Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 47
Filtrar
1.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol ; 160: 103288, 2021 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33675908

RESUMO

We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the association between somatic mutations of the TERT gene promoter and melanoma survival. Data from nineteen independent studies (>2,500 melanoma overall) were pooled using random effects meta-analysis models. TERT-mutated melanoma patients had a significantly worse overall survival (OS) (summary hazard ratio 1.43, 95 % confidence intervals (CI) 1.05-1.95) compared to wild-type ones. The association became stronger when combining risk estimates for overall and melanoma-specific survival (MSS) (1.52, 95 % CI 1.14-2.02), and when restricting the analysis to studies mostly based on invasive non-acral cutaneous melanomas (1.77, 95 % CI 1.00-3.15). Limited, yet suggestive evidence of a detrimental effect of TERT promoter mutations on melanoma prognosis emerged also for other survival measures (e.g. disease-free and distant metastasis-free survival). We found suggestive evidence of a detrimental effect of TERT mutations on melanoma patients' survival.

2.
Mol Carcinog ; 60(3): 167-171, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33444485

RESUMO

Germline variants of the melanocortin-1-receptor (MC1R) gene are the most common genetic trait predisposing to cutaneous melanoma (CM). Here, we performed a literature review and meta-analysis of the association between MC1R gene variants and the frequency of somatic mutations of the BRAF, NRAS, and TERT genes in CM patients. We included studies published until January 2020 in MEDLINE, EMBASE, Ovid Medline, and two grey literature databases. Random effect models were used to pool study-specific estimates into summary odds ratio (SOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Subgroup and sensitivity analyses were conducted to identify potential sources of heterogeneity and assess the robustness of pooled estimates. Twelve studies published between 2006 and 2018 (encompassing 3566 CM, mostly on nonacral sites) were included. MC1R gene variants were not significantly associated with the frequency of somatic mutations of the BRAF and NRAS genes. Only three studies focused on somatic mutations of the TERT gene promoter, all of which reported moderate-to-strong positive associations with MC1R germline variants. MC1R gene variants appear to make only moderate changes, if any, to the risk of BRAF- or NRAS-mutant CM. The association with TERT promoter mutations is suggestive, yet it warrants confirmation as it is based on a still limited number of studies.

3.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol ; 157: 103187, 2020 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33276181

RESUMO

We reviewed and meta-analysed the available evidence (until December 2019) about circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA) levels and melanoma patients survival. We included twenty-six studies (>2000 patients overall), which included mostly stage III-IV cutaneous melanoma patients and differed widely in terms of systemic therapy received and somatic mutations that were searched. Patients with detectable ctDNA before treatment had worse progression-free survival (PFS) (summary hazard ratio (SHR) 2.47, 95 % confidence intervals (CI) 1.85-3.29) and overall survival (OS) (SHR 2.98, 95 % CI 2.26-3.92), with no difference by tumour stage. ctDNA detectability during follow-up was associated with poorer PFS (SHR 4.27, 95 %CI 2.75-6.63) and OS (SHR 3.91, 95 %CI 1.97-7.78); in the latter case, the association was stronger (p = 0.01) for stage IV vs. III melanomas. Between-estimates heterogeneity was low for all pooled estimates. ctDNA is a strong prognostic biomarker for advanced-stage melanoma patients, robust across tumour (e.g. genomic profile) and patients (e.g. systemic therapy) characteristics.

