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1.
Br J Anaesth ; 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31607387

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bleeding and transfusions affect mortality in aortic surgery. Although tranexamic acid significantly reduced bleeding in multiple settings, its role in major vascular surgery was never studied. The aim of this study was to determine if tranexamic acid reduces blood loss in open abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) surgery. METHODS: A total of 100 patients undergoing elective open AAA repair were randomised to receive tranexamic acid (a loading dose of 500 mg and a continuous infusion of 250 mg h-1) or placebo. The primary outcome was intraoperative blood loss, and the secondary outcomes were the number of patients receiving red blood cells, occurrence of thromboembolic events, and mortality. Data were analysed using the intention-to-treat principle. RESULTS: Fifty patients were randomised into each group. Median (inter-quartile range) intraoperative blood loss was 400 (300-1050) ml in the tranexamic acid group vs 500 (360-1000) ml in the placebo group (P=0.44). Transfusion rate was seven/50 (14%) in the tranexamic group vs 12/50 (24%) in the placebo group (P=0.20). No thrombosis was recorded. In a post hoc analysis, postoperative blood loss was reduced in the tranexamic group both at 4 h (60 [40-80] ml vs 100 [60-140] ml, P<0.001) and 24 h (180 [120-275] vs 275 [190-395] ml, P=0.003) after surgery. At 1 yr, three patients were dead, all in the placebo group (P=0.24) and all after 28 days. CONCLUSIONS: Tranexamic acid did not reduce intraoperative blood loss or blood transfusions in open AAA repair, although it may reduce postoperative blood loss without increasing adverse effects. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT02335359.

2.
Ann Card Anaesth ; 22(4): 400-406, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31621676

RESUMO

Background: Percutaneous left atrial appendage occlusion (LAAO) is indicated in subjects with atrial fibrillation who cannot receive oral anticoagulants. This procedure requires transesophageal echocardiography guidance and is usually performed under general anesthesia. The Janus Mask is a new device designed to allow upper endoscopic procedures during noninvasive ventilation (NIV). Aims: This study aims to assess the possibility of performing LAAO under sedation and NIV. Setting: Cardiac electrophysiology laboratory. Design: Case-control study. Materials and Methods: Data from 11 subjects undergoing LAAO under sedation and NIV with the Janus Mask were retrospectively collected. Procedure duration, outcomes, and physicians' satisfaction were compared with those of 11 subjects who underwent LAAO under general anesthesia in the same period. Statistical Analysis: Univariate analysis and analysis of variance for between-groups comparison. Results: The 11 subjects treated with sedation experienced a good outcome, with a high degree of satisfaction from the medical team. An increase in arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the Janus group (45 [43-62] mmHg vs. 33 [30-35] mmHg in the general anesthesia group, P < 0.001) led to a transient pH decrease 45 min after the beginning of the procedure (7.30 [7.18-7.36] vs. 7.40 [7.39-7.46], P = 0.014). No differences in arterial partial pressure of oxygen, FiO2, and hemodynamic parameters were observed. The subjects' conditions at discharge from the recovery room were comparable. No difference in procedure duration was registered. Conclusions: LAAO procedure under sedation and NIV through the Janus Mask is safe and feasible. This strategy might represent a valuable alternative to manage such a compromised and fragile population.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31473115

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To find out if there are any differences in biomarkers between severe isolated right ventricular (RV) dysfunction and severe isolated left ventricular (LV) dysfunction after cardiac surgery using cardiopulmonary bypass. DESIGN: Observational study. SETTING: Teaching hospital. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 46 patients who had severe isolated RV or LV dysfunction after cardiac surgery. INTERVENTION: The authors collected perioperative clinical and biomarker data. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Severe isolated RV dysfunction patients (n = 20) had higher postoperative direct bilirubin (p = 0.030), total bilirubin (p = 0.044), glucose (p = 0.011), and international normalized ratio (INR) (p = 0.050) by repeated measure analysis of variance when compared with patients with severe isolated LV dysfunction (n = 26). The RV group also showed lower preoperative alanine transferase (19.3 ± 1.5 v 32.7 ± 4.2, p = 0.001), higher 4-hour INR (1.5 ± 0.3 v 1.4 ± 0.2, p = 0.008), and higher 48-hour INR (1.8 ± 0.4 v 1.4 ± 0.1, p < 0.001). None in the LV group died, whereas 4 patients in the RV group died (all of them had preoperative atrial fibrillation and underwent double valve replacement surgery). CONCLUSION: The authors observed biomarkers differences between severe isolated RV dysfunction and severe isolated RV dysfunction.

