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1.
Clin Cardiol ; 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34523741

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Isolated diastolic hypertension (IDH) is defined as diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ≥80 mmHg and systolic blood pressure (SBP) <130 mmHg according to 2017 ACC/AHA guidelines. The effective cardiovascular risk linked to IDH is debated. HYPOTHESIS: IDH might contribute marginally to hypertension-related target organ damage (TOD) development. METHODS: In this cross-sectional analysis 1605 subjects from the STANISLAS cohort, a large familiar longitudinal study from Eastern France, were included. Participants were categorized according to average values at 24-h ABP recording as having normal BP (SBP < 130/DBP < 80 mmHg); combined hypertension (SBP ≥130/DBP ≥80 mmHg or on antihypertensive treatment); IDH (SBP <130/DBP >80 mmHg); isolated systolic hypertension (ISH: SBP ≥130/DBP <80 mmHg). The association between hypertension status and TOD was assessed by multivariable-adjusted logistic models. RESULTS: Using normotension as reference, IDH was not significantly associated with NTproBNP levels (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.04 [95%CI 0.82;1.32], p = .750), microalbuminuria (OR 0.99 [0.69; 1.42], p = .960), diastolic dysfunction (OR 1.53 [0.88; 2.68], p = .130), left ventricular (LV) mass index (OR per 10 g/m2 increase 1.07 [0.95; 1.21], p = .250), LV longitudinal strain (global: OR 1.07 [0.99; 1.14], p = .054; subendocardial: OR 1.06 [0.99; 1.13], p = .087), carotid intima media thickness (OR 1.27 [0.79; 2.06], p = .320), reduced ankle-brachial index (<0.9; OR 1.59 [0.19; 13.55], p = .670) and pulse wave velocity (PWV; OR 1.07 [0.93; 1.23], p = .360). In contrast, combined hypertension and ISH were independently associated with LV mass index and PWV increase (all p ≤ .01). CONCLUSIONS: IDH was not significantly associated with TOD. Further studies are needed to clarify the clinical role of IDH. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT01391442.

2.
Diabetes Metab ; : 101281, 2021 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34543735

RESUMO

The natural history of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is still not fully elucidated. Patients with NAFLD have a low risk of liver complications, unless substantial liver fibrosis has developed. On the other hand, NAFLD has been linked with excess metabolic and cardiovascular complications. Therapies targeting common pathways may benefit both NAFLD and underlying cardiometabolic risk. Therefore, there is a rationale for considering cardiovascular endpoints in the context of NAFLD trials and, vice-versa, to consider the concomitant presence of NAFLD in drug development for cardiometabolic disorders. This manuscript provides a framework for consideration for future trials examining the inter-relationship between cardiovascular disease and NAFLD.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34538625

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to identify homogenous echocardiographic phenotypes in community-based cohorts and assess their association with outcomes. BACKGROUND: Asymptomatic cardiac dysfunction leads to a high risk of long-term cardiovascular morbidity and mortality; however, better echocardiographic classification of asymptomatic individuals remains a challenge. METHODS: Echocardiographic phenotypes were identified using K-means clustering in the first generation of the STANISLAS (Yearly non-invasive follow-up of Health status of Lorraine insured inhabitants) cohort (N = 827; mean age: 60 ± 5 years; men: 48%), and their associations with vascular function and circulating biomarkers were also assessed. These phenotypes were externally validated in the Malmö Preventive Project cohort (N = 1,394; mean age: 67 ± 6 years; men: 70%), and their associations with the composite of cardiovascular mortality (CVM) or heart failure hospitalization (HFH) were assessed as well. RESULTS: Three echocardiographic phenotypes were identified as "mostly normal (MN)" (n = 334), "diastolic changes (D)" (n = 323), and "diastolic changes with structural remodeling (D/S)" (n = 170). The D and D/S phenotypes had similar ages, body mass indices, cardiovascular risk factors, vascular impairments, and diastolic function changes. The D phenotype consisted mainly of women and featured increased levels of inflammatory biomarkers, whereas the D/S phenotype, consisted predominantly of men, displayed the highest values of left ventricular mass, volume, and remodeling biomarkers. The phenotypes were predicted based on a simple algorithm including e', left ventricular mass and volume (e'VM algorithm). In the Malmö cohort, subgroups derived from e'VM algorithm were significantly associated with a higher risk of CVM and HFH (adjusted HR in the D phenotype = 1.87; 95% CI: 1.04 to 3.37; adjusted HR in the D/S phenotype = 3.02; 95% CI: 1.71 to 5.34). CONCLUSIONS: Among asymptomatic, middle-aged individuals, echocardiographic data-driven classification based on the simple e'VM algorithm identified profiles with different long-term HF risk. (4th Visit at 17 Years of Cohort STANISLAS-Stanislas Ancillary Study ESCIF [STANISLASV4]; NCT01391442).

