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1.
J Card Fail ; 2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33038532

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prior analyses suggest an association between formula-based plasma volume (PV) estimates and outcomes in heart failure (HF). We assessed the association between estimated PV-status by the Duarte-ePV and Kaplan Hakim (KH-ePVS) formulas, and in-hospital and post-discharge clinical outcomes, in the ASCEND-HF trial. METHODS AND RESULTS: KH-ePVS and Duarte-ePV were calculated on admission. We assessed associations with in-hospital worsening HF, 30-day composite cardiovascular mortality or HF rehospitalization and 180-day all-cause mortality. 6,373 (89.2%), and 6,354 (89.0%), patients had necessary characteristics to calculate KH-ePVS and Duarte-ePV, respectively. There was no association between PV by either formula with in-hospital worsening HF. KH-ePVS showed a weak correlation with NT-proBNP, and with measures of decongestion such as body weight change and urine output (r<0.3 for all). Duarte-ePV was trending towards an association with worse 30-day (adjusted-OR 1.07, 95%CI 1.00-1.15, p=0.058), but not 180-day outcomes (adjusted-HR 1.03, 95%CI 0.97-1.09, p=0.289). Continuous KH-ePVS>0 (per 10 unit increase) was associated with improved 30-day outcomes (adjusted-OR 0.75, 95%CI 0.62-0.91, p=0.004). Continuous KH-ePVS was not associated with 180-day outcomes (adjusted-HR 1.05, 95%CI 0.98-1.12, p=0.139). CONCLUSIONS: Baseline PV estimates had a weak association with in-hospital measures of decongestion. Duarte-ePV, trended towards an association with early clinical outcomes in decompensated HF, and may improve risk stratification in HF.

2.
JACC Heart Fail ; 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33039448

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study compared ways of describing treatment effects. The objective was to better explain to clinicians and patients what they might expect from a given treatment, not only in terms of relative and absolute risk reduction, but also in projections of long-term survival. BACKGROUND: The restricted mean survival time (RMST) can be used to estimate of long-term survival, providing a complementary approach to more conventional metrics (e.g., absolute and relative risk), which may suggest greater benefits of therapy in high-risk patients compared with low-risk patients. METHODS: Relative and absolute risk, as well as the RMST, were calculated in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) trials. RESULTS: As examples, in the RALES trial (more severe HFrEF), the treatment effect metrics for spironolactone versus placebo on heart failure hospitalization and/or cardiovascular death were a hazard ratio (HR) of 0.67 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.5 to 0.77), number needed to treat = 9 (7 to 14), and age extension of event-free survival +1.1 years (-0.1 to + 2.3 years). The corresponding metrics for EMPHASIS-HF (eplerenone vs. placebo in less severe HFrEF) were 0.64 (0.54 to 0.75), 14 (1 to 22), and +2.9 (1.2 to 4.5). In patients in PARADIGM-HF aged younger than 65 years, the metrics for sacubitril/valsartan versus enalapril were 0.77 (95% CI: 0.68 to 0.88), 23 (15 to 44), and +1.7 (0.6 to 2.8) years; for those aged 65 years or older, the metrics were 0.83 (95% CI: 0.73 to 0.94), 29 (17 to 83), and +0.9 (0.2 to 1.6) years, which provided evidence of a greater potential life extension in younger patients. Similar observations were found for lower risk patients. CONCLUSIONS: RMST event-free (and overall) survival estimates provided a complementary means of evaluating the effect of therapy in relation to age and risk. They also provided a clinically useful metric that should be routinely reported and used to explain the potential long-term benefits of a given treatment, especially to younger and less symptomatic patients.

