) cells. CTLA-4 and Tim-3 pathways appeared to play key roles in maintaining maternal-fetal tolerance by regulating the function of dCD4+T cells. In addition, the abnormality in number and functionality of dCTLA-4+Tim-3+CD4+T cells was associated with miscarriage. These findings underscored the important roles of the CTLA-4 and Tim-3 pathways in regulating dCD4+T cells function and maintaining normal pregnancy. Our study also emphasized the importance of careful consideration of reproductive safety when choosing immune checkpoint blockade therapies in real world clinical care.

17.
Oncoimmunology ; 7(6): e1433520, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29872566

RESUMO

Current studies aiming at identifying single immune markers with prognostic value have limitations in the context of complex antitumor immunity and cancer immune evasion. Here, we show how the integration of several immune markers influences the predictions of prognosis of gastric cancer (GC) patients. We analyzed Tissue Microarray (TMA) by multiplex immunohistochemistry and measured the expression of immune checkpoint molecule PD-L1 together with antitumor CD8 T cells and immune suppressive FOXP3 Treg cells in a cohort of GC patients. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering analysis of these markers was used to define correlations between CD8 T, FOXP3 Treg and PD-L1 cell densities. We found that FOXP3 and PD-L1 densities were elevated while CD8 T cells were decreased in tumor tissues compared to their adjacent normal tissues. However, patient stratification based on each one of these markers individually did not show significant prognostic value on patient survival. Conversely, combination of the ratios of CD8/FOXP3 and CD8/PD-L1 enabled the identification of patient subgroups with different survival outcomes. As such, high densities of PD-L1 in patients with high CD8/FOXP3 and low CD8/PD-L1 ratios correlated with increased survival. Collectively, this work demonstrates the need for the integration of several immune markers to obtain more meaningful survival prognosis and patient stratification. In addition, our work provides insights into the complex tumor immune evasion and immune regulation by the tumor-infiltrating effector and suppressor cells, informing on the best use of immunotherapy options for treating patients.

18.
Oncoimmunology ; 7(6): e1435250, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29872577

RESUMO

Activation of the inflammatory transcription factor NF-κB in tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) is assumed to contribute to tumor promotion. However, whether and how NF-κB drives the antitumor macrophages to become pro-tumorigenic have not been determined in any cancer type yet. Similarly, how TAMs repress CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) remains largely unknown, although their importance in regulatory T (Treg) cell regulation and tumor promotion has been well appreciated. Here, using an endogenous lung cancer model we uncover a direct crosstalk between TAMs and CTLs. TAMs suppress CTLs through the T-cell inhibitory molecule B7x (B7-H4/B7S1) in a cell-cell contact manner, whereas CTLs kill TAMs in a tumor antigen-specific manner. Remarkably, TAMs secrete the known T-cell suppressive cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10) to activate, but not to repress, CTLs. Notably, one major role of cell-intrinsic NF-κB RelA is to drive TAMs to suppress CTLs for tumor promotion. It induces B7x expression in TAMs directly, and restricts IL-10 expression indirectly by repressing expression of the NF-κB cofactor Bcl3 and subsequent Bcl3/NF-κB1-mediated transcription of IL-10. It also renders TAMs resistant to CTLs by up-regulating anti-apoptotic genes. These studies help understand how immunity is shaped in lung tumorigenesis, and suggest a RelA-targeted immunotherapy for this deadliest cancer.

19.
Clin Cancer Res ; 24(8): 1954-1964, 2018 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29374053

RESUMO

Purpose: Immunotherapy targeting the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway has changed the treatment landscape of non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). We demonstrated that HHLA2, a newly identified immune inhibitory molecule, was widely expressed in NSCLC. We now compared the expression and function of PD-L1 with alternative immune checkpoints, B7x and HHLA2.Experimental Design: Expression was examined in tissue microarrays consisting of 392 resected NSCLC tumors. Effects of PD-L1, B7x, and HHLA2 on human T-cell proliferation and cytokine production were investigated.Results: PD-L1 expression was identified in 25% and 31% of tumors in the discovery and validation cohorts and was associated with higher stage and lymph node involvement. The multivariate analysis showed that stage, TIL status, and lymph node involvement were independently associated with PD-L1 expression. B7x was expressed in 69% and 68%, whereas HHLA2 was positive in 61% and 64% of tumors in the two sets. The coexpression of PD-L1 with B7x or HHLA2 was infrequent, 6% and 3%. The majority (78%) of PD-L1-negative cases expressed B7x, HHLA2, or both. The triple-positive group had more TIL infiltration than the triple-negative group. B7x-Ig and HHLA2-Ig inhibited TCR-mediated proliferation of CD4 and CD8 T cells more robustly than PD-L1-Ig. All three significantly suppressed cytokine productions by T cells.Conclusions: The majority of PD-L1-negative lung cancers express alternative immune checkpoints. The roles of the B7x and HHLA2 pathway in mediating immune evasion in PD-L1-negative tumors deserve to be explored to provide the rationale for an effective immunotherapy strategy in these tumors. Clin Cancer Res; 24(8); 1954-64. ©2018 AACR.

20.
Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol ; 26(9): 611-619, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28422766

RESUMO

Response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) in invasive breast cancer (IBC) is partly regulated by the immune microenvironment. We evaluated immune checkpoint PD-L1 expression, presence of CD68+ cells of macrophage/monocytic lineage and stromal tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in prechemotherapy biopsies and correlated with NAC response. We studied 76 cases of IBC. Prechemotherapy biopsies with >30% TILs were considered lymphocyte-rich IBC. We performed immunohistochemistry for PD-L1 and CD68. Prechemotherapy cores showing >1% PD-L1+ immune or tumor cells were considered positive. CD68 was positive if >40% of tumor stroma contained CD68+ cells or atleast 50% of tumor cells showed infiltration by CD68+ cells. Residual Cancer burden (RCB) Score of 0/I represented excellent response to NAC and RCB II or III unfavorable response. Thirty-five patients had RCB 0/I and 41 pts RCB II/ III. TILs>30% were present in prechemotherapy biopsies in 19 pts of whom 14 showed RCB 0/I (P=0.0075). Twenty-seven cases were PD-L1+ and 20 had an RCB 0/I (P=0.0003). Twenty-two cases were CD68+ of whom 18 showed RCB 0/I (P=<0.0001) There was a significant association between TILs>30%, PD-L1+ and CD68+ expression. Using atleast one of these immunologic parameters identified 26 of 35 patients with RCB 0/I and showed a higher sensitivity for response prediction than TILs alone (40% vs. 74.3%). In conclusion we demonstrate that high numbers of CD68+ monocytic/macrophage cells and PD-L1 expression in IBC shows significant association with NAC response. An immune biomarker profile including TILs, PD-LI and CD68 is more sensitive for NAC response prediction than TILs alone.

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