4.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 20(1): 187, 2021 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34521390

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) may experience frequent body weight changes over time. The prognostic impact of these weight changes (gains or losses) requires further study. AIMS: To study the associations between changes in body weight (intentional or unintentional) with subsequent outcomes. METHODS: The EXAMINE trial included 5380 patients with T2D and a recent acute coronary syndrome, who were randomized to alogliptin or placebo. Time-updated Cox models and mixed effects models were used to test the associations between changes in body weight and subsequent outcomes over a median follow-up of 1.6 (1.0-2.1) years. RESULTS: During the post-randomization follow-up period, 1044 patients (19.4%) experienced a weight loss ≥ 5% of baseline weight, 2677 (49.8%) had a stable weight, and 1659 (30.8%) had a ≥ 5 % weight gain. Patients with weight loss were more frequently women and had more co-morbid conditions. In contrast, patients who gained ≥ 5% weight were more frequently men with less co-morbid conditions. A weight loss ≥ 5% was independently associated with a higher risk of subsequent adverse outcomes, including all-cause mortality: adjusted HR (95% CI) = 1.79 (1.33-2.42), P < 0.001. Similar associations were found for cardiovascular mortality, the composite of cardiovascular mortality or heart failure hospitalization, and the primary outcome. A weight gain ≥ 5% was independently associated with an increase in the risk of subsequent cardiovascular mortality or heart failure hospitalization only: adjusted HR (95% CI) = 1.34 (1.02-1.76), P = 0.033. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with T2D who had a recent ACS/MI, a ≥ 5% loss of body weight was associated with a higher risk of subsequent cardiovascular events and mortality.

6.
J Card Fail ; 27(8): 888-895, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34364665

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the EMPA-REG OUTCOME trial, ejection fraction (EF) data were not collected. In the subpopulation with heart failure (HF), we applied a new predictive model for EF to determine the effects of empagliflozin in HF with predicted reduced (HFrEF) vs preserved (HFpEF) EF vs no HF. METHODS AND RESULTS: We applied a validated EF predictive model based on patient baseline characteristics and treatments to categorize patients with HF as being likely to have HF with mid-range EF (HFmrEF)/HFrEF (EF <50%) or HFpEF (EF ≥50%). Cox regression was used to assess the effect of empagliflozin vs placebo on cardiovascular death/HF hospitalization (HHF), cardiovascular and all-cause mortality, and HHF in patients with predicted HFpEF, HFmrEF/HFrEF and no HF. Of 7001 EMPA-REG OUTCOME patients with data available for this analysis, 6314 (90%) had no history of HF. Of the 687 with history of HF, 479 (69.7%) were predicted to have HFmrEF/HFrEF and 208 (30.3%) to have HFpEF. Empagliflozin's treatment effect was consistent in predicted HFpEF, HFmrEF/HFrEF and no-HF for each outcome (HR [95% CI] for the primary outcome 0.60 [0.31-1.17], 0.79 [0.51-1.23], and 0.63 [0.50-0.78], respectively; P interaction = 0.62). CONCLUSIONS: In EMPA-REG OUTCOME, one-third of the patients with HF had predicted HFpEF. The benefits of empagliflozin on HF and mortality outcomes were consistent in nonHF, predicted HFpEF and HFmrEF/HFrEF.