3.
Circulation ; 2020 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33081531

RESUMO

Background: Empagliflozin reduces the risk of cardiovascular death or hospitalization for heart failure in patients with heart failure and a reduced ejection fraction, with or without diabetes, but additional data are needed about the effect of the drug on inpatient and outpatient events that reflect worsening heart failure. Methods: We randomly assigned 3730 patients with class II-IV heart failure with an ejection fraction of ≤40% to double-blind treatment with placebo or empagliflozin (10 mg once daily), in addition to recommended treatments for heart failure, for a median of 16 months. We prospectively collected information on inpatient and outpatient events reflecting worsening heart failure and prespecified their analysis in individual and composite endpoints. Results: Empagliflozin reduced the combined risk of death, hospitalization for heart failure or an emergent/urgent heart failure visit requiring intravenous treatment (415 vs 519 patients; empagliflozin vs placebo, respectively; hazard ratio 0.76, 95% CI: 0.67-0.87), P <0.0001. This benefit reached statistical significance at 12 days after randomization. Empagliflozin reduced the total number of heart failure hospitalizations that required intensive care (hazard ratio 0.67, 95% CI 0.50-0.90, P=0.008) and that required a vasopressor or positive inotropic drug or mechanical or surgical intervention (hazard ratio 0.64, 95% CI: 0.47-0.87, P=0.005). As compared with placebo, fewer patients in the empagliflozin group reported intensification of diuretics (297 vs 414), hazard ratio 0.67, 95% CI: 0.56-0.78, P<0.0001. Additionally, patients assigned to empagliflozin were 20-40% more likely to experience an improvement in NYHA functional class and were 20-40% less likely to experience worsening of NYHA functional class, with statistically significant effects that were apparent 28 days after randomization and maintained during long-term follow-up. The risk of any inpatient or outpatient worsening heart failure event in the placebo group was high (48.1 per 100 patient-years of follow-up), and it was reduced by empagliflozin (hazard ratio 0.70, 95% CI: 0.63-0.78), P<0.0001. Conclusions: In patients with heart failure and a reduced ejection fraction, empagliflozin reduced the risk and total number of inpatient and outpatient worsening heart failure events, with benefits seen early after initiation of treatment and sustained for the duration of double-blind therapy. Clinical Trial Registration: URL: https://clinicaltrials.gov Unique Identifier: NCT03057977.

4.
Cardiovasc Res ; 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33002110

RESUMO

AIMS: Elderly patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) have worse prognosis and less often receive guideline-recommended therapies. We aim to better understand the underlying pathophysiological processes associated with aging in HFrEF potentially leading to targeted therapies in this vulnerable population. METHODS AND RESULTS: From a panel of 363 cardiovascular biomarkers available in 1,611 patients with HFrEF in the BIOSTAT-CHF index cohort and cross-validated in 823 patients in the BIOSTAT-CHF validation cohort, we tested which biomarkers were dysregulated in patients aged > 75yr versus <65yr. Secondly, pathway overrepresentation analyses were performed to identify biological pathways linked to higher plasma concentrations of biomarkers in elderly versus younger patients. After adjustment, multiple test correction (FDR 1%), and cross-validation, 27/363 biomarkers were associated with older age, 22 positively, and 5 negatively. The biomarkers that were positively associated with older age were associated with tumor cell regulation, extra-cellular matrix organization, and inflammatory processes, whereas biomarkers negatively associated with older age were associated with pathways that may point to cell proliferation and tumorigenesis. Among the 27 biomarkers, WFDC2 (WAP Four-Disulfide-Core-Domain-2) - that broadly functions as a protease inhibitor - was associated with older age and had the strongest association with all outcomes. No protein-by-sex interaction was observed. CONCLUSIONS: In elderly HFrEF patients, pathways associated with extra-cellular matrix organization, inflammatory processes, and tumor cell regulation were activated, while pathways associated with tumor proliferation functions were down-regulated. These findings may help in a better understanding of the aging processes in HFrEF and identify potential therapeutic targets. TRANSLATIONAL PERSPECTIVE: Elderly patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) have worse prognosis and less often receive guideline-recommended therapies. Using a large set of circulating proteins, elderly patients had higher concentrations of proteins associated with tumor cell regulation, extra-cellular matrix organization, and inflammatory processes, whereas pathways that may point to cell proliferation and tumorigenesis were down-regulated. WAP Four-Disulfide-Core-Domain-2 was associated with older age and had the strongest association with an increased risk of all outcomes. Understanding the underlying pathophysiological processes associated with aging in HFrEF may potentially lead to targeted therapies in this vulnerable population.

