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1.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 2023 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36722252

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists (GLP1-RA) reduce atherosclerotic events in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and a high cardiovascular risk. The effect of GLP1-RA to reduce heart failure (HF) has been inconsistent across T2D trials, and individual trials were underpowered to assess the effect of GLP1-RA according to HF history. In this meta-analysis we aim to assess the effect of GLP1-RA in patients with and without HF history in stable ambulatory patients with T2D. METHODS: Random-effects meta-analysis of placebo-controlled trials. The hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were extracted from the treatment effect estimates of HF subgroup analyses reported in each individual study. The primary outcome was a composite of HF hospitalization or cardiovascular death. RESULTS: A total of 54092 patients with T2D from 7 randomized controlled trials were included, of whom 8460 (16%) had HF history. Compared to placebo, GLP1-RA did not reduce the composite of HF hospitalization or cardiovascular death in patients with HF history: HR 0.96, 95%CI 0.84-1.08, but reduced this outcome in patients without HF history: HR 0.84, 95%CI 0.76-0.92. GLP1-RA did not reduce all-cause death in patients with HF history: HR 0.98, 95%CI 0.86-1.11, but reduced mortality in patients without HF history: HR 0.85, 95%CI 0.79-0.92. GLP1-RA reduced atherosclerotic events regardless of HF history: HR 0.85, 95%CI 0.75-0.97 with HF, and HR 0.88, 95%CI 0.83-0.93 without HF. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with GLP1-RA did not reduce HF hospitalizations and mortality in patients with concomitant T2D and HF, but may prevent new-onset HF and mortality in patients with T2D without HF. The reduction of atherosclerotic events with GLP1-RA was not influenced by HF history status. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

2.
Eur Heart J ; 2023 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36702610

RESUMO

Participants enrolled in cardiovascular disease (CVD) randomized controlled trials are not often representative of the population living with the disease. Older adults, children, women, Black, Indigenous and People of Color, and people living in low- and middle-income countries are typically under-enrolled in trials relative to disease distribution. Treatment effect estimates of CVD therapies have been largely derived from trial evidence generated in White men without complex comorbidities, limiting the generalizability of evidence. This review highlights barriers and facilitators of trial enrollment, temporal trends, and the rationale for representativeness. It proposes strategies to increase representativeness in CVD trials, including trial designs that minimize the research burden on participants, inclusive recruitment practices and eligibility criteria, diversification of clinical trial leadership, and research capacity-building in under-represented regions. Implementation of such strategies could generate better and more generalizable evidence to reduce knowledge gaps and position the cardiovascular trial enterprise as a vehicle to counter existing healthcare inequalities.

4.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 81(3): 270-282, 2023 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36653095

RESUMO

Although chronic kidney disease is characterized by low glomerular filtration rate (GFR) or albuminuria, estimated GFR (eGFR) is more widely utilized as a marker of risk profile in cardiovascular diseases, including heart failure (HF). The presence and magnitude of albuminuria confers a strong prognostic association in forecasting risk of incident HF as well as its progression, irrespective of eGFR. Despite the high prevalence of albuminuria in HF, whether it adds incremental prognostic information in clinical practice and serves as an independent risk marker, and whether there are any therapeutic implications of assessing albuminuria in patients with HF is less well-established. In this narrative review, we assess the potential role of albuminuria in risk profiling for development and progression of HF, strengths and limitations of utilizing albuminuria as a risk marker, its ability to serve in HF risk prediction models, and the implications of adopting albuminuria as an effective parameter in cardiovascular trials and practice.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Humanos , Albuminúria/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Fatores de Risco
5.
Eur Heart J ; 2023 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36632831