5.
J Emerg Med ; 57(3): 322-328, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31421952

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute respiratory failure (ARF) is a common cause of presentation to the Emergency Department (ED). High flow nasal cannula (HFNC) has been introduced as an alternative way to administer oxygen. OBJECTIVES: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing HFNC with conventional oxygen therapy (COT) and noninvasive ventilation (NIV) exclusively in the ED setting. METHODS: Inclusion criteria were: RCTs on adults with ARF admitted to the ED, investigating HFNC vs. COT or other modes of ventilation. Trials that compared HFNC support outside the ED, were published as an abstract, or nonrandomized were excluded. RESULTS: Four RCTs comparing HFNC with COT and one HFNC to NIV met the criteria. Overall, 775 patients were included. The meta-analysis of the studies comparing HFNC and COT showed no differences in intubation requirement, treatment failure, hospitalization, or mortality. Intolerance was significantly higher with HFNC (risk ratio 6.81 95% confidence interval 1.18-39.19; p = 0.03). In the only available RCT comparing HFNC with NIV, no difference was found for intubation rate, treatment failure, tolerance, and dyspnea. CONCLUSIONS: We did not find any benefit of HFNC compared with COT and NIV in terms of intubation requirement, treatment failure, hospitalization, and mortality; COT was better tolerated.

6.
Med Hypotheses ; 130: 109276, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31383320

RESUMO

Cancer is the second cause of death worldwide, but current therapies are often insufficient or linked with toxicity. Initial evidence in scientific literature seems to support the role of non-pharmacological strategies, including hypoglycemia, in cancer treatment. The biological rationale for hypoglycemia-based treatment of cancer resides in the evidence that cancer cells predominantly utilize glucose as an energy source; notably, cancer cells seem to have damaged glycolysis regulation and few, defective mitochondria showing impaired oxidative phosphorylation. Preliminary data arising from both preclinical and human studies support the role of hypoglycemia in inducing apoptosis on cancer cells. In this paper, we describe how to induce and maintain severe hypoglycemia without causing damage to either the brain or the heart. Our hypothesis is that ExtraCorporeal Membrane Oxygenation (ECMO) and selective glucose perfusion of the carotid vessels are able to maintain severe hypoglycemia without causing cardiac or brain damage. This will allow physicians to study the effect of severe hypoglycemia on cancer cell apoptosis in vivo.

7.
Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg ; 58(1): 13-22, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31186133

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Open repair of thoraco-abdominal aortic aneurysm (TAAA) is a challenging procedure, associated with high rates of peri-operative bleeding and blood product transfusions. A large intra-operative volume transfusion has been associated with higher in hospital mortality and prolonged mechanical ventilation. A propensity score matched study was carried out to assess whether the introduction of a rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM) based transfusion strategy reduces allogenic blood transfusion and affects morbidity in patients undergoing open TAAA repair. METHODS: All patients undergoing open TAAA repair at the San Raffaele Scientific Institute between 2009 and 2017 were included. Until 2016, a protocol based on estimated blood loss and conventional coagulation tests was used. After March 2016 a ROTEM guided transfusion protocol was developed and adopted. To account for selection bias, propensity score matching was performed. RESULTS: Five hundred and forty-seven consecutive patients were included. After propensity score matching, 77 patients in the ROTEM algorithm group were successfully matched with 77 patients in the standard algorithm group. Patients managed with ROTEM received fewer red blood cells units (3.5 [range 0-11] vs. 4 [range 0-17]; p = .026) and a lower volume of fresh frozen plasma (286 ± 496 vs. 2,050 ± 1,120; p < .001). In addition, fewer patients received fresh frozen plasma (35% vs. 97%; p < .001). Patients in the ROTEM group showed a significant decrease in the occurrence of pulmonary complications (44% vs. 83%; p = .01). Cost analysis showed a relevant reduction of per-patient expense after the introduction of ROTEM (€834 ± €577 vs. €1,285 ± €851; p < .001) CONCLUSION: A ROTEM guided transfusion strategy significantly limited the quantity of transfused blood products during open TAAA repair, improving clinical outcomes while reducing costs, allowing for better resource distribution in a setting where blood loss is relevant.