5.
Circulation ; 2020 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33095032

RESUMO

Background: In EMPEROR-Reduced, empagliflozin reduced cardiovascular death or HF hospitalization, total HF hospitalizations, and slowed the progressive decline in kidney function in patients with HF and a reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), with and without diabetes. We aim to study the effect of empagliflozin on cardiovascular and kidney outcomes across the spectrum of kidney function. Methods: In this pre-specified analysis, patients were categorized by the presence or absence of CKD at baseline (eGFR<60ml/min/1.73m2 or UACR>300mg/g). The primary and key secondary outcomes were (1) a composite of cardiovascular death or HF hospitalization (primary outcome); (2) total HF hospitalizations, and (3) eGFR slope. The direct impact on kidney events was investigated by a prespecified composite kidney outcome (defined as a sustained profound decline in eGFR, chronic dialysis or transplant). The median follow-up was 16 months. Results: 3730 patients were randomized to empagliflozin or placebo, of whom 1978 (53%) had CKD. Empagliflozin reduced the primary outcome and total HF hospitalizations in patients with and without CKD: primary outcome HR=0.78 (95%CI=0.65-0.93) and HR=0.72 (95%CI=0.58-0.90), respectively; interaction P=0.63. Empagliflozin slowed the slope of eGFR decline by 1.11 (0.23-1.98) ml/min/1.73m2/year in patients with CKD and by 2.41 (1.49-3.32) ml/min/1.73m2/year in patients without CKD. The risk of the composite kidney outcome was reduced similarly in patients with and without CKD: HR=0.53 (95%CI=0.31-0.91) and HR=0.46 (95%CI=0.22-0.99), respectively. The effect of empagliflozin on the primary composite outcome and the key secondary outcomes was consistent across a broad range of baseline kidney function, measured by clinically relevant eGFR subgroups or by albuminuria, including patients with eGFR as low as 20 ml/min/1.73m2. Empagliflozin was well tolerated in CKD patients. Conclusions: In EMPEROR-reduced, empagliflozin had a beneficial effect on the key efficacy outcomes and slowed the rate of kidney function decline in patients with and without CKD and regardless of the severity of kidney impairment at baseline. Clinical Trial Registration: URL: https://clinicaltrials.gov Unique Identifier: NCT03057977.

8.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2020 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32959502

RESUMO

AIMS: D-dimer is a marker of fibrin degradation that reflects intravascular coagulation. Therefore, plasma concentrations of D-dimer might predict thromboembolic risk and rivaroxaban treatment effect. The aims of this study were to investigate the association between D-dimer levels and the risk of stroke and other thrombotic, bleeding and fatal events, and whether D-dimer concentrations could predict rivaroxaban 2.5 mg twice daily (vs. placebo) effect in patients enrolled in the COMMANDER-HF trial who were in sinus rhythm, had heart failure with reduced ejection fraction and coronary artery disease. METHODS AND RESULTS: Survival models with treatment-by-plasma D-dimer interaction. Baseline measurement of D-dimer was available in 4107 (82%) of 5022 patients enrolled. Median (percentile25-75 ) follow-up was 21 (12.9-32.8) months. The median (percentile25-75 ) plasma concentration of D-dimer was 360 (215-665) ng/mL. The D-dimer tertiles were: (i) ≤255 ng/mL; (ii) 256-515 ng/mL; and (iii) >515 ng/mL. Patients within the tertile 3 were older, and had lower body mass index, blood pressure, haemoglobin, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and left ventricular ejection fraction. Higher plasma D-dimer concentrations were independently associated with higher rates of death, stroke, and venous thromboembolism. For example, the all-cause death adjusted hazard ratio (HR) (95%CI) of tertile 3 vs. tertile 1 was 1.77 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.48-2.11; P < 0.001]. The effect of rivaroxaban was similar in each tertile of D-dimer for all outcomes except stroke. Patients within the tertile 3 had the greatest absolute and relative stroke reduction (tertile 1: HR 1.16, 95% CI 0.49-2.74; tertile 2: HR 1.45, 95% CI 0.77-2.73; tertile 3: HR 0.36, 95% CI 0.18-0.70; P for interaction = 0.008). The number-needed-to-treat to prevent one stroke in tertile 3 was 36. CONCLUSIONS: In COMMANDER-HF, rivaroxaban reduced the risk of stroke but the benefit may be confined to patients with D-dimer concentrations above 515 ng/mL. Prospective trials are warranted to confirm these findings.