4.
Melanoma Res ; 30(5): 500-510, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32898390

RESUMO

Little is known on whether melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) associated cutaneous melanoma (CM) risk varies depending on histological subtype and body site, and whether tumour thickness at diagnosis (the most important prognostic factor for CM patients) differs between MC1R variant carriers and wild-type individuals. We studied the association between MC1R variants and CM risk by histological subtype, body site, and Breslow thickness, using the database of the M-SKIP project. We pooled individual data from 15 case-control studies conducted during 2005-2015 in Europe and the USA. Study-specific, multi-adjusted odds ratios were pooled into summary odds ratios (SOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using random-effects models. Six thousand eight hundred ninety-one CM cases and 5555 controls were included. CM risk was increased among MC1R variant carriers vs. wild-type individuals. The increase in risk was comparable across histological subtypes (SOR for any variant vs. wild-type ranged between 1.57 and 1.70, always statistical significant) except acral lentiginous melanoma (ALM), for which no association emerged; and slightly greater on chronically (1.74, 95% CI 1.47-2.07) than intermittently (1.55, 95% CI 1.34-1.78) sun-exposed skin. CM risk was greater for those carrying 'R' vs. 'r' variants; correlated with the number of variants; and was more evident among individuals not showing the red hair colour phenotype. Breslow thickness was not associated with MC1R status. MC1R variants were associated with an increased risk of CM of any histological subtype (except ALM) and occurring on both chronically and intermittently sun-exposed skin.

5.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2020 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32785646

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aetiology of male breast cancer (MBC) is poorly understood. In particular, the extent to which the genetic basis of MBC differs from female breast cancer (FBC) is unknown. A previous genome-wide association study (GWAS) of MBC identified two predisposition loci for the disease, both of which were also associated with risk of FBC. METHODS: We performed genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping of European ancestry MBC case subjects and controls, in three stages. Associations between directly genotyped and imputed SNPs with MBC were assessed using fixed-effects meta-analysis of 1,380 cases and 3,620 controls. Replication genotyping of 810 cases and 1,026 controls was used to validate variants with P-values < 1 x 10-06. Genetic correlation with FBC was evaluated using LD score regression, by comprehensively examining the associations of published FBC risk loci with risk of MBC and by assessing associations between a FBC polygenic risk score (PRS) and MBC. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: The GWAS identified three novel MBC susceptibility loci that attained genome-wide significance (P < 5 x 10-08). Genetic correlation analysis revealed a strong shared genetic basis with estrogen-receptor (ER) positive FBC. Males in the top quintile of genetic risk had a four-fold increased risk of breast cancer relative to those in the bottom quintile (odds ratio = 3.86, 95% confidence interval = 3.07 to 4.87, P = 2.08 x 10-30). CONCLUSIONS: These findings advance our understanding of the genetic basis of MBC, providing support for an overlapping genetic aetiology with FBC and identifying a four-fold high risk group of susceptible men.

6.
Endocr Connect ; 8(8): 1224-1229, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31336362

RESUMO

Breast cancer in men is a rare and still poorly characterized disease. Inherited mutations in BRCA1, BRCA2 and PALB2 genes, as well as common polymorphisms, play a role in male breast cancer genetic predisposition. Male breast cancer is considered a hormone-dependent tumor specifically related to hyperestrogenism. Polymorphisms in genes involved in estrogen biosynthesis and metabolism pathways, such as CYP17A1 and CYP1B1, have been associated with breast cancer risk. Here, we aimed to investigate the role of CYP17A1 and CYP1B1 polymorphisms in male breast cancer risk. A series of 597 male breast cancer cases and 1022 male controls, recruited within the Italian Multicenter Study on male breast cancer, was genotyped for CYP17A1 rs743572, CYP1B1 rs1056836 and rs1800440 polymorphisms by allelic discrimination real-time PCR with TaqMan probes. Associations with male breast cancer risk were estimated using logistic regression. No statistically significant associations between male breast cancer risk and the three analyzed polymorphisms emerged. Similar results were obtained also when BRCA1/2 mutational status was considered. No significant differences in the distribution of the genotypes according to estrogen receptor status emerged. In conclusion, our study, based on a large series of male breast cancer cases, is likely to exclude a relevant role of CYP17A1 and CYP1B1 polymorphisms in male breast cancer predisposition. Overall, these results add new data to the increasing evidence that polymorphisms in these genes may not be associated with breast cancer risk.