7.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 20(1): 163, 2021 08 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34372849

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) are at increased risk of developing heart failure (HF). The "Heart OMics in AGEing" (HOMAGE) trial suggested that spironolactone had beneficial effect on fibrosis and cardiac remodelling in an at risk population, potentially slowing the progression towards HF. We compared the proteomic profile of patients with and without diabetes among patients at risk for HF in the HOMAGE trial. METHODS: Protein biomarkers (n = 276) from the Olink®Proseek-Multiplex cardiovascular and inflammation panels were measured in plasma collected at baseline and 9 months (or last visit) from HOMAGE trial participants including 217 patients with, and 310 without, diabetes. RESULTS: Twenty-one biomarkers were increased and five decreased in patients with diabetes compared to non-diabetics at baseline. The markers clustered mainly within inflammatory and proteolytic pathways, with granulin as the key-hub, as revealed by knowledge-induced network and subsequent gene enrichment analysis. Treatment with spironolactone in diabetic patients did not lead to large changes in biomarkers. The effects of spironolactone on NTproBNP, fibrosis biomarkers and echocardiographic measures of diastolic function were similar in patients with and without diabetes (all interaction analyses p > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Amongst patients at risk for HF, those with diabetes have higher plasma concentrations of proteins involved in inflammation and proteolysis. Diabetes does not influence the effects of spironolactone on the proteomic profile, and spironolactone produced anti-fibrotic, anti-remodelling, blood pressure and natriuretic peptide lowering effects regardless of diabetes status.  Trial registration NCT02556450.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34427651

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The geographic representation of investigators and participants in heart failure (HF) randomized clinical trials (RCTs) may not reflect the global burden of disease. AIMS: We assessed the geographic diversity of RCT leaders and explored associations with geographic representation of enrolled participants among impactful HF RCTs. METHODS AND RESULTS: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CINAHL for HF RCTs published in journals with impact factor ≥10 between January 2000 and June 2020. We used the Jonckheere-Terpstra test to assess temporal trends and multivariable logistic regression models to explore associations between predictors and outcomes. There were 414 eligible RCTs. Only 80 of 828 trial leaders (9.7%; 95% CI: 7.8% to 11.8%), and 453 of 4656 collaborators (9.7%; 95% CI: 8.8% to 10.6%) were from outside Europe and North America, with no change in temporal trends and greater disparities in large RCTs. The adjusted odds of trial leadership outside Europe and North America were lower with industry funding (aOR: 0.33; 95% CI: 0.15 to 0.75; P = 0.008). Among 157,416 participants in whom geography was reported, only 14.5% (95% CI: 14.3% to 14.7%) were enrolled outside Europe and North America, but odds of enrolment were ten-fold greater with trial leadership outside Europe and North America (aOR: 10.0; 95% CI 5.6-19.0; P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Regions disproportionately burdened with HF are under-represented in HF trial leadership, collaboration, and enrolment. RCT leadership outside Europe and North America is independently associated with participant enrolment in under-represented regions. Increasing research capacity outside Europe and North America could enhance trial diversity and generalizability.

10.
Eur Heart J ; 2021 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34423361

RESUMO

AIMS: The aim of this study was to generate a biomarker-driven prognostic tool for patients with chronic HFrEF. Circulating levels of N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) each have a marked positive relationship with adverse outcomes in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). A risk model incorporating biomarkers and clinical variables has not been validated in contemporary heart failure (HF) trials. METHODS AND RESULTS: In EMPEROR-Reduced, 33 candidate variables were pre-selected. Multivariable Cox regression models were developed using stepwise selection for: (i) the primary composite outcome of HF hospitalization or cardiovascular death, (ii) all-cause death, and (iii) cardiovascular mortality. A total of 3730 patients were followed up for a median of 16 months, 823 (22%) patients had a primary outcome and 515 (14%) patients died, of whom 389 (10%) died from a cardiovascular cause. NT-proBNP and hs-cTnT were the dominant predictors of the primary outcome, and in addition, a shorter time since last HF hospitalization, longer time since HF diagnosis, lower systolic blood pressure, New York Heart Association (NYHA) Class III or IV, higher heart rate and peripheral oedema were key predictors (eight variables in total, all P < 0.001). The primary outcome risk score discriminated well (c-statistic = 0.73), with patients in the top 10th of risk having an event rate >9 times higher than those in the bottom 10th. Empagliflozin benefitted patients across risk levels for the primary outcome. NT-proBNP and hs-cTnT were also the dominant predictors of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality, followed by NYHA Class III or IV and ischaemic aetiology (four variables in total, all P < 0.001). The mortality risk model presented good event discrimination for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality (c-statistic = 0.69 for both). These simple models were externally validated in the BIOSTAT-CHF study, achieving similar c-statistics. CONCLUSIONS: The combination of NT-proBNP and hs-cTnT with a small number of readily available clinical variables provides prognostic assessment for patients with HFrEF. This predictive tool kit can be easily implemented for routine clinical use.