RESUMO

AIMS: Few reports have examined the incidence of ventricular tachycardia (VT) and ventricular fibrillation (VF) or their relationship with mortality in patients with heart failure with mildly reduced ejection fraction (HFmrEF) or heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). METHODS AND RESULTS: Data from the PARAGON-HF, TOPCAT, I-Preserve, and CHARM-Preserved trials were merged. VT/VF, reported as adverse events, were identified. Patients who experienced VT/VF were compared with patients who did not. The relationship between VT/VF and mortality was examined in time-updated Cox proportional hazard regression models. Variables associated with VT/VF were examined in Cox proportional hazard regression models. The rate of VT/VF in patients with HFmrEF compared with patients with HFpEF was examined in a Cox proportional hazards regression model. Of 13 609 patients, over a median follow-up of 1170 days (interquartile range: 966-1451), 146 (1.1%) experienced an investigator-reported VT/VF (incidence rate 0.3 per 100 person-years). Patients who experienced VT/VF were more likely to be male, have had a myocardial infarction, poorer renal function, more adverse left ventricular remodelling, and higher N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) than patients who did not. Occurrence of VT/VF was associated with NT-proBNP, history of atrial fibrillation/flutter, male sex, lower ejection fraction, and history of hypertension. VT/VF was associated with all-cause death [adjusted hazard ratio (HR): 3.95, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.80-5.57; P < 0.001] and cardiovascular death, driven by death from heart failure and not sudden death. Patients with HFmrEF had a higher rate of VT/VF than patients with HFpEF (adjusted HR: 2.19, 95% CI: 1.77-2.71). CONCLUSION: VT/VF was uncommon in patients with HFmrEF and HFpEF. However, such events were strongly associated with mortality and appear to be a marker of disease severity rather than risk of sudden death. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov unique identifier: NCT01920711(PARAGON-HF); NCT00094302 (TOPCAT); NCT00095238 (I-Preserve); NCT00634712 (CHARM-Preserved).

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36715554

RESUMO

Hyperkalemia is a frequent complication in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) or heart failure (HF) and associated with neuromuscular manifestations, changes in the electrocardiogram, and increased risk of mortality. While data on the prevalence and management of hyperkalemia in the gulf region are scarce, risk factors such as preference for potassium-rich foods (e.g., dates and dried fruits/vegetables), periods of intense fasting (e.g., Ramadan), and diabetes (an ancestor of CKD and HF) are common. Therefore, a panel of nephrologists and cardiologists from countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) convened to collate and review available data on the prevalence, regional drivers, and current practice in the management of hyperkalemia in the region. Eventually, this review provides consensus recommendations on a balanced utilization of dietary and pharmacological options including new potassium binders for achieving and sustainably maintaining desirable serum potassium levels in countries of the GCC region. Alignment with regional habits and practice was a key aspect to facilitate the uptake of the recommendations into physicians' practice and patients' lives.

7.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 81(4): 413-424, 2023 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36697141

RESUMO

Heart failure (HF) is a progressive disease characterized by variable durations of symptomatic stability often punctuated by episodes of worsening despite continued therapy. These periods of clinical worsening are increasingly recognized as a distinct phase in the history of HF, termed worsening HF (WHF). The definition of WHF continues to evolve from a historical focus solely on hospitalization to now include nonhospitalization events (eg, need for intravenous diuretic therapy in the emergency or outpatient setting). Most HF clinical trials to date have had HF hospitalization and death as primary endpoints, and only recently, some studies have included other WHF events regardless of location of care. This article reviews the evolution of the WHF definition, highlights the importance of considering the onset of WHF as an event that marks a new phase of HF, summarizes the latest clinical trials investigating novel therapies, and outlines unmet needs regarding identification and treatment of WHF.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca , Hospitalização , Humanos , Progressão da Doença , Doença Aguda , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Diuréticos/uso terapêutico
8.
Am J Cardiol ; 191: 39-42, 2023 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36634548

RESUMO

The QRS duration can be easily obtained from a 12-lead electrocardiogram. Increased QRS duration reflects greater ventricular activation times and often ventricular dyssynchrony. Dyssynchrony causes an impairment of the global cardiac function and adversely affects the prognosis of patients with heart failure (HF). Little is known about the impact of pharmacologic therapies on the QRS duration, particularly for patients with presymptomatic HF with a preserved left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (i.e., stage B HF with preserved ejection fraction [HFpEF]). The HOMAGE (Heart OMics in AGEing) trial enrolled patients at risk factors for developing HF and assigned them to receive either spironolactone or the usual care for approximately 9 months in a randomized manner. This analysis reports the effect of spironolactone on the QRS duration. A total of 525 patients was included in the analysis. The median (percentile25-75) QRS duration at baseline was 92 (84 to 106) ms. Spironolactone reduced the QRS duration at month 9 by -2.8, 95% confidence interval -4.6 to -1.0 ms, p = 0.003. No significant associations were found between month 9 changes in the QRS duration and corresponding changes in the LV ejection fraction, LV mass, LV end-diastolic volume, blood pressure, N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide, and procollagen type I carboxy-terminal propeptide (all p >0.05). This analysis shows that for patients with stage B HFpEF, therapy with spironolactone for 9 months shortened the QRS duration, an effect that was not associated with reductions in LV mass or volume, supporting the hypothesis that spironolactone has direct beneficial effects to improve myocardial electrical activation in patients with stage B HFpEF.

