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1.
Clin Cardiol ; 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31482613

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Trials using mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRAs) in myocardial infraction (MI) without heart failure (HF) or systolic impairment have been underpowered to assess morbidity-mortality benefit. In EPHESUS 6632 patients were included, of whom 11% had an ejection fraction (EF) of 40% and HF or diabetes. We aim to assess the potential benefit of MRAs in MI with EF of 40%. METHODS: Cox models with interaction term for EF. The primary outcome was a composite of cardiovascular death or hospitalization for cardiovascular reasons. HYPOTHESIS: Patients with an EF of 40% benefit similarly from MRA therapy to those with an EF <40%. RESULTS: In EPHESUS, 753 patients had an EF = 40% and 5864 an EF < 40%. Patients with an EF = 40% were younger (63 vs 64 years), had lower heart rate (73 vs 75 bpm), less atrial fibrillation (10% vs 14%), previous MI (21% vs 28%), HF hospitalization (5% vs 8%), and had more often reperfusion therapy and/or revascularization (55% vs 44%). The mean EF was 40.0 ± 0.3% in those with EF = 40% vs 32.2 ± 5.9% in those with EF < 40%. The primary outcome occurred in 13.3% (10 events per 100 py) of the patients with EF = 40% vs 22.9% (19 events per 100 py) in those with EF < 40%; adjusted HR for EF = 40% vs <40% = 0.65 (0.53-0.81). Eplerenone reduced the event-rate homogenously regardless of EF (interaction p EF = 40% vs EF < 40% = 0.21). Similar findings were observed for cardiovascular and all-cause death. CONCLUSION: Eplerenone reduces hospitalizations and mortality in patients with MI and EF = 40% similarly to patients with EF < 40%. These findings suggest that MI patients with EF in the "mid-range zone" may also benefit from MRA therapy which might help clinicians in their treatment decisions.

2.
N Engl J Med ; 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31475794

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The angiotensin receptor-neprilysin inhibitor sacubitril-valsartan led to a reduced risk of hospitalization for heart failure or death from cardiovascular causes among patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction. The effect of angiotensin receptor-neprilysin inhibition in patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction is unclear. METHODS: We randomly assigned 4822 patients with New York Heart Association (NYHA) class II to IV heart failure, ejection fraction of 45% or higher, elevated level of natriuretic peptides, and structural heart disease to receive sacubitril-valsartan (target dose, 97 mg of sacubitril with 103 mg of valsartan twice daily) or valsartan (target dose, 160 mg twice daily). The primary outcome was a composite of total hospitalizations for heart failure and death from cardiovascular causes. Primary outcome components, secondary outcomes (including NYHA class change, worsening renal function, and change in Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire [KCCQ] clinical summary score [scale, 0 to 100, with higher scores indicating fewer symptoms and physical limitations]), and safety were also assessed. RESULTS: There were 894 primary events in 526 patients in the sacubitril-valsartan group and 1009 primary events in 557 patients in the valsartan group (rate ratio, 0.87; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.75 to 1.01; P = 0.06). The incidence of death from cardiovascular causes was 8.5% in the sacubitril-valsartan group and 8.9% in the valsartan group (hazard ratio, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.79 to 1.16); there were 690 and 797 total hospitalizations for heart failure, respectively (rate ratio, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.72 to 1.00). NYHA class improved in 15.0% of the patients in the sacubitril-valsartan group and in 12.6% of those in the valsartan group (odds ratio, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.13 to 1.86); renal function worsened in 1.4% and 2.7%, respectively (hazard ratio, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.33 to 0.77). The mean change in the KCCQ clinical summary score at 8 months was 1.0 point (95% CI, 0.0 to 2.1) higher in the sacubitril-valsartan group. Patients in the sacubitril-valsartan group had a higher incidence of hypotension and angioedema and a lower incidence of hyperkalemia. Among 12 prespecified subgroups, there was suggestion of heterogeneity with possible benefit with sacubitril-valsartan in patients with lower ejection fraction and in women. CONCLUSIONS: Sacubitril-valsartan did not result in a significantly lower rate of total hospitalizations for heart failure and death from cardiovascular causes among patients with heart failure and an ejection fraction of 45% or higher. (Funded by Novartis; PARAGON-HF ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01920711.).