12.
N Engl J Med ; 2021 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34449189

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors reduce the risk of hospitalization for heart failure in patients with heart failure and a reduced ejection fraction, but their effects in patients with heart failure and a preserved ejection fraction are uncertain. METHODS: In this double-blind trial, we randomly assigned 5988 patients with class II-IV heart failure and an ejection fraction of more than 40% to receive empagliflozin (10 mg once daily) or placebo, in addition to usual therapy. The primary outcome was a composite of cardiovascular death or hospitalization for heart failure. RESULTS: Over a median of 26.2 months, a primary outcome event occurred in 415 of 2997 patients (13.8%) in the empagliflozin group and in 511 of 2991 patients (17.1%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.79; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.69 to 0.90; P<0.001). This effect was mainly related to a lower risk of hospitalization for heart failure in the empagliflozin group. The effects of empagliflozin appeared consistent in patients with or without diabetes. The total number of hospitalizations for heart failure was lower in the empagliflozin group than in the placebo group (407 with empagliflozin and 541 with placebo; hazard ratio, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.61 to 0.88; P<0.001). Uncomplicated genital and urinary tract infections and hypotension were reported more frequently with empagliflozin. CONCLUSIONS: Empagliflozin reduced the combined risk of cardiovascular death or hospitalization for heart failure in patients with heart failure and a preserved ejection fraction, regardless of the presence or absence of diabetes. (Funded by Boehringer Ingelheim and Eli Lilly; EMPEROR-Preserved ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03057951).

15.
Circulation ; 2021 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34459213

RESUMO

Background: Empagliflozin reduces the risk of cardiovascular death or hospitalization for heart failure in patients with heart failure and a preserved ejection fraction, but additional data are needed about its effect on inpatient and outpatient heart failure events. Methods: We randomly assigned 5988 patients with class II-IV heart failure with an ejection fraction of >40% to double-blind treatment with placebo or empagliflozin (10 mg once daily), in addition to usual therapy, for a median of 26 months. We prospectively collected information on inpatient and outpatient events reflecting worsening heart failure and prespecified their analysis in individual and composite endpoints. Results: Empagliflozin reduced the combined risk of cardiovascular death, hospitalization for heart failure or an emergent/urgent heart failure visit requiring intravenous treatment (432 vs 546 patients; empagliflozin vs placebo, respectively; hazard ratio 0.77, 95% CI: 0.67-0.87), P <0.0001. This benefit reached statistical significance at 18 days after randomization. Empagliflozin reduced the total number of heart failure hospitalizations that required intensive care (hazard ratio 0.71, 95% CI 0.52-0.96, P=0.028) and the total number of all hospitalizations that required a vasopressor or positive inotropic drug (hazard ratio 0.73, 95% CI: 0.55-0.97,P=0.033). As compared with placebo, fewer patients in the empagliflozin group reported outpatient intensification of diuretics (482 vs 610, hazard ratio 0.76, 95% CI: 0.67-0.86, P<0.0001), and patients assigned to empagliflozin were 20-50% more likely to have a better NYHA functional class, with significant effects at 12 weeks that were maintained for at least 2 years. The benefit on total heart failure hospitalizations was similar in patients with an ejection fraction of >40-<50% and 50-<60%, but was attenuated at higher ejection fractions. Conclusions: In patients with heart failure and a preserved ejection fraction, empagliflozin produced a meaningful, early and sustained reduction in the risk and severity of a broad range of inpatient and outpatient worsening heart failure events. Clinical Trial Registration: The registration identifier at ClinicalTrials.gov is NCT03057977.