9.
Am J Med ; 2020 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32950502

RESUMO

The current Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has exerted an unprecedented impact across the globe. As a consequence of this overwhelming catastrophe, long-established prevailing medical and scientific paradigms have been disrupted. The response of the scientific community, medical journals, media, and some politicians has been far from ideal. The present manuscript discusses the failure of the scientific enterprise in its initiatives to address the COVID-19 outbreak as a consequence of the disarray attributable to haste and urgency. To enhance conveying our message, this manuscript is organized into 3 interrelated sections: 1) the accelerated pace of publications coupled with a dysfunctional review process; 2) failure of the clinical trial enterprise; 3) propagation of misleading information by the media. In response we propose a template comprising a focus on randomized controlled clinical trials, and an insistence on responsible journal publication, and enumeration of policies to deal with social media-propagated news. We conclude with a reconsideration of the appropriate role of academic medicine and journals.

10.
Cardiovasc Res ; 2020 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32960964

RESUMO

Many biomarkers that could be used to assess ejection fraction, heart failure, or myocardial infarction fail to translate into clinical practice because they lack essential performance characteristics or fail to meet regulatory standards for approval. Despite their potential, new technologies have added to the complexities of successful translation into clinical practice. Biomarker discovery and implementation requires a standardised approach that includes: identification of a clinical need; identification of a valid surrogate biomarker; stepwise assay refinement, demonstration of superiority over current standard-of-care; development and understanding of a clinical pathway; and demonstration of real-world performance. Successful biomarkers should improve efficacy or safety of treatment, while being practical at a realistic cost. Everyone involved in cardiovascular healthcare, including researchers, clinicians, and industry partners, are important stakeholders in facilitating the development and implementation of biomarkers. This paper provides suggestions for a development pathway for new biomarkers, discusses regulatory issues and challenges, and suggestions for accelerating the pathway to improve patient outcomes. Real life examples of successful biomarkers-high sensitivity cardiac troponin (hs-cTn), T2* cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging, and echocardiography-are used to illustrate the value of a standardised development pathway in the translation of concepts into routine clinical practice.

11.
Am Heart J ; 229: 40-51, 2020 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32916607

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The timing of enrolment following an acute coronary syndrome (ACS) may influence cardiovascular (CV) outcomes and potentially treatment effect in clinical trials. Understanding the timing and type of clinical events after an ACS will allow for clinicians to better tailor evidence-based treatments to optimize therapeutic effect. Using a large contemporary trial in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) post-ACS, we examined the impact of timing of enrolment on subsequent CV outcomes. METHODS: EXAMINE was a randomized trial of alogliptin versus placebo in 5,380 patients with T2DM and a recent ACS from October 2009 to March 2013. The primary outcome was a composite of CV death, nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI), or nonfatal stroke. The median follow-up was 18 months. In this post hoc analysis, we examined the occurrence of subsequent CV events by timing of enrollment divided by tertiles of time from ACS to randomization: 8-34, 35-56, and 57-141 days. RESULTS: Patients randomized early (compared to the latest times) had less comorbidities at baseline including a history of heart failure (HF; 24.7% vs 33.0%), prior coronary artery bypass graft (9.6% vs 15.9%), or atrial fibrillation (5.9% vs 9.4%). Despite the reduced comorbidity burden, the risk of the primary outcome was highest in patients randomized early compared to the latest time (adjusted hazard ratio 1.47; 95% CI 1.21-1.74). Similarly, patients randomized early had an increased risk of recurrent MI (adjusted hazard ratio 1.51; 95% CI 1.17-1.96) and HF hospitalization (1.49; 95% CI 1.05-2.10). CONCLUSIONS: In a contemporary cohort of T2DM with a recent ACS, the risk for recurrent CV events including MI and HF hospitalization is elevated early after an ACS. Given the emergence of antihyperglycemic therapies that reduce the risk of MI and HF among patients with T2DM at high CV risk, future studies evaluating the initiation of these therapies in the early period following an ACS are warranted given the large burden of potentially modifiable CV events.