3.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2019 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31476097

RESUMO

AIMS: An implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) is recommended for reducing the risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD) in myocardial infarction (MI) patients with a left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≤ 30%, as well as patients with a LVEF ≤ 35% and heart failure symptoms. Diabetes and/or impaired kidney function may confer additional SCD risk. We assessed the association between these two risk factors with SCD and non-SCD among MI survivors taking account of age and LVEF. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 17 773 patients from the High-Risk MI Database were evaluated. Overall, diabetes and estimated glomerular filtration rate < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 , individually and together, conferred a higher risk of SCD [adjusted competing risk: hazard ratio (HR) 1.23, 1.23, and 1.32, respectively; all P < 0.03] and non-SCD (HR 1.34, 1.52, and 2.13, respectively; all P < 0.0001). Annual SCD rates in patients with LVEF > 35% and with diabetes, impaired kidney function, or both (2.0%, 2.5% and 2.7%, respectively) were comparable to rates observed in patients with LVEF 30-35% but no such risk factors (1.7%). However, these patients had also similarly higher non-SCD rates, such that the ratio of SCD to non-SCD was not increased. Importantly, this ratio was mostly dependent on age, with higher overall ratios in youngest subgroups (0.89 in patients < 55 years vs. 0.38 in patients ≥ 75 years), regardless of risk factors. CONCLUSION: Although MI survivors with LVEF > 35% with diabetes, impaired kidney function, or both are at increased risk of SCD, the risk of non-SCD risk is even higher, suggesting an extension of the current indication for an ICD to them is unlikely to be worthwhile. MI survivors with low LVEF and aged < 55 years are likely to have the greatest potential benefit from ICD implantation.

4.
Eur Heart J ; 2019 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31461239

RESUMO

Aims: Stroke is often a devastating event among patients with heart failure with reduced ejection (HFrEF). In COMMANDER HF, rivaroxaban 2.5 mg b.i.d. did not reduce the composite of first occurrence of death, stroke, or myocardial infarction compared with placebo in patients with HFrEF, coronary artery disease (CAD), and sinus rhythm. We now examine the incidence, timing, type, severity, and predictors of stroke or a transient ischaemic attack (TIA), and seek to establish the net clinical benefit of treatment with low-dose rivaroxaban. Methods and results: In this double-blind, randomized trial, 5022 patients who had HFrEF(≤40%), elevated natriuretic peptides, CAD, and who were in sinus rhythm were treated with rivaroxaban 2.5 mg b.i.d. or placebo in addition to antiplatelet therapy, after an episode of worsening HF. The primary neurological outcome for this post hoc analysis was time to first event of any stroke or TIA. Over a median follow-up of 20.5 (25th­75th percentiles 20.0­20.9) months, 150 all-cause stroke (127) or TIA (23) events occurred (ischaemic stroke in 82% and haemorrhagic stroke in 11% of stroke events). Overall, 47.5% of first-time strokes were either disabling (16.5%) or fatal (31%). Prior stroke, low body mass index, geographic region, and the CHA2DS2-VASc score were predictors of stroke/TIA. Rivaroxaban significantly reduced the primary neurological endpoint of all-cause stroke or TIA compared with placebo by 32% (1.29 events vs. 1.90 events per 100 patient-years), adjusted for the time from index HF event to randomization and stratified by geographic region (adjusted hazard ratio 0.68, 95% confidence interval 0.49­0.94), with a number needed to treat of 164 patients per year to prevent one stroke/TIA event. The principal safety endpoint of fatal bleeding or bleeding into a critical space, occurred at a similar rate on rivaroxaban and placebo (0.44 events vs. 0.55 events per 100 patient-years). Conclusion: Patients with HFrEF and CAD are at risk for stroke or TIA in the period following an episode of worsening heart failure in the absence of atrial fibrillation. Most strokes are of ischaemic origin and nearly half are either disabling or fatal. Rivaroxaban at a dose of 2.5 mg b.i.d. reduced rates of stroke or TIA compared with placebo in this population. Trial Registration: COMMANDER HF (A Study to Assess the Effectiveness and Safety of Rivaroxaban in Reducing the Risk of Death, Myocardial Infarction, or Stroke in Participants with Heart Failure and Coronary Artery Disease Following an Episode of Decompensated Heart Failure); ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01877915.