7.
Int J Cancer ; 145(2): 390-400, 2019 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30613976

RESUMO

Breast cancer (BC) in men is rare and genetic predisposition is likely to play a relevant role in its etiology. Inherited mutations in BRCA1/2 account for about 13% of all cases and additional genes that may contribute to the missing heritability need to be investigated. In our study, a well-characterized series of 523 male BC (MBC) patients from the Italian multicenter study on MBC, enriched for non-BRCA1/2 MBC cases, was screened by a multigene custom panel of 50 cancer-associated genes. The main clinical-pathologic characteristics of MBC in pathogenic variant carriers and non-carriers were also compared. BRCA1/2 pathogenic variants were detected in twenty patients, thus, a total of 503 non-BRCA1/2 MBC patients were examined in our study. Twenty-seven of the non-BRCA1/2 MBC patients were carriers of germline pathogenic variants in other genes, including two APC p.Ile1307Lys variant carriers and one MUTYH biallelic variant carrier. PALB2 was the most frequently altered gene (1.2%) and PALB2 pathogenic variants were significantly associated with high risk of MBC. Non-BRCA1/2 pathogenic variant carriers were more likely to have personal (p = 0.0005) and family (p = 0.007) history of cancer. Results of our study support a central role of PALB2 in MBC susceptibility and show a low impact of CHEK2 on MBC predisposition in the Italian population. Overall, our data indicate that a multigene testing approach may benefit from appropriately selected patients with implications for clinical management and counseling of MBC patients and their family members.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama Masculina/genética , Quinase do Ponto de Checagem 2/genética , Proteína do Grupo de Complementação N da Anemia de Fanconi/genética , Mutação , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Proteína da Polipose Adenomatosa do Colo/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , DNA Glicosilases/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
8.
Front Oncol ; 8: 583, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30564557

RESUMO

Inherited mutations in BRCA1, and, mainly, BRCA2 genes are associated with increased risk of male breast cancer (MBC). Mutations in PALB2 and CHEK2 genes may also increase MBC risk. Overall, these genes are functionally linked to DNA repair pathways, highlighting the central role of genome maintenance in MBC genetic predisposition. MUTYH is a DNA repair gene whose biallelic germline variants cause MUTYH-associated polyposis (MAP) syndrome. Monoallelic MUTYH variants have been reported in families with both colorectal and breast cancer and there is some evidence on increased breast cancer risk in women with monoallelic variants. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether MUTYH germline variants may contribute to MBC susceptibility. To this aim, we screened the entire coding region of MUTYH in 503 BRCA1/2 mutation negative MBC cases by multigene panel analysis. Moreover, we genotyped selected variants, including p.Tyr179Cys, p.Gly396Asp, p.Arg245His, p.Gly264Trpfs*7, and p.Gln338His, in a total of 560 MBC cases and 1,540 male controls. Biallelic MUTYH pathogenic variants (p.Tyr179Cys/p.Arg241Trp) were identified in one MBC patient with phenotypic manifestation of adenomatous polyposis. Monoallelic pathogenic variants were identified in 14 (2.5%) MBC patients, in particular, p.Tyr179Cys was detected in seven cases, p.Gly396Asp in five cases, p.Arg245His and p.Gly264Trpfs*7 in one case each. The majority of MBC cases with MUTYH pathogenic variants had family history of cancer including breast, colorectal, and gastric cancers. In the case-control study, an association between the variant p.Tyr179Cys and increased MBC risk emerged by multivariate analysis [odds ratio (OR) = 4.54; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.17-17.58; p = 0.028]. Overall, our study suggests that MUTYH pathogenic variants may have a role in MBC and, in particular, the p.Tyr179Cys variant may be a low/moderate penetrance risk allele for MBC. Moreover, our results suggest that MBC may be part of the tumor spectrum associated with MAP syndrome, with implication in the clinical management of patients and their relatives. Large-scale collaborative studies are needed to validate these findings.