12.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2020 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32985088

RESUMO

AIMS: The safety and efficacy of the novel selective cardiac myosin activator, omecamtiv mecarbil, in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) is tested in the Global Approach to Lowering Adverse Cardiac outcomes Through Improving Contractility in Heart Failure (GALACTIC-HF) trial. Here we describe the baseline characteristics of participants in GALACTIC-HF and how these compare with other contemporary trials. METHODS AND RESULTS: Adults with established HFrEF, New York Heart Association functional class (NYHA) ≥ II, EF ≤35%, elevated natriuretic peptides and either current hospitalization for HF or history of hospitalization/ emergency department visit for HF within a year were randomized to either placebo or omecamtiv mecarbil (pharmacokinetic-guided dosing: 25, 37.5 or 50 mg bid). 8256 patients [male (79%), non-white (22%), mean age 65 years] were enrolled with a mean EF 27%, ischemic etiology in 54%, NYHA II 53% and III/IV 47%, and median NT-proBNP 1971 pg/mL. HF therapies at baseline were among the most effectively employed in contemporary HF trials. GALACTIC-HF randomized patients representative of recent HF registries and trials with substantial numbers of patients also having characteristics understudied in previous trials including more from North America (n = 1386), enrolled as inpatients (n = 2084), systolic blood pressure < 100 mmHg (n = 1127), estimated glomerular filtration rate < 30 mL/min/1.73 m2 (n = 528), and treated with sacubitril-valsartan at baseline (n = 1594). CONCLUSIONS: GALACTIC-HF enrolled a well-treated, high-risk population from both inpatient and outpatient settings, which will provide a definitive evaluation of the efficacy and safety of this novel therapy, as well as informing its potential future implementation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

13.
Heart Fail Rev ; 2020 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32939666

RESUMO

Heart failure (HF) and cancer are of the most common diseases globally, both associated with significant adverse outcomes and greatly impaired quality of life. Despite those similarities, over the last 15 years, the United States (USA) and European authorities have approved only 5 and 3 new drugs for HF respectively, none using an accelerated process and none for patients with either acute HF (AHF) or with HF and preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). During the same period, more than 100 new drugs were approved for treatment of various cancers, several receiving accelerated approval. HF drugs in the last 15 years were mostly approved for reduction in mortality, whereas most approved cancer drugs addressed disease progression and surrogate markers. Consequently, the size of the trials in HF were far greater than those in oncology which was associated with lower probability of success. Given the larger study size and smaller probability of approval, pharma progressively reduces the necessary investments in new HF drugs. We suggest for HF drugs be developed, especially those used to treat patients with HFpEF and AHF, consideration of approval based beyond morbidity and mortality on improvements in symptoms and functional capacity and, like oncology, based on measures of disease progression and end organ damage. At the same time, HF drug development should adopt some approaches used in other diseases (such as oncology) focusing on better defining specific phenotypes and defining specific disease-related targets for new drugs.