6.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2019 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31419004

RESUMO

With increasingly large sample sizes required to demonstrate event reduction, heart failure outcome trials are no longer being performed in a small group of selected patients and countries, but at a global scale with worldwide contribution of patients from countries with considerable differences in background therapy, socioeconomic status and healthcare practices. Recent studies have highlighted how socioeconomic determinants rather than geographical factors may underlie the heterogeneity of patient populations across the globe. Therefore, in this review, we evaluated (i) regional differences in patient characteristics and outcomes in recent epidemiologic studies; (ii) regional differences in worldwide representativeness of clinical trial populations; and (iii) the role of socioeconomic determinants in driving country differences in heart failure trial enrolment and clinical outcomes.

7.
Lancet ; 2019 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31447116

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Guideline-recommended doses of angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE) inhibitors or angiotensin-receptor blockers (ARBs), and ß blockers are similar for men and women with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), even though there are known sex differences in pharmacokinetics of these drugs. We hypothesised that there might be sex differences in the optimal dose of ACE inhibitors or ARBs and ß blockers in patients with HFrEF. METHODS: We did a post-hoc analysis of BIOSTAT-CHF, a prospective study in 11 European countries of patients with heart failure in whom initiation and up-titration of ACE inhibitors or ARBs and ß blockers was encouraged by protocol. We included only patients with left ventricular ejection fraction less than 40%, and excluded those who died within the first 3 months. Primary outcome was a composite of time to all-cause mortality or hospitalisation for heart failure. Findings were validated in ASIAN-HF, an independent cohort of 3539 men and 961 women with HFrEF. FINDINGS: Among 1308 men and 402 women with HFrEF from BIOSTAT-CHF, women were older (74 [12] years vs 70 [12] years, p<0·0001) and had lower bodyweights (72 [16] kg vs 85 [18] kg, p<0·0001) and heights (162 [7] cm vs 174 [8] cm, p<0·0001) than did men, although body-mass index did not differ significantly. A similar number of men and women reached guideline-recommended target doses of ACE inhibitors or ARBs (99 [25%] vs 304 [23%], p=0·61) and ß blockers (57 [14%] vs 168 [13%], p=0·54). In men, the lowest hazards of death or hospitalisation for heart failure occurred at 100% of the recommended dose of ACE inhibitors or ARBs and ß blockers, but women showed approximately 30% lower risk at only 50% of the recommended doses, with no further decrease in risk at higher dose levels. These sex differences were still present after adjusting for clinical covariates, including age and body surface area. In the ASIAN-HF registry, similar patterns were observed for both ACE inhibitors or ARBs and ß blockers, with women having approximately 30% lower risk at 50% of the recommended doses, with no further benefit at higher dose levels. INTERPRETATION: This study suggests that women with HFrEF might need lower doses of ACE inhibitors or ARBs and ß blockers than men, and brings into question what the true optimal medical therapy is for women versus men. FUNDING: European Commission.