9.
Breast ; 40: 85-91, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29709729

RESUMO

AIM: Male breast cancer (MBC) is a rare disease and recommendations for its clinical management are often extrapolated from those for female breast cancer, even if breast cancer (BC) has different characteristics in the two sexes. The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of several individual characteristics including clinico-pathological, lifestyle and genetic factors on overall survival (OS) of a relatively large and well characterized population-based series of 166 MBCs enrolled in Tuscany. METHODS: We genotyped MBC cases at BRCA1/2 genes and at 9 candidate BC susceptibility SNPs. Kaplan-Meier method and multivariate Cox regression, adjusted for several individual characteristics were used. To reduce a possible selection bias related to the interval between diagnosis and enrolment of MBC cases into the study, we used the date of blood donation as the date of the start of observation for survival analysis. RESULTS: Only smoking habits had a significant effect on OS at 10 years (for current smokers, HR: 3.34; 95% CI 1.45-7.68; p = 0.004), while lymph node status fell short of reaching statistical significance (for pN positive, HR: 2.07; 95% CI 0.93-4.55; p = 0.07). In the same multivariate analysis we found a significantly higher OS in cases with FGFR2 rs2981582 variant in the dominant transmission model (HR: 0.29; 95% CI: 0.13-0.62; p = 0.028). A sensitivity analysis with left truncation showed similar results. CONCLUSIONS: Our results may contribute to shed light on factors influencing MBC survival suggesting an important role for cigarette smoking and FGFR2 rs2981582 variant, and provide clues for better patient management.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama Masculina/genética , Neoplasias da Mama Masculina/mortalidade , Fumar Cigarros/genética , Receptor Tipo 2 de Fator de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Genes BRCA1 , Genes BRCA2 , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Humanos , Itália , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Análise de Regressão , Adulto Jovem
10.
Oncotarget ; 9(28): 19783-19792, 2018 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29731982

RESUMO

Male breast cancer (MBC) is a rare disease. Due to its rarity, MBC research and clinical approach are mostly based upon data derived from female breast cancer (FBC). Increasing evidence indicate that on molecular level MBC may be an heterogeneous disease different from FBC. In order to investigate whether epigenetic signatures could define molecular subgroups of MBCs, we performed promoter methylation analysis of genes involved in signal transduction and hormone signalling in BRCA1/2 mutation-positive and -negative MBCs. We examined 69 MBCs, paired blood samples, and 15 normal tissues for promoter methylation of hTERT, ESR1, RASSF1, AR, MYC and WNT1 genes. MBCs showed higher gene promoter methylation levels compared to paired blood and normal breast samples. Significantly higher RASSF1 methylation levels were observed in association with BRCA1/2 mutations, HER2 expression and high tumor grade. Significantly higher AR methylation levels were observed in BRCA1/2 wild-type cases and higher WNT1 methylation levels in PR negative cases. Overall, our results indicate that alterations in gene methylation profiles are common in MBC and that methylation pattern of tumor-associated genes may allow for the identification of MBC molecular subgroups, that could have implications in clinical management of MBC patients.

11.
Breast ; 38: 92-97, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29287190

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Breast cancer (BC) in men is a rare disease, whose etiology appears to be associated with genetic factors. Inherited mutations in BRCA1/2 genes account for about 10-15% of all cases. FANCM, functionally linked to BRCA1/2, has been suggested as a novel BC susceptibility gene. Our aim was to test if FANCM germline mutations could further explain male BC (MBC) susceptibility. METHODS: We screened the entire coding region of FANCM in 286 MBCs by a multi-gene panel analysis, and compared these data with available whole exome sequencing data from 415 men used as population controls. Moreover, we genotyped the two most frequent FANCM mutations (c.5101C>T and c.5791C>T) in 506 MBCs and 854 healthy male controls. RESULTS: Two FANCM truncating mutations, the c.1432C>T (p.Arg478Ter) and c.1972C>T (p.Arg658Ter), were identified in two MBC cases (0.7%). When specifically considering cases at increased genetic risk for BC, FANCM mutation frequency raises up to 1%. One mutation, the c.2201_2202delCT (p.Ser734Terfs), was found among controls (0.24%). Mutation frequency in cases was higher than in controls, however this difference was not statistically significant. FANCM c.5101C>T was not present in any of the cases and controls analyzed, whereas FANCM c.5791C>T was found in two controls (0.23%). CONCLUSION: Rare FANCM truncating mutations, other than c.5101C>T and c.5791C>T, may have a role in MBC susceptibility. The inclusion of FANCM in gene panels for research purpose would allow for the identification of a higher number of mutation carriers, thus helping estimate BC risk associated with FANCM mutations.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama Masculina/genética , DNA Helicases/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Genótipo , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma , Adulto Jovem
12.
Alcohol Clin Exp Res ; 41(7): 1309-1318, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28425123