14.
N Engl J Med ; 383(15): 1413-1424, 2020 10 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32865377

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors reduce the risk of hospitalization for heart failure in patients regardless of the presence or absence of diabetes. More evidence is needed regarding the effects of these drugs in patients across the broad spectrum of heart failure, including those with a markedly reduced ejection fraction. METHODS: In this double-blind trial, we randomly assigned 3730 patients with class II, III, or IV heart failure and an ejection fraction of 40% or less to receive empagliflozin (10 mg once daily) or placebo, in addition to recommended therapy. The primary outcome was a composite of cardiovascular death or hospitalization for worsening heart failure. RESULTS: During a median of 16 months, a primary outcome event occurred in 361 of 1863 patients (19.4%) in the empagliflozin group and in 462 of 1867 patients (24.7%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio for cardiovascular death or hospitalization for heart failure, 0.75; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.65 to 0.86; P<0.001). The effect of empagliflozin on the primary outcome was consistent in patients regardless of the presence or absence of diabetes. The total number of hospitalizations for heart failure was lower in the empagliflozin group than in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.58 to 0.85; P<0.001). The annual rate of decline in the estimated glomerular filtration rate was slower in the empagliflozin group than in the placebo group (-0.55 vs. -2.28 ml per minute per 1.73 m2 of body-surface area per year, P<0.001), and empagliflozin-treated patients had a lower risk of serious renal outcomes. Uncomplicated genital tract infection was reported more frequently with empagliflozin. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients receiving recommended therapy for heart failure, those in the empagliflozin group had a lower risk of cardiovascular death or hospitalization for heart failure than those in the placebo group, regardless of the presence or absence of diabetes. (Funded by Boehringer Ingelheim and Eli Lilly; EMPEROR-Reduced ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03057977.).


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/uso terapêutico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Glucosídeos/uso terapêutico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Compostos Benzidrílicos/efeitos adversos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Progressão da Doença , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular/efeitos dos fármacos , Glucosídeos/efeitos adversos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/complicações , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/efeitos adversos , Volume Sistólico
16.
Lancet ; 396(10254): 819-829, 2020 09 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32877652

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Both DAPA-HF (assessing dapagliflozin) and EMPEROR-Reduced (assessing empagliflozin) trials showed that sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibition reduced the combined risk of cardiovascular death or hospitalisation for heart failure in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) with or without diabetes. However, neither trial was powered to assess effects on cardiovascular death or all-cause death or to characterise effects in clinically important subgroups. Using study-level published data from DAPA-HF and patient-level data from EMPEROR-Reduced, we aimed to estimate the effect of SGLT2 inhibition on fatal and non-fatal heart failure events and renal outcomes in all randomly assigned patients with HFrEF and in relevant subgroups from DAPA-HF and EMPEROR-Reduced trials. METHODS: We did a prespecified meta-analysis of the two single large-scale trials assessing the effects of SGLT2 inhibitors on cardiovascular outcomes in patients with HFrEF with or without diabetes: DAPA-HF (assessing dapagliflozin) and EMPEROR-Reduced (assessing empagliflozin). The primary endpoint was time to all-cause death. Additionally, we assessed the effects of treatment in prespecified subgroups on the combined risk of cardiovascular death or hospitalisation for heart failure. These subgroups were based on type 2 diabetes status, age, sex, angiotensin receptor neprilysin inhibitor (ARNI) treatment, New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class, race, history of hospitalisation for heart failure, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), body-mass index, and region (post-hoc). We used hazard ratios (HRs) derived from Cox proportional hazard models for time-to-first event endpoints and Cochran's Q test for treatment interactions; the analysis of recurrent events was based on rate ratios derived from the Lin-Wei-Yang-Ying model. FINDINGS: Among 8474 patients combined from both trials, the estimated treatment effect was a 13% reduction in all-cause death (pooled HR 0·87, 95% CI 0·77-0·98; p=0·018) and 14% reduction in cardiovascular death (0·86, 0·76-0·98; p=0·027). SGLT2 inhibition was accompanied by a 26% relative reduction in the combined risk of cardiovascular death or first hospitalisation for heart failure (0·74, 0·68-0·82; p<0·0001), and by a 25% decrease in the composite of recurrent hospitalisations for heart failure or cardiovascular death (0·75, 0·68-0·84; p<0·0001). The risk of the composite renal endpoint was also reduced (0·62, 0·43-0·90; p=0·013). All tests for heterogeneity of effect size between trials were not significant. The pooled treatment effects showed consistent benefits for subgroups based on age, sex, diabetes, treatment with an ARNI and baseline eGFR, but suggested treatment-by-subgroup interactions for subgroups based on NYHA functional class and race. INTERPRETATION: The effects of empagliflozin and dapagliflozin on hospitalisations for heart failure were consistent in the two independent trials and suggest that these agents also improve renal outcomes and reduce all-cause and cardiovascular death in patients with HFrEF. FUNDING: Boehringer Ingelheim.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/efeitos adversos , Glucosídeos/efeitos adversos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/efeitos adversos , Volume Sistólico/efeitos dos fármacos , Idoso , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Compostos Benzidrílicos/uso terapêutico , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Causas de Morte/tendências , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Morte , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular/efeitos dos fármacos , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular/fisiologia , Glucosídeos/uso terapêutico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/classificação , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neprilisina/antagonistas & inibidores , Avaliação de Resultados da Assistência ao Paciente , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/uso terapêutico
17.
Theranostics ; 10(19): 8665-8676, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32754270