8.
Am Heart J ; 215: 83-90, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31291604

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) after acute myocardial infarction (MI) increases risk of cardiovascular (CV) hospitalizations, but evidence regarding its association with non-CV outcome is scarce. We investigated the association between LVEF and adjudicated cause-specific hospitalizations following MI complicated with low LVEF or overt heart failure (HF). METHODS: In an individual patient data meta-analysis of 19,740 patients from 3 large randomized trials, Fine and Gray competing risk modeling was performed to study the association between LVEF and hospitalization types. RESULTS: The most common cause of hospitalization was non-CV (n = 2,368 for HF, n = 1,554 for MI, and n = 3,703 for non-CV). All types of hospitalizations significantly increased with decreasing LVEF. The absolute risk increase associated with LVEF ≪25% (vs LVEF ≫35%) was 15.5% (95% CI 13.4-17.5) for HF, 4.7% (95% CI 3.0-6.4) for MI, and 10.4% (95% CI 8.0-12.8) for non-CV hospitalization. On a relative scale, after adjusting for confounders, each 5-point decrease in LVEF was associated with an increased risk of HF (hazard ratio [HR] 1.15, 95% CI 1.12-1.18), MI (HR 1.06, 95% CI 1.03-1.10), and non-CV hospitalization (HR 1.03, 95% CI 1.01-1.05). CONCLUSIONS: In a high-risk population with complicated acute MI, the absolute risk increase in non-CV hospitalizations associated with LVEF ≪25% was two thirds of the absolute risk increase in HF hospitalizations and twice the absolute risk increase in MI hospitalizations. LVEF was an independent predictor of all types of hospitalization and appears as an integrative marker of sicker patient status.

9.
JACC Heart Fail ; 2019 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31302043

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to describe baseline health-related quality of life (HRQL) in the PARAGON-HF (Prospective Comparison of ARNI with ARB Global Outcomes in HFpEF) trial, the largest heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) trial to date. BACKGROUND: There are limited data characterizing HRQL in patients with HFpEF using validated metrics. METHODS: The PARAGON-HF trial randomized symptomatic patients with HFpEF (≥45%) ≥50 years of age to either sacubitril/valsartan or valsartan. The study reports comprehensive baseline HRQL using Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ) administered at randomization after active run-in period. The study then compares baseline HRQL with patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) (≤40%) enrolled in the PARADIGM-HF (Prospective Comparison of ARNI with an ACE-Inhibitor to Determine Impact on Global Mortality and Morbidity in Heart Failure) trial. Forward multivariable stepwise regression modeling was performed separately in both trials to identify independent clinical correlates of KCCQ-Overall Summary (KCCQ-OS) score. PARADIGM-HF trial patients <50 years of age were excluded to enable comparison. RESULTS: In the PARAGON-HF trial, 4,735 of 4,822 patients (mean age 73 ± 8 years; 48% men) completed baseline KCCQ at randomization. Mean KCCQ-OS score was 71. Women had worse mean KCCQ-OS score than men did. Patients in the PARAGON-HF trial reported lower KCCQ scores in nearly all domains when compared with the PARADIGM-HF trial (KCCQ-OS score 71 ± 19 vs. 73 ± 19; p < 0.001). The strongest independent clinical correlates of adverse HRQL in both the PARAGON-HF and PARADIGM-HF trials were New York Heart Association functional class, female gender, lower extremity edema, body mass index, angina, dyspnea, and paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea. After accounting for these clinical correlates of adverse HRQL that were common to both HFpEF and HFrEF patients, KCCQ-OS score did not differ significantly. CONCLUSIONS: HRQL was largely worse in women and was similar in HFpEF and HFrEF after accounting for variation in demographics, functional status, and symptom burden. Prospective Comparison of ARNI with ARB Global Outcomes in HFpEF [PARAGON-HF] NCT01920711; Prospective Comparison of ARNI with an ACE-Inhibitor to Determine Impact on Global Mortality and Morbidity in Heart Failure [PARADIGM-HF]; NCT01035255).

10.
Int J Cardiol ; 2019 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31281047

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Chest X-ray (CXR) widely used, but the prognostic value of congestion quantification using CXR remains uncertain. The main objective of the present study was to assess whether initial quantification of lung congestion evaluated by CXR [and its interplay with estimated plasma volume status (ePVS)] in patients with worsening heart failure (WHF) is associated with in-hospital and short-term clinical outcome. METHODS: We studied 117 patients hospitalized for WHF in the ICALOR HF disease management program. Pulmonary congestion was estimated using congestion score index (CSI, range 0 to 3) evaluated from 6 lung areas on CXR. Systemic congestion was assessed by ePVS. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess length of stay and the composite of all-cause death or HF re-hospitalization at 90 days. RESULTS: Patients were divided according to the median of admission CSI (median = 2.20) and ePVS (median = 5.38). Higher CSI was significantly associated with higher pulmonary arterial systolic pressure in multivariable models. Multivariable models showed patients with high CSI/high ePVS had a 6-day longer length of stay [OR (95% CI) = 6.78 (1.82-29.79), p < 0.01] and 5-fold higher risk of 90-day composite outcome [OR (95% CI) = 5.13 (1.26-25.11) p = 0.03] compared to patients with low CSI/low ePVS, while other configurations (either isolated high CSI or high ePVS) yielded neutral associations. Furthermore, CSI and ePVS significantly improved reclassification on top of clinical covariates for the composite outcome [Net reclassification index = 37.3% (0.52-87.0), p = 0.046]. CONCLUSION: An admission assessment of pulmonary and systemic congestion in WHF patients using CSI and ePVS can identify a cluster of high-risk patients at short-term outcomes.