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alcohol use disorders (AUDs), including alcohol dependence and alcohol abuse defined according to specific DSM-IV and ICD-10 criteria, can be potentially lethal, because they are associated with several medical and psychiatric conditions. This study aimed to describe the causes of hospitalization of a large cohort of subjects with alcohol dependence (alcoholics) enrolled in Florence (Italy) over a 5-year follow-up period and to evaluate the effect of hospitalization on overall survival. METHODS: One thousand one hundred and thirty alcoholics, newly diagnosed from 1997 to 2001, were linked to the Regional Mortality Registry for update of vital status as of December 31, 2006, and to the Hospital Discharge electronic archives of the Regional Health System of Tuscany to verify hospital admissions (HAs) during the 5-year postcohort enrollment follow-up. Kaplan-Meier survival and Cox regression analyses were performed to evaluate any association of HA with overall survival. RESULTS: A total of 3,916 new hospitalizations occurred during the 5-year follow-up. Most alcoholics (70.6%) reported at least 1 new hospitalization, with a first hospitalization rate of 61.7 per 100 person-years in the first year of follow-up. The mean number of hospitalizations per admitted subject was 4.87 (SD 7.4), and mean length of hospital stay was 8.5 days (SD 11.3). The main causes of hospitalization were mental disorders and diseases of the digestive system, as well as accidents or violence. Among those alcoholics alive after 1 year of follow-up, a significantly increased risk of dying in the following years could be predicted by early hospitalization in the 12 months preceding (hazard ratio [HR] 1.73; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.15 to 2.60) or following (HR 3.59; 95% CI 2.31 to 5.61) enrollment in the cohort. CONCLUSIONS: Our results confirm the association of AUDs with several serious medical conditions. This fact may be responsible for a high impact on health resource utilization and high social costs. Early hospitalization significantly predicts vital status at 5 years.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo/mortalidade , Admissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Alcoolismo/terapia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Análise de Sobrevida
13.
J Clin Oncol ; 35(20): 2240-2250, 2017 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28448241

RESUMO

Purpose BRCA1/2 mutations increase the risk of breast and prostate cancer in men. Common genetic variants modify cancer risks for female carriers of BRCA1/2 mutations. We investigated-for the first time to our knowledge-associations of common genetic variants with breast and prostate cancer risks for male carriers of BRCA1/ 2 mutations and implications for cancer risk prediction. Materials and Methods We genotyped 1,802 male carriers of BRCA1/2 mutations from the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 by using the custom Illumina OncoArray. We investigated the combined effects of established breast and prostate cancer susceptibility variants on cancer risks for male carriers of BRCA1/2 mutations by constructing weighted polygenic risk scores (PRSs) using published effect estimates as weights. Results In male carriers of BRCA1/2 mutations, PRS that was based on 88 female breast cancer susceptibility variants was associated with breast cancer risk (odds ratio per standard deviation of PRS, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.19 to 1.56; P = 8.6 × 10-6). Similarly, PRS that was based on 103 prostate cancer susceptibility variants was associated with prostate cancer risk (odds ratio per SD of PRS, 1.56; 95% CI, 1.35 to 1.81; P = 3.2 × 10-9). Large differences in absolute cancer risks were observed at the extremes of the PRS distribution. For example, prostate cancer risk by age 80 years at the 5th and 95th percentiles of the PRS varies from 7% to 26% for carriers of BRCA1 mutations and from 19% to 61% for carriers of BRCA2 mutations, respectively. Conclusion PRSs may provide informative cancer risk stratification for male carriers of BRCA1/2 mutations that might enable these men and their physicians to make informed decisions on the type and timing of breast and prostate cancer risk management.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama Masculina/genética , Genes BRCA1 , Genes BRCA2 , Herança Multifatorial , Mutação , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Testes Genéticos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Medição de Risco/métodos
14.
Cancer ; 123(2): 210-218, 2017 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27648926