RESUMO

Rationale: To test whether novel biomarkers, such as microribonucleic acids (miRNAs), and nonstandard predictive models, such as decision tree learning, provide useful information for medical decision-making in patients on hemodialysis (HD). Methods: Samples from patients with end-stage renal disease receiving HD included in the AURORA trial were investigated (n=810). The study included two independent phases: phase I (matched cases and controls, n=410) and phase II (unmatched cases and controls, n=400). The composite endpoint was cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction or nonfatal stroke. miRNA quantification was performed using miRNA sequencing and RT-qPCR. The CART algorithm was used to construct regression tree models. A bagging-based procedure was used for validation. Results: In phase I, miRNA sequencing in a subset of samples (n=20) revealed miR-632 as a candidate (fold change=2.9). miR-632 was associated with the endpoint, even after adjusting for confounding factors (HR from 1.43 to 1.53). These findings were not reproduced in phase II. Regression tree models identified eight patient subgroups with specific risk patterns. miR-186-5p and miR-632 entered the tree by redefining two risk groups: patients older than 64 years and with hsCRP<0.827 mg/L and diabetic patients younger than 64 years. miRNAs improved the discrimination accuracy at the beginning of the follow-up (24 months) compared to the models without miRNAs (integrated AUC [iAUC]=0.71). Conclusions: The circulating miRNA profile complements conventional risk factors to identify specific cardiovascular risk patterns among patients receiving maintenance HD.

18.
Heart Fail Rev ; 2020 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32783110

RESUMO

Treatment of patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) with currently available therapies reduces morbidity and mortality. However, implementation of these therapies is a problem with only few patients achieving guideline-recommended maximal doses of therapy. In an effort to improve guideline adherence and uptitration, several trials have investigated a biomarker-guided strategy (using natriuretic peptide targets in specific), but although conceptually promising, these trials failed to show a consistent beneficial effect on outcomes. In this review, we discuss different methodological issues that may explain the failure of these trials and offer potential solutions. Moreover, alternative approaches to increase heart failure guideline adherence are evaluated.