16.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 23(9): 1488-1498, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34302417

RESUMO

AIMS: We assessed the effect of transitional care on patient-reported outcomes (PROs) in women and men hospitalized for heart failure. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this sex-specific analysis of a stepped wedge cluster randomized trial in Canada, the effect of a patient-centered transitional care model was tested on pre-specified PROs of discharge preparedness (B-PREPARED score, range 0-22), quality of transition [Care Transitions Measure-3 (CTM-3) score, range 0-100], and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) (EQ-5D-5L, range 0-1). Among 986 patients (47.4% women), B-PREPARED at 6 weeks was greater with the intervention than usual care [mean difference (MD) 4.01 (95% confidence interval-CI 2.90-5.12); P < 0.001], with no sex differences (P sex-interaction = 0.24). CTM-3 at 6 weeks was greater with the intervention than usual care [MD 10.52 (95% CI 6.00-15.04); P < 0.001], with no sex differences (P sex-interaction = 0.69). EQ-5D-5L was greater with intervention than usual care at discharge [MD 0.17 (95% CI 0.12-0.22); P < 0.001], 6 weeks [MD 0.06 (95% CI 0.01-0.12); P = 0.02], and 6 months [MD 0.05 (95% CI -0.01 to 0.12); P = 0.09], although the 6-month difference was not statistically significant. At discharge, women reported lower EQ-5D-5L but experienced significantly greater treatment benefit than men (P sex-interaction = 0.02). Treatment effect on EQ-5D-5L was numerically greater in women than men at 6 weeks and 6 months, but there were no significant sex differences (P sex-interaction 0.18 and 0.19, respectively). CONCLUSION: A patient-centered transitional care model improved discharge preparedness, transition quality, and HRQOL in the weeks following heart failure hospitalization, with effects largely consistent in women and men. However, women reported lower HRQOL and experienced greater treatment benefit in this endpoint than men at hospital discharge. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02112227.

17.
JACC Heart Fail ; 9(9): 627-635, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34246603

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study examined the relationship among high-sensitivity troponin-T (hs-TnT), outcomes, and treatment with sacubitril/valsartan in patients with heart failure (HF) and preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). BACKGROUND: hs-TnT is a marker of myocardial injury in HF. METHODS: The PARAGON-HF trial randomized 4,796 patients with HFpEF to sacubitril/valsartan or valsartan. We compared the risk of the composite outcome of cardiovascular death (CVD) and total HF hospitalization (HHF) according to hs-TnT. We also assessed the effect of allocated treatment on hs-TnT. RESULTS: hs-TnT was available in 1,141 patients (24%) at run-in (median value: 17 ng/L) and 1,260 (26%) at randomization, with 58.3% having hs-TnT >14 ng/L (upper limit of normal). During a median follow-up of 34 months, there were 393 outcome events (82 CVD, 311 HHF). Adjusting for demographics, comorbidities, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), and N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), log-hs-TnT at randomization was an independent predictor of the composite outcome (HR: 1.38; 95% CI: 1.19-1.59; P < 0.001). Compared with valsartan, sacubitril/valsartan significantly reduced hs-TnT by 9% at week 16 (P < 0.001). Patients whose hs-TnT decreased from randomization to 16 weeks to at or below the median value of 17 ng/L subsequently had a lower risk of CVD/HHF compared with those with persistently elevated hs-TnT (P = 0.046). Patients with higher baseline hs-TnT (>17 ng/L) appeared to have a greater benefit from sacubitril/valsartan treatment when accounting for other potential effect modifiers (P interaction = 0.07). CONCLUSIONS: Higher baseline hs-TnT was associated with increased risk of CVD/HHF, whereas hs-TnT decrease at 16 weeks led to lower subsequent risk of CVD/HHF compared with those who had persistently elevated values. Sacubitril/valsartan significantly reduced hs-TnT compared with valsartan. hs-TnT may be helpful in identifying patients with HFpEF who are more likely to benefit from sacubitril/valsartan.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34326100