8.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 33(10): 2685-2694, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31064730

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Reducing mortality is a key target in critical care and perioperative medicine. The authors aimed to identify all nonsurgical interventions (drugs, techniques, strategies) shown by randomized trials to increase mortality in these clinical settings. DESIGN: A systematic review of the literature followed by a consensus-based voting process. SETTING: A web-based international consensus conference. PARTICIPANTS: Two hundred fifty-one physicians from 46 countries. INTERVENTIONS: The authors performed a systematic literature search and identified all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) showing a significant increase in unadjusted landmark mortality among surgical or critically ill patients. The authors reviewed such studies during a meeting by a core group of experts. Studies selected after such review advanced to web-based voting by clinicians in relation to agreement, clinical practice, and willingness to include each intervention in international guidelines. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The authors selected 12 RCTs dealing with 12 interventions increasing mortality: diaspirin-crosslinked hemoglobin (92% of agreement among web voters), overfeeding, nitric oxide synthase inhibitor in septic shock, human growth hormone, thyroxin in acute kidney injury, intravenous salbutamol in acute respiratory distress syndrome, plasma-derived protein C concentrate, aprotinin in high-risk cardiac surgery, cysteine prodrug, hypothermia in meningitis, methylprednisolone in traumatic brain injury, and albumin in traumatic brain injury (72% of agreement). Overall, a high consistency (ranging from 80% to 90%) between agreement and clinical practice was observed. CONCLUSION: The authors identified 12 clinical interventions showing increased mortality supported by randomized controlled trials with nonconflicting evidence, and wide agreement upon clinicians on a global scale.

10.
N. Engl. j. med. ; 380(13): 1214-1225, Mar. 2019. gráfico, tabela
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1024163

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Volatile (inhaled) anesthetic agents have cardioprotective effects, which might improve clinical outcomes in patients undergoing coronary-artery bypass grafting (CABG). METHODS: We conducted a pragmatic, multicenter, single-blind, controlled trial at 36 centers in 13 countries. Patients scheduled to undergo elective CABG were randomly assigned to an intraoperative anesthetic regimen that included a volatile anesthetic (desflurane, isoflurane, or sevoflurane) or to total intravenous anesthesia. The primary outcome was death from any cause at 1 year. RESULTS: A total of 5400 patients were randomly assigned: 2709 to the volatile anesthetics group and 2691 to the total intravenous anesthesia group. On-pump CABG was performed in 64% of patients, with a mean duration of cardiopulmonary bypass of 79 minutes. The two groups were similar with respect to demographic and clinical characteristics at baseline, the duration of cardiopulmonary bypass, and the number of grafts. At the time of the second interim analysis, the data and safety monitoring board advised that the trial should be stopped for futility. No significant difference between the groups with respect to deaths from any cause was seen at 1 year (2.8% in the volatile anesthetics group and 3.0% in the total intravenous anesthesia group; relative risk, 0.94; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.69 to 1.29; P = 0.71), with data available for 5353 patients (99.1%), or at 30 days (1.4% and 1.3%, respectively; relative risk, 1.11; 95% CI, 0.70 to 1.76), with data available for 5398 patients (99.9%). There were no significant differences between the groups in any of the secondary outcomes or in the incidence of prespecified adverse events, including myocardial infarction. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients undergoing elective CABG, anesthesia with a volatile agent did not result in significantly fewer deaths at 1 year than total intravenous anesthesia. (Funded by the Italian Ministry of Health; MYRIAD ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02105610.). (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ponte de Artéria Coronária , Anestésicos Inalatórios , Anestesia Geral , Anestesia Intravenosa
11.
Anesth Analg ; 128(5): 971-980, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30896601