11.
Clin Res Cardiol ; 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31263996

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In heart failure (HF), levels of NT-proBNP are influenced by the presence of concomitant atrial fibrillation (AF), making it difficult to distinguish between HF versus AF in patients with raised NT-proBNP. It is unknown whether levels of GDF-15 are also influenced by AF in patients with HF. In this study we compared the plasma levels of NT-proBNP versus GDF-15 in patients with HF in AF versus sinus rhythm (SR). METHODS: In a post hoc analysis of the index cohort of BIOSTAT-CHF (n = 2516), we studied patients with HF categorized into three groups: (1) AF at baseline (n = 733), (2) SR at baseline with a history of AF (n = 183), and (3) SR at baseline and no history of AF (n = 1025). The findings were validated in the validation cohort of BIOSTAT-CHF (n = 1738). RESULTS: Plasma NT-proBNP levels of patients who had AF at baseline were higher than those of patients in SR (both with and without a history of AF), even after multivariable adjustment (3417 [25th-75th percentile 1897-6486] versus 1788 [682-3870], adjusted p < 0.001, versus 2231 pg/mL [902-5270], adjusted p < 0.001). In contrast, after adjusting for clinical confounders, the levels of GDF-15 were comparable between the three groups (3179 [2062-5253] versus 2545 [1686-4337], adjusted p = 0.36, versus 2294 [1471-3855] pg/mL, adjusted p = 0.08). Similar patterns of both NT-proBNP and GDF-15 were found in the validation cohort. CONCLUSION: These data show that in patients with HF, NT-proBNP is significantly influenced by underlying AF at time of measurement and not by previous episodes of AF, whereas the levels of GDF-15 are not influenced by the presence of AF. Therefore, GDF-15 might have additive value combined with NT-proBNP in the assessment of patients with HF and concomitant AF.

13.
Circ Heart Fail ; 12(6): e005875, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31163986

RESUMO

Background In EMPA-REG OUTCOME (Empagliflozin Cardiovascular Outcome Event Trial in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients) empagliflozin significantly reduced the risk of cardiovascular and kidney outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and established cardiovascular disease. Post hoc, we evaluated empagliflozin on kidney outcomes in patients with or without heart failure (HF). Methods and Results Individuals were randomized to empagliflozin 10 mg, 25 mg, or placebo. Prespecified analyses by baseline HF status included risk of incident or worsening nephropathy and estimated glomerular filtration rate slope analyses. Cox proportional hazards models assessed consistency of treatment effect across subgroups. Safety evaluations included kidney-related adverse events. At baseline, 244 (10.5%) and 462 (9.9%) patients had HF in the placebo and empagliflozin groups, respectively. Overall, the incidence of kidney outcome events was numerically higher in patients with than without HF. In the HF group, empagliflozin reduced risk of incident or worsening nephropathy or cardiovascular death by 43% (hazard ratio, 0.57 [95% CI, 0.42-0.77]) and progression to macroalbuminuria by 50% (hazard ratio, 0.50 [0.33-0.75]). After an initial transient decrease, estimated glomerular filtration rate stabilized over time with empagliflozin but gradually declined with placebo. Kidney effects in patients with HF were consistent with those in the overall study population (all P values for interaction >0.05). Across groups, the incidence rate of kidney-related adverse events/100 patient-years was higher in patients with than without HF; however, overall rates were comparable between groups. Conclusions These findings from EMPA-REG OUTCOME support the hypothesis that empagliflozin could reduce the risk of clinically relevant kidney events and may slow progression of chronic kidney disease in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus regardless of HF status. Clinical Trial Registration URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov . Unique identifier: NCT01131676.