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) have an increased risk of worsening kidney function (WKF) over time compared with patients without diabetes. Data evaluating the inter-relation between WKF, cardiovascular risk, and clinical events are scarce. We aim to study the association of WKF with subsequent cardiovascular events and the probabilities of transition from WKF to hospitalization or death according to patients' risk. We have used a large population of patients with T2D and a high cardiovascular risk enrolled in the Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes Study. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Time-updated, joint, and multistate modeling were used. WKF was defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) decline greater than 40% from baseline. A total of 10 251 patients were included, of whom 1213 (11.8%) presented WKF over a median (percentile25-75) follow-up time of 5.0 (4.1-5.7) years. RESULTS: Patients who experienced WKF were slightly older, more frequently women, and had longer diabetes duration. Patients experiencing WKF, regardless of baseline kidney function, had a higher risk of subsequent cardiovascular events, including the composite of cardiovascular death or hospitalization for heart failure (HHF), with ≈2-fold higher risk. Joint modeling showed that renal function deterioration frequently occurs even among patients who did not experience a cardiovascular event. In multistate models, patients with a medium-high cardiovascular risk (compared with those with a low cardiovascular risk) are at higher risk of HHF or cardiovascular death first (HR=4.76, 95% CI 3.63 to 6.23) than of WKF first (HR=1.37, 95% CI 1.21 to 1.56); remarkably, the risk of cardiovascular death or HHF is highest after a WKF event (HR=6.20, 95% CI 2.71 to 14.8). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with T2D and a high cardiovascular risk, WKF occurs in more than 10% of patients and is independently associated with risk of subsequent cardiovascular events, irrespective of baseline eGFR. Preventing serious WKF and the transition from WKF to HHF or cardiovascular death is an important objective of future trials. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT00000620.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Humanos , Rim , Fatores de Risco
19.
Eur Heart J ; 42(24): 2373-2383, 2021 06 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34076243

RESUMO

Globally, there has been little change in mortality rates from cardiovascular (CV) diseases or cancers over the past two decades (1997-2018). This is especially true for heart failure (HF) where 5-year mortality rates remain as high as 45-55%. In the same timeframe, the proportion of drug revenue, and regulatory drug approvals for cancer drugs, far out paces those for CV drugs. In 2018, while cancer drugs made 27% of Food and Drug Administration drug approvals, only 1% of drug approvals was for a CV drug, and over this entire 20 year span, only four drugs were approved for HF in the USA. Cardiovascular trialists need to reassess the design, execution, and purpose of CV clinical trials. In the area of oncology research, trials are much smaller, follow-up is shorter, and targeted therapies are common. Cardiovascular diseases and cancer are the two most common causes of death globally, and although they differ substantially, this review evaluates whether some elements of oncology research may be applicable in the CV arena. As one of the most underserved CV diseases, the review focuses on aspects of cancer research that may be applicable to HF research with the aim of streamlining the clinical trial process and decreasing the time and cost required to bring safe, effective, treatments to patients who need them. The paper is based on discussions among clinical trialists, industry representatives, regulatory authorities, and patients, which took place at the Cardiovascular Clinical Trialists Workshop in Washington, DC, on 8 December 2019 (https://www.globalcvctforum.com/2019 (14 September 2020)).


Assuntos
Fármacos Cardiovasculares , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Eur Heart J ; 2021 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34184057

RESUMO

AIMS: The aim of this article is to explore the influence of region and race/ethnicity on the effects of empagliflozin in the Empagliflozin Outcome Trial in Patients with Chronic Heart Failure and a Reduced Ejection Fraction (EMPEROR-Reduced) trial. METHODS AND RESULTS: Of 3730 patients, 1353 (36.3%) were enrolled in Europe, 1286 (34.5%) in Latin America, 425 (11.4%) in North America, and 493 (13.2%) in Asia; 2629 (70.5%) were White, 257 (6.9%) Black, and 672 (18.0%) Asian. Placebo event rates (per 100 patient-years) for cardiovascular death or heart failure (HF) hospitalization varied by region (Asia 27.7, North America 26.4, Latin America 21.4, and Europe 17.5) and race/ethnicity (Black 34.4, Asian 24.3, and White 18.7); driven by differences in HF hospitalization. The ratio of total HF hospitalization to cardiovascular death varied from 5.4 in Asia and 4.8 in North America to 2.1 in Europe; and from 4.8 in Black and 4.2 in Asian to 2.2 in White patients. Groups with the highest ratio had the greatest reduction in the primary outcome with empagliflozin. Inclusion of outpatient worsening HF episodes added more events in Europe vs. other regions; enhanced the placebo event rates in Europe vs. other regions; and increased the relative risk reduction with empagliflozin in Europe from 6% to 26%. CONCLUSIONS: There were notable differences in the placebo event rates for major HF events across diverse regions and race/ethnic groups. The benefit of empagliflozin was most pronounced in groups with the highest ratio of HF hospitalization to cardiovascular death. Regional differences were attenuated when the definition of HF events was expanded to include outpatient worsening HF events.

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