RESUMO

Awake fiberoptic intubation is one of the recommended strategies for surgical patients with anticipated difficult airway, especially when concurrent difficult ventilation is expected. We performed the first systematic review of randomized controlled trials assessing different protocols for awake fiberoptic intubation in anticipated difficult airway, including studies investigating elective awake fiberoptic intubation for scheduled surgery; randomized controlled trials comparing different methods for performing awake fiberoptic intubation; and adult patients with anticipated difficult airway. We excluded studies in the nonoperating theater settings, randomized controlled trials comparing awake fiberoptic intubation with other techniques, and studies based on simulation. Primary outcomes were success rate and death; secondary outcomes were major adverse events. Thirty-seven randomized controlled trials evaluating 2045 patients and 4 areas were identified: premedication, local anesthesia, sedation, and ancillary techniques to facilitate awake fiberoptic intubation. Quality of evidence was moderate-low and based on small-sampled randomized controlled trials. Overall, 12 of 2045 intubation failures (0.59%) and 7 of 2045 severe adverse events (0.34%) occurred, with no permanent consequences or death. All evaluated methods to achieve local anesthesia performed similarly well. No differences were observed in success rate with different sedatives. Dexmedetomidine resulted in fewer desaturation episodes compared to propofol and opioids with or without midazolam (relative risk, 0.51 [95% CI, 0.28-0.95]; P = .03); occurrence of desaturation was similar with remifentanil versus propofol, while incidence of apnoea was lower with sevoflurane versus propofol (relative risk, 0.43 [95% CI, 0.22-0.81]; P = .01). A high degree of efficacy and safety was observed with minimal differences among different protocols; dexmedetomidine might offer a better safety profile compared to other sedatives.

12.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 33(7): 1845-1851, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30898421

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify reliable predictors of periprocedural intensive care unit (ICU) admission after transvenous lead extraction (LE) in a high-volume center. DESIGN: Retrospective observational study. SETTING: University tertiary-care hospital. PARTICIPANTS: All patients undergoing LE at San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy, from 2005 to 2015. INTERVENTIONS: LE procedures were performed in the electrophysiology laboratories with a cardiac operating room on standby between the end of the morning surgical case and before the start of the afternoon surgical case. Most procedures were conducted with the patient under procedural sedation and analgesia. After LE, patients were admitted either to the ward or to the ICU. Medical history and intraprocedural data were recorded. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Of the 389 procedures performed during the study period, 50 patients (13%) were admitted to the ICU owing to persistent hemodynamic instability or intraoperative complications requiring endotracheal intubation. Complete procedural success was achieved in 370 patients (95%), and the clinical success rate was 98.4%. No deaths were recorded. Five complications requiring emergency surgery (1.3%) were reported. Preprocedural right ventricular dysfunction (odds ratio (OR) 7.41; confidence interval 1.85-29.7; p < 0.01) and the need for general anesthesia (OR 12; confidence interval 1.49-97.06; p = 0.019) were independent predictors of ICU admission. CONCLUSIONS: Preoperative identification of patients who need ICU admission after LE is crucial to increase patient safety and decrease hospital costs. Severe right ventricular dysfunction and need for general anesthesia identify patients with low cardiac reserve who are at increased risk for ICU admission after the procedure.

13.
N Engl J Med ; 380(13): 1214-1225, 2019 03 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30888743

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Volatile (inhaled) anesthetic agents have cardioprotective effects, which might improve clinical outcomes in patients undergoing coronary-artery bypass grafting (CABG). METHODS: We conducted a pragmatic, multicenter, single-blind, controlled trial at 36 centers in 13 countries. Patients scheduled to undergo elective CABG were randomly assigned to an intraoperative anesthetic regimen that included a volatile anesthetic (desflurane, isoflurane, or sevoflurane) or to total intravenous anesthesia. The primary outcome was death from any cause at 1 year. RESULTS: A total of 5400 patients were randomly assigned: 2709 to the volatile anesthetics group and 2691 to the total intravenous anesthesia group. On-pump CABG was performed in 64% of patients, with a mean duration of cardiopulmonary bypass of 79 minutes. The two groups were similar with respect to demographic and clinical characteristics at baseline, the duration of cardiopulmonary bypass, and the number of grafts. At the time of the second interim analysis, the data and safety monitoring board advised that the trial should be stopped for futility. No significant difference between the groups with respect to deaths from any cause was seen at 1 year (2.8% in the volatile anesthetics group and 3.0% in the total intravenous anesthesia group; relative risk, 0.94; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.69 to 1.29; P = 0.71), with data available for 5353 patients (99.1%), or at 30 days (1.4% and 1.3%, respectively; relative risk, 1.11; 95% CI, 0.70 to 1.76), with data available for 5398 patients (99.9%). There were no significant differences between the groups in any of the secondary outcomes or in the incidence of prespecified adverse events, including myocardial infarction. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients undergoing elective CABG, anesthesia with a volatile agent did not result in significantly fewer deaths at 1 year than total intravenous anesthesia. (Funded by the Italian Ministry of Health; MYRIAD ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02105610.).