19.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 76(5): 503-514, 2020 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32731928

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Myocardial fibrosis may contribute to the pathophysiology of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. Given the biochemical targets of sacubitril/valsartan, this study hypothesized that circulating biomarkers reflecting the mechanisms that determine extracellular matrix homeostasis are altered by sacubitril/valsartan compared with valsartan alone. OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the effects of sacubitril/valsartan on biomarkers of extracellular matrix homeostasis and the association between biomarkers and the primary endpoint (total heart failure hospitalizations and cardiovascular death). METHODS: N-terminal propeptide of collagen I and III, tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase 1, carboxyl-terminal telopeptide of collagen type I, and soluble ST2 were measured at baseline (n = 1,135) and 16 (n = 1,113) and 48 weeks (n = 1,016) after randomization. The effects of sacubitril/valsartan on these biomarkers were compared with those of valsartan alone. Baseline biomarker values and changes from baseline to 16 weeks were related to primary endpoint. RESULTS: At baseline, all 5 biomarkers were higher than published referent control values. Sixteen weeks after randomization, sacubitril/valsartan decreased tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase 1 by 8% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 6% to 10%; p < 0.001), soluble ST2 by 4% (95% CI: 1% to 7%; p = 0.002), and N-terminal propeptide of collagen III by 3% (95% CI: 0% to 6%; p = 0.04) and increased carboxyl-terminal telopeptide of collagen type I by 4% (95% CI: 1% to 8%; p = 0.02) compared with valsartan alone, consistently in men and women and patients with left ventricular ejection fraction above or below the median of 57%. Higher levels of tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase 1 and soluble ST2 at baseline and increases in these markers at 16 weeks were associated with higher primary endpoint event rates. CONCLUSIONS: Biomarkers reflecting extracellular matrix homeostasis are elevated in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction, favorably altered by sacubitril/valsartan, and have important prognostic value. (Prospective Comparison of ARNI With ARB Global Outcomes in HF With Preserved Ejection Fraction [PARAGON-HF]; NCT01920711).

20.
Clin Res Cardiol ; 2020 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32789678

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with diabetes who had a recent myocardial infarction (MI) are at high risk of cardiovascular events. Therefore, risk assessment is important for treatment and shared decisions. We used data from EXAMINE trial to investigate whether a multi-proteomic approach would provide specific proteomic signatures and also improve the prognostic capacity for determining the risk of cardiovascular death, MI, stroke, heart failure [HF], all-cause death, and combinations of these outcomes. METHODS: 93 circulating proteins (92 from the Olink® CVDII plus troponin) were assessed in 5131 patients. Cox, competing risks, and reclassification measures were applied. RESULTS: The clinical model showed good discrimination and calibration for all outcomes. On top of the clinical model that included age, sex, smoking, diabetes duration, history of MI (prior to the index MI of inclusion), history of HF hospitalization, history of stroke, atrial fibrillation, hypertension, systolic blood pressure, statin therapy, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and study treatment (alogliptin or placebo), troponin and BNP added prognostic information to the composite of cardiovascular death, MI, or stroke (∆C-index + 5%) and cardiovascular death alone (∆C-index + 7%). Troponin, BNP, and TRAILR2 added prognostic information on all-cause death and the composite of cardiovascular death or HF hospitalization. HF hospitalization alone was improved by adding BNP and Gal-9. For MI, troponin, FGF23, and AMBP added prognostic value; whereas for stroke, only troponin added prognostic value (multi-proteomics improved C-index > 3% [p < 0.001] for all the studied outcomes). The addition of the final biomarker selection to the clinical model improved event reclassification (cNRI from + 23% to + 64%). Specifically, the addition of the biomarkers allowed a better classification of patients at low risk (as having "true" low risk) and patients and high risk (as having "true" high risk). These results were consistent for all the studied outcomes with even more marked differences in the fatal events. CONCLUSIONS: The addition of multi-proteomic biomarkers to a clinical model in this population with diabetes and a recent MI allowed a better risk prediction and event reclassification, potentially helping for better risk assessment and targeted treatment decisions. T2D type 2 diabetes, MI myocardial infarction, CV cardiovascular, HFH heart failure hospitalization, Δ delta, cNRI continuous net reclassification index, BNP brain natriuretic peptide, TRAILR2 trail receptor 2 (or death receptor 5), Gal-9 galectin-9, FGF23 fibroblast growth factor 23.

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