14.
Clin Res Cardiol ; 2019 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31250134

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: After myocardial infarction complicated by heart failure or diabetes, eplerenone (compared to placebo) significantly decreases amino-terminal propeptide of type III procollagen (PIIINP). Determining the subset of patients who are more prone to have a decrease in PIIINP and those who may respond better to the anti-fibrotic effects of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRA) therapy may be relevant for a personalized treatment approach. The aim of this study is to identify predictors of a PIIINP decrease and assess potential subgroups of "responders" to eplerenone. METHODS: Clinical factors and biomarkers were evaluated as predictors of a PIIINP decrease from randomization to month 9 in 323 patients from the biomarker substudy of Eplerenone Post-Acute Myocardial Infarction Heart Failure Efficacy and Survival Study (EPHESUS). Additionally, the association between PIIINP decrease and the composite of cardiovascular (CV) death or CV hospitalization were also explored. External validation was performed in the REMINDER trial. RESULTS: Female sex, eplerenone, reperfusion therapy, potassium < 4 mmol/L, circulating levels of PIIINP ≥ 3.6 ng/mL and PINP ≥ 27 ng/mL predicted a PIIINP decrease (AUC = 0.75). Randomization PIIINP showed a significant interaction with the treatment allocation: patients with PIIINP ≥ 3.6 ng/mL had a better response (decrease in PIIINP) to eplerenone (OR for PIIINP ≥ 3.6 = 2.9, 95% CI 1.46-5.89, p = 0.003) and OR for PIIINP < 3.6 = 1.09, 95% CI 0.55-2.2, p = 0.8; interactionp = 0.026). These findings were internally robust using another statistical approach (LOESS). External validation showed good discrimination (AUC = 0.70). There was a tendency toward a lower rate of CV death/CV hospitalizations in patients with decreased PIIINP (adjusted HR = 0.52, 95% CI 0.26-1.02, p = 0.058). CONCLUSION: In patients who had a myocardial infarction, clinical factors used in combination and treatment with eplerenone were associated with a PIIINP decrease. Interestingly, higher randomization PIIINP levels might help in identifying patients more prone to have an "anti-fibrotic response" when treated with MRAs. Predictors of an antifibrotic response after MI complicated by HF. Several clinical factors and biomarkers predicted a PIIINP decrease after an MI complicated by HF. There was a significant interaction between baseline PIIINP levels and eplerenone treatment: patients with baseline PIIINP ≥ 3.6 mmol/L treated with eplerenone had the best response (PIIINP decrease).

16.
Clin Res Cardiol ; 2019 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31062082

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hypertension, obesity and diabetes are major and potentially modifiable "risk factors" for cardiovascular diseases. Identification of biomarkers specific to these risk factors may help understanding the underlying pathophysiological pathways, and developing individual treatment. METHODS: The FIBRO-TARGETS (targeting cardiac fibrosis for heart failure treatment) consortium has merged data from 12 patient cohorts in 1 common database of > 12,000 patients. Three mutually exclusive main phenotypic groups were identified ("cases"): (1) "hypertensive"; (2) "obese"; and (3) "diabetic"; age-sex matched in a 1:2 proportion with "healthy controls" without any of these phenotypes. Proteomic associations were studied using a biostatistical method based on LASSO and confronted with machine-learning and complex network approaches. RESULTS: The case:control distribution by each cardiovascular phenotype was hypertension (50:100), obesity (50:98), and diabetes (36:72). Of the 86 studied proteins, 4 were found to be independently associated with hypertension: GDF-15, LEP, SORT-1 and FABP-2; 3 with obesity: CEACAM-8, LEP and PRELP; and 4 with diabetes: GDF-15, REN, CXCL-1 and SCF. GDF-15 (hypertension + diabetes) and LEP (hypertension + obesity) are shared by 2 different phenotypes. A machine-learning approach confirmed GDF-15, LEP and SORT-1 as discriminant biomarkers for the hypertension group, and LEP plus PRELP for the obesity group. Complex network analyses provided insight on the mechanisms underlying these disease phenotypes where fibrosis may play a central role. CONCLUSION: Patients with "mutually exclusive" phenotypes display distinct bioprofiles that might underpin different biological pathways, potentially leading to fibrosis. Plasma protein biomarkers and their association with mutually exclusive cardiovascular phenotypes: the FIBRO-TARGETS case-control analyses. Patients with "mutually exclusive" phenotypes (blue: obesity, hypertension and diabetes) display distinct protein bioprofiles (green: decreased expression; red: increased expression) that might underpin different biological pathways (orange arrow), potentially leading to fibrosis.