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Male breast cancer (MBC) is a rare disease whose etiology appears to be largely associated with genetic factors. BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations account for about 10% of all MBC cases. Thus, a fraction of MBC cases are expected to be due to genetic factors not yet identified. To further explain the genetic susceptibility for MBC, whole-exome sequencing (WES) and targeted gene sequencing were applied to high-risk, BRCA1/2 mutation-negative MBC cases. METHODS: Germ-line DNA of 1 male and 2 female BRCA1/2 mutation-negative breast cancer (BC) cases from a pedigree showing a first-degree family history of MBC was analyzed with WES. Targeted gene sequencing for the validation of WES results was performed for 48 high-risk, BRCA1/2 mutation-negative MBC cases from an Italian multicenter study of MBC. A case-control series of 433 BRCA1/2 mutation-negative MBC and female breast cancer (FBC) cases and 849 male and female controls was included in the study. RESULTS: WES in the family identified the partner and localizer of BRCA2 (PALB2) c.419delA truncating mutation carried by the proband, her father, and her paternal uncle (all affected with BC) and the N-acetyltransferase 1 (NAT1) c.97C>T nonsense mutation carried by the proband's maternal aunt. Targeted PALB2 sequencing detected the c.1984A>T nonsense mutation in 1 of the 48 BRCA1/2 mutation-negative MBC cases. NAT1 c.97C>T was not found in the case-control series. CONCLUSIONS: These results add strength to the evidence showing that PALB2 is involved in BC risk for both sexes and indicate that consideration should be given to clinical testing of PALB2 for BRCA1/2 mutation-negative families with multiple MBC and FBC cases. Cancer 2017;123:210-218. © 2016 American Cancer Society.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama Masculina/genética , Exoma/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Análise Mutacional de DNA/métodos , Proteína do Grupo de Complementação N da Anemia de Fanconi , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Mutação/genética , Linhagem
15.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 161(2): 311-320, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27832394

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Breast cancer (BC) is the most frequent cancer among women in developed countries. Physical activity (PA), body mass index (BMI), and alcohol intake have been identified as relevant lifestyle modifiable risk factors for post-menopausal BC. We aimed to evaluate the role of these factors in modulating post-menopausal BC risk and to estimate the proportion of BC cases attributable to low PA, high BMI, and alcohol taking into account non-modifiable factors. METHODS: In the Italian section of the EPIC study, 15,010 post-menopausal women were recruited and provided information about dietary and lifestyle habits including PA, smoking, reproductive history, and anthropometric measurements. During 14.8 years of median follow-up, 672 incident BC cases (607 invasive and 65 in situ) were identified. RESULTS: In multivariate models, inverse associations with BC risk emerged for increasing level of total (p trend 0.02), leisure time (p trend 0.04), and occupational (p trend 0.007) PA. High BMI (HR 1.21; 95% CI 1.02-1.43 and HR 1.33; 95% CI 1.06-1.65 for overweight and obesity, respectively) and alcohol consumption higher than 10 g/day (HR 1.30; 95% CI 1.09-1.54) were associated with BC risk. We estimated that 30% (95% CI 8-50%) of post-menopausal BC cases would be avoided through an increase of leisure time PA, a BMI below 25.0, and consuming no more than one drink/day. CONCLUSIONS: This large study carried out in Mediterranean women confirms the role of PA, BMI, and alcohol consumption in modulating post-menopausal BC risk and supports the potential benefits obtainable by modifying these lifestyle factors.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Hábitos , Estilo de Vida , Pós-Menopausa , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento Sedentário
16.
Oncotarget ; 7(45): 74097-74106, 2016 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27765917

