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Sci Rep ; 10(1): 15224, 2020 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32938969


The aerosol properties of Mount Etna's passive degassing plume and its short-term processes and radiative impact were studied in detail during the EPL-RADIO campaigns (summer 2016-2017), using a synergistic combination of observations and radiative transfer modelling. Summit observations show extremely high particulate matter concentrations. Using portable photometers, the first mapping of small-scale (within [Formula: see text] from the degassing craters) spatial variability of the average size and coarse-to-fine burden proportion of volcanic aerosols is obtained. A substantial variability of the plume properties is found at these spatial scales, revealing that processes (e.g. new particle formation and/or coarse aerosols sedimentation) are at play, which are not represented with current regional scale modelling and satellite observations. Statistically significant progressively smaller particles and decreasing coarse-to-fine particles burden proportion are found along plume dispersion. Vertical structures of typical passive degassing plumes are also obtained using observations from a fixed LiDAR station constrained with quasi-simultaneous photometric observations. These observations are used as input to radiative transfer calculations, to obtain the shortwave top of the atmosphere (TOA) and surface radiative effect of the plume. For a plume with an ultraviolet aerosol optical depth of 0.12-0.14, daily average radiative forcings of [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text], at TOA and surface, are found at a fixed location [Formula: see text] downwind the degassing craters. This is the first available estimation in the literature of the local radiative impact of a passive degassing volcanic plume.