17.
J Am Soc Echocardiogr ; 32(7): 854-865.e8, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31104890

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Global longitudinal strain (GLS), derived from speckle-tracking echocardiography (STE), is a widely used and reproducible left ventricular deformation parameter; assessment of multilayer strain components has also become possible. However, its association with comorbidities/symptoms in low-risk populations without cardiac disease remains understudied. We report reference ranges for longitudinal deformation and their association with cardiovascular risk factors and dyspnea in a large population-based cohort. METHODS: We studied 1,243 subjects without cardiac disease (47 ± 14 years, 47.4% men; 13.8% with dyspnea) enrolled at the fourth visit of the STANISLAS Cohort (Lorraine, France). Clinical evaluation included a comprehensive dyspnea questionnaire. Multilayer GLS (full-wall, subendocardial, and subepicardial) and strain rate (systolic, early, and late diastolic) were evaluated by GLS STE acquisition and measurement protocols as per recommendations by the European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging, American Society of Echocardiography, and Industry Task Force. RESULTS: Full-wall GLS was 23.4% ± 2.7% (mean ± SD) with a subendocardial/subepicardial ratio of 1.2 ± 0.1. Age, gender, smoking status, and body mass index were significantly associated with strain variables, whereas diabetes, dyslipidemia, and hypertension/systolic blood pressure were not. Specifically, there were reductions in diastolic strain rate with aging but no differences in GLS. After propensity score matching, subjects with dyspnea had lower global endocardial strain (-23.48 ± 2.70 vs -23.02 ± 2.81; P = .043) and lower global subendocardial/subepicardial strain ratio (P = .034), whereas transmural strain and classical echocardiographic measurements were unrelated to dyspnea. CONCLUSIONS: Higher body mass index was found to be significantly associated with impaired strain variables in a low-risk population without cardiac disease. In addition, lower global endocardial strain and lower global subendocardial/subepicardial strain ratio were significantly associated with dyspnea contrary to other echocardiographic variables.

18.
Circ Heart Fail ; 12(5): e005897, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31104495

RESUMO

Background Identifying the mechanistic pathways potentially associated with incident heart failure (HF) may provide a basis for novel preventive strategies. Methods and Results To identify proteomic biomarkers and the potential underlying mechanistic pathways that may be associated with incident HF defined as the first hospitalization for HF, a nested-matched case-control design was used with cases (incident HF) and controls (without HF) selected from 3 cohorts (>20 000 individuals). Controls were matched on cohort, follow-up time, age, and sex. Two independent sample sets (a discovery set with 286 cases and 591 controls and a replication set with 276 cases and 280 controls) were used to discover and replicate the findings. Two hundred fifty-two circulating proteins in the plasma were studied. Adjusting for the matching variables age, sex, and follow-up time (and correcting for multiplicity of tests), 89 proteins were found to be associated with incident HF in the discovery phase, of which 38 were also associated with incident HF in the replication phase. These 38 proteins pointed to 4 main network clusters underlying incident HF: (1) inflammation and apoptosis, indicated by the expression of the TNF (tumor necrosis factor)-family members; (2) extracellular matrix remodeling, angiogenesis and growth, indicated by the expression of proteins associated with collagen metabolism, endothelial function, and vascular homeostasis; (3) blood pressure regulation, indicated by the expression of natriuretic peptides and proteins related to the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system; and (4) metabolism, associated with cholesterol and atherosclerosis. Conclusions Clusters of biomarkers associated with mechanistic pathways leading to HF were identified linking inflammation, apoptosis, vascular function, matrix remodeling, blood pressure control, and metabolism. These findings provide important insight on the pathophysiological mechanisms leading to HF. Clinical Trial Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov . Unique identifier: NCT02556450.