Assuntos
Anestesia Intravenosa , Anestésicos Gerais/farmacologia , Ponte de Artéria Coronária , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/cirurgia , Administração por Inalação , Idoso , Anestesia Geral , Anestésicos Intravenosos , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/mortalidade , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/fisiopatologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Método Simples-Cego , Volume Sistólico
14.
Contemp Clin Trials ; 78: 126-132, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30739002

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Few randomized trials have evaluated the use of non-invasive ventilation (NIV) for early acute respiratory failure (ARF) in non-intensive care unit (ICU) wards. The aim of this study is to test the hypothesis that early NIV for mild-moderate ARF in non-ICU wards can prevent development of severe ARF. DESIGN: Pragmatic, parallel group, randomized, controlled, multicenter trial. SETTING: Non-intensive care wards of tertiary centers. PATIENTS: Non-ICU ward patients with mild to moderate ARF without an established indication for NIV. INTERVENTIONS: Patients will be randomized to receive or not receive NIV in addition to best available care. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: We will enroll 520 patients, 260 in each group. The primary endpoint of the study will be the development of severe ARF. Secondary endpoints will be 28-day mortality, length of hospital stay, safety of NIV in non-ICU environments, and a composite endpoint of all in-hospital respiratory complications. CONCLUSIONS: This trial will help determine whether the early use of NIV in non-ICU wards can prevent progression from mild-moderate ARF to severe ARF.

15.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 33(5): 1430-1439, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30600204

RESUMO

The authors aimed to identify interventions documented by randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that reduce mortality in adult critically ill and perioperative patients, followed by a survey of clinicians' opinions and routine practices to understand the clinicians' response to such evidence. The authors performed a comprehensive literature review to identify all topics reported to reduce mortality in perioperative and critical care settings according to at least 2 RCTs or to a multicenter RCT or to a single-center RCT plus guidelines. The authors generated position statements that were voted on online by physicians worldwide for agreement, use, and willingness to include in international guidelines. From 262 RCT manuscripts reporting mortality differences in the perioperative and critically ill settings, the authors selected 27 drugs, techniques, and strategies (66 RCTs, most frequently published by the New England Journal of Medicine [13 papers], Lancet [7], and Journal of the American Medical Association [5]) with an agreement ≥67% from over 250 physicians (46 countries). Noninvasive ventilation was the intervention supported by the largest number of RCTs (n = 13). The concordance between agreement and use (a positive answer both to "do you agree" and "do you use") showed differences between Western and other countries and between anesthesiologists and intensive care unit physicians. The authors identified 27 clinical interventions with randomized evidence of survival benefit and strong clinician support in support of their potential life-saving properties in perioperative and critically ill patients with noninvasive ventilation having the highest level of support. However, clinician views appear affected by specialty and geographical location.


Assuntos
Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Estado Terminal/mortalidade , Internet , Médicos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/métodos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Cuidados Críticos/tendências , Estado Terminal/terapia , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/tendências , Internet/tendências , Mortalidade/tendências , Médicos/tendências
16.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 33(9): 2525-2536, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30686657

