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Molecules ; 23(5)2018 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29751658


Catenanes with desymmetrized ring components can undergo co-conformational rearrangements upon external stimulation and can form the basis for the development of molecular rotary motors. We describe the design, synthesis and properties of a [2]catenane consisting of a macrocycle-the 'track' ring-endowed with two distinct recognition sites (a bipyridinium and an ammonium) for a calix[6]arene-the 'shuttle' ring. By exploiting the ability of the calixarene to thread appropriate non-symmetric axles with directional selectivity, we assembled an oriented pseudorotaxane and converted it into the corresponding oriented catenane by intramolecular ring closing metathesis. Cyclic voltammetric experiments indicate that the calixarene wheel initially surrounds the bipyridinium site, moves away from it when it is reduced, and returns in the original position upon reoxidation. A comparison with appropriate model compounds shows that the presence of the ammonium station is necessary for the calixarene to leave the reduced bipyridinium site.

Calixarenos/química , Catenanos/química , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação Molecular , Catenanos/síntese química , Técnicas de Química Sintética , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Estrutura Molecular
Chemistry ; 24(47): 12370-12382, 2018 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29660175


Operating molecular machines are based on switchable systems whose components can be set in motion in a controllable fashion. The presence of nonsymmetrical elements is a mandatory requirement to obtain and demonstrate the unidirectionality of motion. Calixarene-based macrocycles have proved to be very efficient hosts in the design of oriented rotaxanes and of pseudorotaxanes with strict control over the direction of complexation. A series of two-station rotaxanes based on bipyridinium-ammonium axles was synthesized and characterized. A recently reported supramolecularly assisted strategy for the synthesis of different orientational isomers was exploited, and the ammonium unit was identified as a proper secondary station for the calixarene. Displacement of the macrocycle was triggered by electrochemical reduction of the bipyridinium primary station, and it was shown that the shuttling is influenced both by the length of the chain of the axle component and by the position of the secondary station with respect to the calixarene rims.

Org Biomol Chem ; 15(32): 6753-6763, 2017 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28766652


A substrate can modify its chemical features, including a change of its reactivity, as a consequence of non-covalent interactions upon inclusion within a molecular host. Since the rise of supramolecular chemistry, this phenomenon has stimulated the ingenuity of scientists to emulate the function of enzymes by designing supramolecular systems in which the energetics and selectivity of reactions can be manipulated through programmed host-guest interactions and/or steric confinement. In this paper we investigate how the engulfment of a positively charged pyridinium-based guest inside the π-rich cavity of a tris-(N-phenylureido)calix[6]arene host affects its reactivity towards a SN2 reaction. We found that the alkylation of complexed substrates leads to the formation of pseudorotaxanes and rotaxanes with faster kinetics and higher yields with respect to the standard procedures exploited so far. More importantly, the strategy described here expands the range of efficient synthetic routes for the formation of mechanically interlocked species with a strict control of the mutual orientation of their non-symmetric molecular components.

Chem Commun (Camb) ; 53(45): 6172-6174, 2017 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28530282


We describe the active template effect of a calix[6]arene host towards the alkylation of a complexed pyridylpyridinium guest. The acceleration of the reaction within the cavity is significant and rim-selective, enabling the efficient preparation of rotaxanes with full control of the mutual orientation of their nonsymmetric components.

ChemistryOpen ; 6(1): 64-72, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28168152


Tris-(N-phenylureido)-calix[6]arene derivatives are heteroditopic non-symmetric molecular hosts that can form pseudorotaxane complexes with 4,4'-bipyridinium-type guests. Owing to the unique structural features and recognition properties of the calix[6]arene wheel, these systems are of interest for the design and synthesis of novel molecular devices and machines. We envisaged that the incorporation of photoactive units in the calixarene skeleton could lead to the development of systems the working modes of which can be governed and monitored by means of light-activated processes. Here, we report on the synthesis, structural characterization, and spectroscopic, photophysical, and electrochemical investigation of two calix[6]arene wheels decorated with three naphthyl groups anchored to either the upper or lower rim of the phenylureido calixarene platform. We found that the naphthyl units interact mutually and with the calixarene skeleton in a different fashion in the two compounds, which thus exhibit a markedly distinct photophysical behavior. For both hosts, the inclusion of a 4,4'-bipyridinium guest activates energy- and/or electron-transfer processes that lead to non-trivial luminescence changes.