9.
Clin Chem ; 69(1): 68-79, 2023 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36508319

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The plasma proteome can be quantified using different types of highly multiplexed technologies, including aptamer-based and proximity-extension immunoassay methods. There has been limited characterization of how these protein measurements correlate across platforms and with absolute measures from targeted immunoassays. METHODS: We assessed the comparability of (a) highly multiplexed aptamer-based (SomaScan v4; Somalogic) and proximity-extension immunoassay (OLINK Proseek® v5003; Olink) methods in 427 Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study participants (Visit 5, 2011-2013), and (b) 18 of the SomaScan protein measurements against targeted immunoassays in 110 participants (55 cardiovascular disease cases, 55 controls). We calculated Spearman correlations (r) between the different measurements and compared associations with case-control status. RESULTS: There were 417 protein comparisons (366 unique proteins) between the SomaScan and Olink platforms. The average correlation was r = 0.46 (range: -0.21 to 0.97; 79 [19%] with r ≥ 0.8). For the comparison of SomaScan and targeted immunoassays, 6 of 18 assays (growth differentiation factor 15 [GDF15], interleukin-1 receptor-like 1 [ST2], interstitial collagenase [MMP1], adiponectin, leptin, and resistin) had good correlations (r ≥ 0.8), 2 had modest correlations (0.5 ≤ r < 0.8; osteopontin and interleukin-6 [IL6]), and 10 were poorly correlated (r < 0.5; metalloproteinase inhibitor 1 [TIMP1], stromelysin-1 [MMP3], matrilysin [MMP7], C-C motif chemokine 2 [MCP1], interleukin-10 [IL10], vascular cell adhesion protein 1 [VCAM1], intercellular adhesion molecule 1 [ICAM1], interleukin-18 [IL18], tumor necrosis factor [TNFα], and visfatin) overall. Correlations for SomaScan and targeted immunoassays were similar according to case status. CONCLUSIONS: There is variation in the quantitative measurements for many proteins across aptamer-based and proximity-extension immunoassays (approximately 1/2 showing good or modest correlation and approximately 1/2 poor correlation) and also for correlations of these highly multiplexed technologies with targeted immunoassays. Design and interpretation of protein quantification studies should be informed by the variation across measurement techniques for each protein.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose , Proteômica , Humanos , Proteômica/métodos , Interleucina-6 , Imunoensaio/métodos , Adiponectina
10.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 12(1): e027652, 2023 01 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36565199

RESUMO

Background Outcomes and treatment effects of therapy may vary according to the cause of heart failure (HF). Methods and Results In this post hoc analysis of the EMPEROR-Reduced (Empagliflozin Outcome Trial in Patients With Chronic Heart Failure With Reduced Ejection Fraction) trial, the effect of empagliflozin on cardiovascular and renal outcomes was assessed according to the cause of HF. The cause of HF was investigator reported and stratified as ischemic or nonischemic. Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs. Of the 3730 patients enrolled, 1929 (51.7%) had ischemic cause. In the placebo arm, patients with ischemic cause of HF did not have a significantly higher risk of cardiovascular mortality (HR, 1.21 [95% CI, 0.90-1.63]) and hospitalization for HF (HR, 0.90 [95% CI, 0.72-1.12]) compared with nonischemic cause. Empagliflozin compared with placebo significantly reduced the risk of cardiovascular death or hospitalization for HF in patients with ischemic and nonischemic cause (HR, 0.82 [95% CI, 0.68-0.99] for ischemic and HR, 0.67 [95% CI, 0.55-0.82] for nonischemic cause; P interaction=0.15). The benefit of empagliflozin on HF hospitalization, the renal composite end point, estimated glomerular filtration slope changes, and health status scores were also consistent in both groups without treatment by cause modification. Conclusions Empagliflozin offers cardiovascular and renal benefits in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction regardless of the cause of HF. Registration URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT03057977.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda , Humanos , Compostos Benzidrílicos/efeitos adversos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/complicações , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/induzido quimicamente , Volume Sistólico , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/induzido quimicamente
11.
Eur Heart J ; 44(5): 396-407, 2023 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36478225