19.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 21(8): 965-973, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31087601

RESUMO

AIMS: Inflammation is a central process in the pathophysiology of heart failure (HF), but trials targeting tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α were largely unsuccessful. Interleukin (IL)-6 is an important inflammatory mediator and might constitute a potential pharmacologic target in HF. However, little is known regarding the association between IL-6 and clinical characteristics, outcomes and other inflammatory biomarkers in HF. We thus aimed to identify and characterize these associations. METHODS AND RESULTS: Interleukin-6 was measured in 2329 patients [89.4% with a left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≤ 40%] of the BIOSTAT-CHF cohort. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality and HF hospitalization during 2 years, with all-cause, cardiovascular (CV), and non-CV death as secondary outcomes. Approximately half (56%) of all included patients had plasma IL-6 values greater than the previously determined 95th percentile of normal values at baseline. Elevated N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide, procalcitonin and hepcidin, younger age, TNF-α/IL-1-related biomarkers, or having iron deficiency, atrial fibrillation and LVEF > 40% independently predicted elevated IL-6 levels. IL-6 independently predicted the primary outcome [HR (95% confidence interval) per doubling: 1.16 (1.11-1.21), P < 0.001], all-cause mortality [1.22 (1.16-1.29), P < 0.001] and CV as well as non-CV mortality [1.16 (1.09-1.24), P < 0.001; 1.31 (1.18-1.45), P < 0.001], but did not improve discrimination in previously published risk models. CONCLUSIONS: In a large, heterogeneous cohort of HF patients, elevated IL-6 levels were found in more than 50% of patients and were associated with iron deficiency, reduced LVEF, atrial fibrillation and poorer clinical outcomes. These findings warrant further investigation of IL-6 as a potential therapeutic target in specific HF subpopulations.

20.
Clin Res Cardiol ; 2019 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30953180

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI), BMI < 18.5 kg/m2 and a decrease in BMI during follow-up have been associated with poor prognosis. For BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2, an "obesity paradox" has been suggested. Recently, high visit-to-visit BMI variability has also been associated with poor prognosis in patients with coronary artery disease. AIMS: To simultaneously evaluate several BMI measurements and study their association with cardiovascular (CV) outcomes in a large cohort of patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI) and left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction, heart failure (HF) or both. METHODS: The high-risk MI dataset is pooled from four trials: CAPRICORN, EPHESUS, OPTIMAAL and VALIANT. Mean BMI, change from baseline, and variability were assessed during follow-up. The primary outcome was CV death. Cox-proportional hazard models were performed to study the association between the various BMI parameters and outcomes (median follow-up = 1.8 years). RESULTS: A total of 12,719 patients were included (72% male, mean age 65 ± 11 years). Mean, change and visit-to-visit variability in BMI had a non-linear association with CV death (P < 0.001). Mean BMI < 26 kg/m2 (vs. ≥ 26-35 kg/m2) and BMI decrease during follow-up were independently associated with CV death (adjusted HR 1.32, 95% CI 1.16-1.51, P < 0.001 and adjusted HR 1.57, 95% CI 1.40-1.76, P < 0.001, respectively). Low and high BMI variability (< 2% and > 4%) were associated with increased event-rates, but lost statistical significance in sensitivity analysis including patients with ≥ 5 measurements or excluding patients with HF hospitalization, suggesting that BMI variability may be particularly associated with HF hospitalizations. CONCLUSION: Mean BMI < 26 kg/m2 and a BMI decrease during follow-up were independently associated with CV death in patients with MI and LV systolic dysfunction, HF or both. These associations likely reflect poorer patient status and causality cannot be inferred.

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