RESUMO

Male breast cancer (MBC) is a rare disease. Due to its rarity, MBC research and clinical approach are mostly based upon data derived from its largely known female counterpart. We aimed at investigating whether MBC cases harbor somatic alterations of genes known as prognostic biomarkers and molecular therapeutic targets in female breast cancer.We examined 103 MBC cases, all characterized for germ-line BRCA1/2 mutations, for somatic alterations in PIK3CA, EGFR, ESR1 and CCND1 genes.Pathogenic mutations of PIK3CA were detected in 2% of MBCs. No pathogenic mutations were identified in ESR1 and EGFR. Gene copy number variations (CNVs) analysis showed amplification of PIK3CA in 8.1%, EGFR in 6.8% and CCND1 in 16% of MBCs, whereas deletion of ESR1 was detected in 15% of MBCs. Somatic mutations and gene amplification were found only in BRCA1/2 mutation negative MBCs.Significant associations emerged between EGFR amplification and large tumor size (T4), ER-negative and HER2-positive status, between CCND1 amplification and HER2-positive and MIB1-positive status, and between ESR1 deletion and ER-negative status.Our results show that amplification of targetable oncogenes is frequent in BRCA1/2 mutation negative MBCs and may identify MBC subsets characterized by aggressive phenotype that may benefit from potential targeted therapeutic approaches.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama Masculina/genética , Genes BRCA1 , Genes BRCA2 , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Sequência de Bases , Neoplasias da Mama Masculina/patologia , Classe I de Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/genética , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Oncogenes
17.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 160(1): 181-186, 2016 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27628328

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Male breast cancer (MBC) is a rare disease that shares some similarities with female breast cancer (FBC). Like FBC, genetic susceptibility to MBC can be referred to mutations in BRCA1 and, particularly, BRCA2 genes. However, only about 10 % of MBCs are caused by BRCA1/2 germ-line mutations, while the largest part are sporadic cancers and may derive from somatic alterations. EMSY, a BRCA2 inactivating gene, emerged as a candidate gene involved in the pathogenesis of sporadic FBC, and its amplification was suggested to be the somatic counterpart of BRCA2 mutations. Considering the relevant role of BRCA2 in MBC, we aimed at investigating the role of EMSY gene copy number variations in male breast tumors. METHODS: EMSY copy number variations were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR with TaqMan probes in a selected series of 75 MBCs, characterized for BRCA1/2 mutations. RESULTS: We reported EMSY amplification in 34.7 % of MBCs. A significant association emerged between EMSY amplification and BRCA1/2 mutations (p = 0.03). We identified two amplification subgroups characterized by low and high amplification levels, with BRCA2-related tumors mostly showing low EMSY amplification. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show a high frequency of EMSY amplification in MBC, thus pointing to a role of EMSY in the pathogenesis of this disease. EMSY amplification may be a new feature that might uncover underlying molecular pathways of MBCs and may allow for the identification of MBC subgroups with potential clinical implication for targeted therapeutic approaches.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama Masculina/genética , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Genes BRCA1 , Genes BRCA2 , Mutação , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Neoplasias da Mama Masculina/diagnóstico , Amplificação de Genes , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Masculino , Gradação de Tumores , Estadiamento de Neoplasias
18.
J Dermatol Sci ; 80(3): 168-74, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26341697

RESUMO

There is much evidence supporting the role of telomeres in cancer pathogenesis, however the studies that investigated the association between telomere length and skin cancer risk provided inconsistent results. To help clarify this issue, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of published papers on the association between peripheral leukocytes telomere length (PLTL) and the risk of cutaneous melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC). We calculated summary relative risks (SRR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) using random effect models with maximum likelihood estimates, and explored causes of between-studies heterogeneity of risk estimates. We included 1629 cutaneous melanoma and 1439 NMSC from eight independent studies published until March 2015. The SRR of cutaneous melanoma for those in the lowest (vs. highest) category of PLTL distribution was 0.25 (95% CI 0.09-0.67). The results were less clear for NMSC, with two studies reporting no association and one study showing an increase in risk for those in the lowest (vs. highest) category of PLTL distribution. For both cutaneous melanoma and NMSC, the between-studies heterogeneity was large, mainly due to inclusion of hospital-based case-control studies. Our meta-analysis shows evidence of an association between short PLTL and reduced risk for cutaneous melanoma.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Basocelular/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/genética , Melanoma/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética , Encurtamento do Telômero , Telômero/genética , Humanos , Leucócitos , Fatores de Risco
19.
Eur J Cancer ; 51(16): 2289-95, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26248686