RESUMO

AIMS: Empagliflozin reduces the risk of cardiovascular death or heart failure (HF) hospitalization in patients with HF and preserved ejection fraction. This study aims to evaluate if systolic blood pressure (SBP) moderates these effects. METHODS AND RESULTS: The association of SBP and the treatment effects of empagliflozin in EMPEROR-Preserved (empagliflozin outcome trial in patients with chronic heart failure with preserved ejection fraction) was evaluated. Randomized patients (n 5988) were grouped according to SBP at baseline (110 mmHg, n 455; 110130 mmHg, n 2415; 130 mmHg, n 3118). The effect of empagliflozin on blood pressure, cardiovascular death or HF hospitalization (primary outcome), total HF hospitalizations, and rate of decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate was studied. Over a median of 26.2 months, the placebo-corrected decline was small and not significantly different across baseline SBP. On placebo, the risk of cardiovascular death or hospitalization for HF was 8.58 at 130 mmHg, 8.26 at 110130 mmHg, and 11.59 events per 100 patient-years at 110 mmHg (P 0.12 vs. 130 mmHg, P 0.08 vs. 110130 mmHg). There was no evidence for baseline SBP moderating the effect of empagliflozin on risk of HF events (primary endpoint interaction P 0.69, recurrent HF hospitalizations interaction P 0.55). When comparing empagliflozin with placebo, SBP did not meaningfully associate with adverse events such as hypotension, volume depletion, and acute renal failure. CONCLUSION: In EMPEROR-Preserved, empagliflozin was effective and safe without SBP meaningfully moderating empagliflozins treatment effects. This analysis of EMPEROR-Preserved shows that empagliflozin can be used safely and effectively without blood pressure being a meaningful moderator of the drug benefit. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov Unique identifier: NCT03057951.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose , Humanos , Pressão Sanguínea , Volume Sistólico/fisiologia , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/uso terapêutico
12.
Nat Med ; 2022 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36471037

RESUMO

The EMPEROR-Preserved trial showed that the sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor empagliflozin significantly reduces the risk of cardiovascular death or hospitalization for heart failure (HHF) in heart failure patients with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) > 40%. Here, we report the results of a pre-specified analysis that separately evaluates these patients stratified by LVEF: preserved (≥ 50%) (n = 4,005; 66.9%) or mid-range (41-49%). In patients with LVEF ≥ 50%, empagliflozin reduced the risk of cardiovascular death or HHF (the primary endpoint) by 17% versus placebo (hazard ratio (HR) 0.83; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.71-0.98, P = 0.024). For the key secondary endpoint, the HR for total HHF was 0.83 (95%CI: 0.66-1.04, P = 0.11). For patients with an LVEF of 41-49%, the HR for empagliflozin versus placebo was 0.71 (95%CI: 0.57-0.88, P = 0.002) for the primary outcome (Pinteraction = 0.27), and 0.57 (95%CI: 0.42-0.79, P < 0.001) for total HHF (Pinteraction = 0.06). These results, together with those from the EMPEROR-Reduced trial in patients with LVEF < 40%, support the use of empagliflozin across the full spectrum of LVEF in heart failure.