RESUMO

Of the various muscles that make up the respiratory system, the diaphragm is the prima donna. In the past, only specialist research centers were able to estimate and challenge the effort of this muscle; this was achieved by measuring transdiaphragmatic pressure-an invasive technique involving a double-balloon probe inserted through the esophagus-or by measuring twitch pressure (ie, the pressure generated at the outside tip of the endotracheal tube). However, the prevalence of diaphragm dysfunction in critically ill patients requiring intubation can exceed 60% (at the time of hospital admission) and may rise to as high as 80% in patients requiring prolonged mechanical ventilation and experiencing difficult weaning. Although still in its infancy, modern ultrasound (US) provides a fascinating way to study the diaphragm, permitting the assessment of its excursion, thickness, and thickening. Furthermore, US enables the course of diaphragmatic function to be followed on a day-to-day basis, from intensive care admission to discharge, and it can help us understand the different causes of underlying disease: trauma, infection (eg, sepsis-induced diaphragm dysfunction), cancer, weaning problems (eg, ventilation-induced diaphragm dysfunction), etc. Today, the assessment of diaphragm dysfunction with US provides an important first step toward improving the detection of diaphragm dysfunction and as a protective and supportive strategy for its management. The purposes of this review are as follows: (1) to explore which US method is best for evaluating diaphragm function in the intensive care unit and how and when it should be used, and (2) to discuss which diseases may involve the diaphragm, and what therapies should be used.

17.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 33(7): 1877-1882, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30655200

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (eCPR) with venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO) is gaining importance as a rescue therapy for refractory cardiac arrest. VA-ECMO, especially in the setting of eCPR, is plagued by hemorrhagic and thromboembolic complications. The authors' aims were to describe the coagulation profile in refractory cardiac arrest and assess its prognostic role. DESIGN: Single-center retrospective study. SETTING: Cardiac surgical intensive care unit of a university hospital. PARTICIPANTS: One hundred eighty-eight patients treated with eCPR for intra-hospital and out-of-hospital refractory cardiac arrest, between 2008 and 2017. INTERVENTIONS: The authors retrospectively analyzed data from the first blood sample drawn during cannulation for VA-ECMO to understand the association of coagulation parameters with survival to hospital discharge, number of blood components transfused, anticoagulation therapy, serum lactate levels, no-flow time, and low-flow time. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Platelet count was 126 ± 79 × 109/L and in 17% of the population it was lower than 50 × 109/L, prothrombin time was 3.22 ± 4.01, activated partial thromboplastin time was 117 ± 78 seconds, fibrinogen was 186 ± 148 mg/dL, antithrombin was 47 ± 16%, and D-dimer was ≥2-fold the normal upper limit in 95% of patients. Fifty percent of patients had a disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) score ≥6 (52% among out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, 33% among in-hospital cardiac arrest), according to the criteria of the Japanese Society on Thrombosis and Hemostasis (2016). The median DIC score was 5.5 points (interquartile range 4-8), significantly different between survivors and nonsurvivors (4 [3-6] v 6 [4-8], p = 0.007). Every DIC score point contributed to the mortality risk (OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.09-1.67, p = 0.006). Patients with overt DIC less frequently received anticoagulants (28.6% v 55.9%, p = 0.002), started anticoagulant therapy later (12 [10-23] v 8.5 [5-12] hours, p = 0.045), and received a larger quantity of blood products (11 [4-23] v 3 [0-8.5] units, p < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: Coagulation derangements are frequent in patients with refractory cardiac arrest and have important consequences for eCPR management for anticoagulant therapy and blood product transfusion. The presence of DIC diagnostic criteria should be considered among the prognostic factors in this population of patients.