RESUMO

Increasing evidence indicates that common genetic variants may contribute to the heritable risk of breast cancer (BC). In this study, we investigated whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), within the 8q24.21 multi-cancer susceptibility region and within BC-associated loci widespread in the genome, may influence the risk of BC in men, and whether they may be associated with specific clinical-pathologic characteristics of male BC (MBC). In the frame of the ongoing Italian Multicenter Study on MBC, we performed a case-control study on 386 MBC cases, including 50 BRCA1/2 mutation carriers, and 1105 healthy male controls, including 197 unaffected BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. All 1491 subjects were genotyped by Sequenom iPLEX technology for a total of 29 susceptibility SNPs. By logistic regression models, we found a significant association with MBC risk for five SNPs: rs1562430 (p=0.002) and rs445114 (p=0.026) both within the 8q24.21 region; rs1011970/9p21.3 (p=0.011), rs614367/11q13.3 (p=0.016) and rs1314913/14q24.1 (p<0.0001). Differences in the distribution of rs614367/11q13.3 genotypes according to oestrogen receptor (ER) status (p=0.006), and of rs1011970/9p21.3 genotypes according to human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) status (p=0.002) emerged. Association of rs1011970/9p21.3 risk genotype with HER2+MBC was confirmed by a multivariate analysis. rs1314913/14q24.1 was associated with increased MBC risk in analyses restricted to male BRCA1/2 mutation carriers (p=0.041). In conclusion, we provided the first evidence that the 8q24.21 region is associated with MBC risk. Furthermore, we showed that the SNPs rs1562430/8q24.21 and rs1314913/14q24.1 strongly influence BC risk in men and suggested that the SNP rs1314913/14q24.1 may act as a risk modifier locus in male BRCA1/2 mutation carriers.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias da Mama Masculina/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 11 , Cromossomos Humanos Par 14 , Cromossomos Humanos Par 8 , Cromossomos Humanos Par 9 , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama Masculina/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Frequência do Gene , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Heterozigoto , Homozigoto , Humanos , Itália , Modelos Lineares , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Mutação , Razão de Chances , Fenótipo , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Fatores de Risco
20.
J Cell Mol Med ; 17(5): 605-7, 2013 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23711090

RESUMO

SULT1A1, a member of sulfotransferase superfamily, is a drug and hormone metabolizing enzyme involved in the metabolism of a variety of potential mammary carcinogens of endogenous and exogenous origin. Interestingly, the metabolic activity of SULT1A1 can be affected by variations in gene copy number. Male Breast Cancer (MBC) is a rare disease and less investigated disease compared to female BC (FBC). As in FBC, the concurrent effects of genetic risk factors, particularly BRCA2 mutations, increased exposure to estrogens and environmental carcinogens play a relevant role in MBC. By quantitative real-time PCR with TaqMan probes, we investigated the presence of SULT1A1 gene copy number variations (CNVs) in a series of 72 MBCs. SULT1A1 gene deletion was observed in 10 of the 72 MBCs (13.9%). In a multivariate analysis association between BRCA2 mutation and SULT1A1 gene deletion emerged (p = 0.0005). Based on the evidence that the level of SULT1A1 enzyme activity is correlated with CNV, our data suggest that in male breast tumors SULT1A1 activity may be decreased. Thus, it can be hypothesized that in a proportion of MBCs, particularly in BRCA2-associated MBCs, the level of estrogens and environmental carcinogens exposure might be increased suggesting a link between gene and environmental exposure in the pathogenesis of MBC.


Assuntos
Arilsulfotransferase/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama Masculina/genética , Exposição Ambiental , Deleção de Genes , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Neoplasias da Mama Masculina/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...