13.
JACC Heart Fail ; 10(11): 842-850, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36328653

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRAs) are underused in patients with kidney dysfunction, and their efficacy among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is uncertain. OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to analyze the efficacy and safety of steroidal MRAs across the spectrum of estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFRs) in randomized controlled trials. The study included patients with heart failure (HF) or myocardial infarction and advanced CKD who participated in the RALES (Randomized Aldactone Evaluation Study), EMPHASIS-HF (Eplerenone in Mild Patients Hospitalization and Survival Study in Heart Failure), TOPCAT (Treatment of Preserved Cardiac Function Heart Failure With an Aldosterone Antagonist) in the Americas, and EPHESUS (Eplerenone Post-AMI Heart Failure Efficacy and Survival Study) trials. METHODS: This study used individual patient data meta-analysis using Cox models stratified by trial with treatment-by-eGFR interaction terms. eGFR was recalculated by using the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration creatinine formula. RESULTS: A total of 12,700 patients were included, of whom 331 (2.6%) had an eGFR ≤30 mL/min/1.73 m2 (mean eGFR: 26.8 ± 3.2 mL/min/1.73 m2). Patients with advanced CKD had higher annualized event rates for all studied outcomes: placebo event rate for the composite of cardiovascular death or HF hospitalization was ∼3-fold higher in patients with eGFR ≤30 compared with those with eGFR >90 mL/min/1.73 m2: 41.6 vs 14.6 events per 100 person-years. MRAs (vs placebo) reduced the composite of cardiovascular death or HF hospitalization, but the effect was attenuated as eGFR decreased: the corresponding HRs by eGFR categories were: HR for >90 mL/min/1.73 m2: 0.62 (95% CI: 0.49-0.78); HR for 61-90 mL/min/1.73 m2: 0.69 (95% CI: 0.61-0.77); HR for 46-60 mL/min/1.73 m2: 0.84 (95% CI: 0.74-0.95); HR for 31-45 mL/min/1.73 m2: 0.79 (95% CI: 0.68-0.91); and HR for ≤30 mL/min/1.73 m2: 0.96 (95% CI: 0.70-1.32) (treatment-by-eGFR interaction P for trend = 0.033). Investigator-reported hyperkalemia and worsening renal function were more frequent (2- to 3-fold) among MRA users, and hyperkalemia was more frequent as eGFR decreased (treatment-by-eGFR interaction P for trend = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS: Steroidal MRAs reduced HF hospitalizations and mortality across a wide range of eGFR. However, declining benefit and worsening safety may limit their use in patients with lower eGFR, particularly those with levels ≤30 mL/min/1.73 m2.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca , Hiperpotassemia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Humanos , Eplerenona/uso terapêutico , Hiperpotassemia/induzido quimicamente , Antagonistas de Receptores de Mineralocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Rim/fisiologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
14.
Am Heart J ; 256: 25-36, 2022 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36372245

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DbCM) is a specific form of heart muscle disease that may result in substantial morbidity and mortality in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Hyperactivation of the polyol pathway is one of the primary mechanisms in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications, including development of DbCM. There is an unmet need for therapies targeting the underlying metabolic abnormalities that drive this form of Stage B heart failure (HF). METHODS: Aldose reductase (AR) catalyzes the first and rate-limiting step in the polyol pathway, and AR inhibition has been shown to reduce diabetic complications, including DbCM in animal models and in patients with DbCM. Previous AR inhibitors (ARIs) were limited by poor specificity resulting in unacceptable tolerability and safety profile. AT-001 is a novel investigational highly specific ARI with higher binding affinity and greater selectivity than previously studied ARIs. ARISE-HF (NCT04083339) is an ongoing Phase 3 randomized, placebo-controlled, double blind, global clinical study to investigate the efficacy of AT-001 (1000 mg twice daily [BID] and 1500 mg BID) in 675 T2DM patients with DbCM at high risk of progression to overt HF. ARISE-HF assesses the ability of AT-001 to improve or prevent decline in exercise capacity as measured by functional capacity (changes in peak oxygen uptake [peak VO2]) over 15 (and possibly 27) months of treatment. Additional endpoints include percentage of patients progressing to overt HF, health status metrics, echocardiographic measurements, and changes in cardiacbiomarkers. RESULTS: The ARISE-HF Trial is fully enrolled. CONCLUSIONS: This report describes the rationale and study design of ARISE-HF.