18.
Am J Kidney Dis ; 73(4): 504-512, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30660405

RESUMO

RATIONALE & OBJECTIVE: Studies of humans and animals have suggested that endogenous ouabain (EO) and related genes are mediators of acute (AKI) and chronic kidney injury. We sought to examine the relationship among EO levels, genetic variants in lanosterol synthase (LSS; an enzyme that catalyzes synthesis of cholesterol, a precursor of EO), and both AKI and chronic kidney injury. STUDY DESIGN: 2 prospective observational cohort studies and a cross-sectional study of kidney tissue. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: (1) A prospective cohort study of patients undergoing cardiovascular surgery, (2) measurement of EO concentration in kidney tissue removed because of an adjacent tumor, and (3) a prospective cohort study of patients with newly diagnosed essential hypertension. EXPOSURE: Missense variant in LSS (A instead of C allele at rs2254524), which leads to a valine to leucine substitution at amino acid 642. OUTCOMES: Development of postoperative AKI in the cardiovascular surgery cohort, EO concentration in kidney tissue, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) reductions in the essential hypertension cohort. ANALYTICAL APPROACH: Logistic regression for analysis of postoperative AKI, analysis of variance for EO concentration in kidney tissue, and generalized linear models for changes in eGFR over time. RESULTS: AKI incidence following cardiovascular surgery was greater among those with the LSS rs2254524 AA genotype (30.7%) than in those with the CC genotype (17.4%; P=0.001). LSS rs2254524 AA kidneys had higher EO concentrations than CC kidneys (2.14±0.29 vs 1.25±0.08ng/g; P<0.001). In the longitudinal study of patients with essential hypertension (median follow-up, 4 years; range, 1-15 years), eGFR decline was greater among the LSS rs2254524 AA genotype group (-4.39±1.18mL/min/1.73m2 per year) than in the AC or CC genotype groups (-1.07±0.55 and -2.00±0.45mL/min/1.73m2 per year respectively; P = 0.03). LIMITATIONS: These associations do not necessarily represent causal relationships; LSS rs2254524 variants may have effects on other steroid hormones. CONCLUSIONS: These findings support the potential value of LSS rs2254524 genotype-based risk stratification to identify patients at high risk for AKI before cardiovascular surgery, as well as predict accelerated eGFR in the setting of hypertension. These findings also suggest that LSS may in part drive EO-mediated kidney damage. EO may represent a new potential therapeutic target for the prevention of AKI and slowing of kidney damage in the setting of hypertension.

19.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 33(7): 1883-1889, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30581110

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Patients undergoing transapical cardiac procedure are a minority of cardiac surgery patients but represent a challenge for cardiac anesthesiologists because they generally are older and have more comorbidities than do open heart cardiac surgery patients. The aims of this study were to describe the anesthetic experience with transapical procedures in a single high-volume center and to analyze the most critical aspects for anesthetic management. DESIGN: Retrospective study. SETTING: IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy. PARTICIPANTS: All patients undergoing a cardiac transapical procedure from January 2009 to April 2018 were included in this case series. INTERVENTIONS: Patients were managed by a multidisciplinary heart team. The perioperative anesthetic approach and hemodynamic management were consistent and performed by a group of trained cardiac anesthesiologists. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The study population comprised 143 patients: 81 (57%) underwent an aortic valve procedure, 60 (42%) a mitral valve intervention, 1 patient underwent a procedure involving both the aortic and mitral valves, and 1 patient underwent correction of a congenital heart defect. A major intraoperative complication occurred in 5 (3.5%) patients, the procedure was not technically feasible because of unsuitable anatomy in 3 patients, and conversion to open heart surgery was needed in 2 patients. All patients were admitted to the intensive care unit. Intensive care unit stay was 1 (1-3) days, and hospital stay was 6 (5-8) days. Hospital survival was 94%. CONCLUSIONS: Patients undergoing transapical cardiac procedures are a minority of cardiac surgery patients, but represent a high-risk population. A patient-tailored anesthetic approach, in the context of the therapeutic strategy shared by the heart team, is crucial to improve outcomes.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30502311

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the beneficial effects of noninvasive ventilation in treating postoperative pulmonary complications in patients undergoing thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm (TAAA) open repair surgery. DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial. SETTING: University tertiary-care hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Forty patients who underwent elective TAAA open repair. INTERVENTIONS: Patients were randomized to the "noninvasive ventilation" group, receiving 2-hour cycles of noninvasive ventilation every 8 hours for at least 3 days in addition to the best available postoperative treatment currently in use at the authors' institution versus the "standard" group, not receiving noninvasive ventilation treatment MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The primary outcome of clinical worsening, described as a composite outcome of need for therapeutic noninvasive ventilation, need for mechanical ventilation owing to respiratory causes, need for intensive care unit admission owing to respiratory causes, and in-hospital mortality, occurred in 2 (11%) patients in the noninvasive ventilation group versus 12 (57%) in the standard group (p = 0.002; relative risk 0.18; 95% confidence interval 0.047-0.72). CONCLUSION: Noninvasive ventilation is a promising, affordable, and easy-to-use tool to prevent postoperative respiratory complications after TAAA open surgical repair.

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