16.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2022 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36325584

RESUMO

AIMS: Baseline body mass index (BMI) and weight loss promoted by sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors may impact outcomes in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). We assessed in the EMPEROR-Reduced population treated with empagliflozin versus placebo the relationship between baseline BMI, weight loss and effects on the primary (time to first hospitalization for heart failure [HHF] or cardiovascular death) and key secondary outcomes. METHODS AND RESULTS: We categorized patients according to their baseline BMI: <20 kg/m2 (n = 180); 20 to <25 kg/m2 (n = 1038); 25 to <30 kg/m2 (n = 1345); 30 to <35 kg/m2 (n = 774) and ≥35 kg/m2 (n = 393). The treatment effect of empagliflozin on the primary outcome was consistent across all BMI categories (hazard ratios in subgroups 0.66-0.88, interaction trend p = 0.32), as was the effect on total (first plus recurrent) HHF (interaction trend p = 0.31). Empagliflozin reduced the rate of estimated glomerular filtration rate decline consistently across the BMI categories (interaction trend p = 0.67). Overall, incidence rates of any or serious adverse events were comparable between the treatment groups across all BMI categories. A total of 313 (17.4%) patients treated with empagliflozin experienced a weight loss of more than 5% at week 52 versus 230 (12.8%) in placebo. When analysed separately within each treatment group, presence of weight loss was similarly associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality. CONCLUSION: The benefits of empagliflozin versus placebo were consistently present across all BMI categories in HFrEF patients. Weight loss was associated with higher risk of all-cause mortality, regardless of treatment group.

17.
Lancet ; 400(10366): 1884-1898, 2022 11 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36436527

RESUMO

Although it is a rare disease, the number of available therapeutic options for treating pulmonary arterial hypertension has increased since the late 1990s, with multiple drugs developed that are shown to be effective in phase 3 randomised controlled trials. Despite considerable advancements in pulmonary arterial hypertension treatment, prognosis remains poor. Existing therapies target pulmonary endothelial dysfunction with vasodilation and anti-proliferative effects. Novel therapies that target proliferative vascular remodelling and affect important outcomes are urgently needed. There is need for additional innovations in clinical trial design so that all emerging candidate therapies can be rigorously studied. Pulmonary arterial hypertension trial design has shifted from short-term submaximal exercise capacity as a primary endpoint, to larger clinical event-driven trial outcomes. Event-driven pulmonary arterial hypertension trials could face feasibility and efficiency issues in the future because increasing sample sizes and longer follow-up durations are needed, which would be problematic in such a rare disease. Enrichment strategies, innovative and alternative trial designs, and novel trial endpoints are potential solutions that could improve the efficiency of future pulmonary arterial hypertension trials while maintaining robustness and clinically meaningful evidence.


Assuntos
Hipertensão Arterial Pulmonar , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Fase III como Assunto , Hipertensão Arterial Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Doenças Raras
20.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2022 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36303266

RESUMO

AIMS: Spironolactone is currently used in a large proportion of patients with heart failure and preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), yet its effect on cardiac structure and function in a large population has not been well established. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of spironolactone on key echocardiographic parameters in HFpEF. METHODS AND RESULTS: An individual-patient-data meta-analysis of three randomized trials (HOMAGE, Aldo-DHF, and TOPCAT) was performed comparing spironolactone (9-12 month exposure) to placebo (or control) for the changes in left atrial volume index (LAVi), left ventricular mass index (LVMi), interventricular septum (IVS) thickness, E/e' ratio, and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) among patients with stage B (HOMAGE) or C (Aldo-DHF and TOPCAT) HFpEF. Analysis of covariance was used to test the effect of spironolactone on echocardiographic changes. A total of 984 patients were included in this analysis: 452 (45.9%) from HOMAGE, 398 (40.4%) from Aldo-DHF, and 134 (13.6%) from TOPCAT. The pooled-cohort patient's median age was 71 (66-77) years and 39% were women. Median LAVi was 29 (24-35) ml/m2 , LVMi 100 (84-118) g/m2 , IVS thickness 12 (10-13) mm, E/e' ratio 11 (9-13), and LVEF 64 (59-69)%. Spironolactone reduced LAVi by -1.1 (-2.0 to -0.1) ml/m2 (p = 0.03); LVMi by -3.6 (-6.4 to -0.8) g/m2 (p = 0.01); IVS thickness by -0.2 (-0.3 to -0.1) mm (p = 0.01); E/e' ratio by -1.3 (-2.4 to -0.2) (p = 0.02); and increased LVEF by 1.7 (0.8-2.6)% (p < 0.01). No treatment-by-study heterogeneity was found except for E/e' ratio with a larger effect in Aldo-DHF and TOPCAT (interaction p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Spironolactone improved cardiac structure and function of patients with HFpEF.

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