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2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34838587

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the association between frailty and history of falls in people living with multiple sclerosis (MS). DESIGN: Secondary analysis. SETTING: University research laboratories in the United States and Israel. PARTICIPANTS: 118 people with relapsing-remitting MS [age=48.9 years (SD=10.0); 74.6% female; expanded disability status scale (EDSS) range=1.0-6.0] were studied in this cross-sectional analysis. INTERVENTION: Not applicable. MAIN OUTCOMES: A frailty index was calculated from 40 health deficits by following standard validated procedures. The number of falls (12-month history) was recorded. RESULTS: Overall, 33.9%, 29.7%, and 36.4% of participants were classified as non-frail, moderately frail, and severely frail, respectively. The frailty index was significantly correlated (ρ=0.37, p<0.001) with higher scores on the EDSS. In univariable negative binomial regression analysis, the frailty index was associated with a higher number of falls (IRR=3.33, 95%CI[1.85-5.99], p<0.001). After adjustment for age, gender and EDSS, frailty remained strongly associated with history of falls (IRR=2.78, 95%CI[1.51-5.10], p=0.001). CONCLUSION: The current study identifies a significant relationship between frailty and history of falls in MS, independent of age, gender, and disease severity. These findings support the notion that frailty is a syndrome related to, but independent of, disability in MS.

3.
Brain Sci ; 11(9)2021 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34573154

RESUMO

Motor imagery represents the ability to simulate anticipated movements mentally prior to their actual execution and has been proposed as a tool to assess both individuals' perception of task difficulty as well as their perception of their own abilities. People with multiple sclerosis (pwMS) often present with motor and cognitive dysfunction, which may negatively affect motor imagery. In this cross-sectional study, we explored differences in motor imagery of walking performance between pwMS (n = 20, age = 57.1 (SD = 8.6) years, 55% female) and age- and sex-matched healthy controls (n = 20, age = 58.1 (SD = 7.0) years, 60% female). Participants underwent mental chronometry assessments, a subset of motor imagery, which evaluated the difference between imagined and actual walking times across four walking tasks of increasing difficulty (i.e., large/narrow-width walkway with/without obstacles). Raw and absolute mental chronometry (A-MC) measures were recorded in single- (ST) and dual-task (DT) conditions. In ST conditions, pwMS had higher A-MC scores across all walking conditions (p ≤ 0.031, η2 ≥ 0.119), indicating lower motor imagery ability compared to healthy controls. During DT, all participants tended to underestimate their walking ability (3.38 ± 6.72 to 5.63 ± 9.17 s). However, after physical practice, pwMS were less able to adjust their imagined walking performance compared to healthy controls. In pwMS, A-MC scores were correlated with measures of balance confidence (ρ = -0.629, p < 0.01) and the self-reported expanded disability status scale (ρ = 0.747, p < 0.01). While the current study revealed that pwMS have lower motor imagery of walking performance compared to healthy individuals, further work is necessary to examine how the disassociation between mental chronometry and actual performance relates to quality of life and well-being.

4.
Mult Scler Relat Disord ; 54: 103111, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34303279

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Public health responses to Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) including lockdowns may negatively impact physical and mental functioning in clinical populations. People living with multiple sclerosis (MS) may be more susceptible to physical function deterioration while practicing social distancing. Recent reports have suggested that about 50% of people with MS (pwMS) decreased their leisure physical activity during COVID-19, and upwards of 30% reported decreased physical fitness levels. However, the impact of social distancing on adverse health-related outcomes such as falls has not received much scrutiny. Therefore, we explored the frequency and characteristics of falls experienced by people living with and without MS during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Two-hundred and thirty-nine individuals, including 106 pwMS (median age: 59 years) and 133 people living without MS (median age: 66 years) were recruited for this cross-sectional study. A snowball sampling strategy was used for online recruitment. Participants completed a customized falls questionnaire and the number of falls experienced (if any) during COVID-19 was recorded. Fall-related characteristics such as the timing, locations, activities undertaken before falling and consequences, as well as self-reported physical activity were also recorded. RESULTS: Overall, participants reported 232 falls (1.67 falls/person in pwMS and 0.41 falls/person in non-MS participants). People living with MS (pwMS) had a significantly higher frequency of falls (58.5% vs 21.8%; p< 0.001) and recurrent falls (45.3% vs 9.8%; p< 0.001) compared to non-MS participants. Additionally, pwMS reported a significantly higher proportion of in-home falls (83.9% vs 54.2%; p = 0.004), as well as a higher proportion of overall injuries (44.3% vs 12.5%, p< 0.001), fractures (5.7% vs 0.8%, p = 0.048), and healthcare utilization (9.4% vs 1.6%, p = 0.007) compared to non-MS participants. A similar proportion of pwMS (49.1%) and non-MS participants (52.2%) reported lower physical activity levels during COVID-19. CONCLUSION: This cross-sectional study revealed that pwMS remain at high risk of falls and fall-related outcomes during COVID-19. The high number of falls experienced by pwMS is of clinical concern considering the current strain on the healthcare system. Findings from this study highlight the importance of monitoring falls and the potential for telerehabilitation in persons with MS during COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Esclerose Múltipla , Acidentes por Quedas , Idoso , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Esclerose Múltipla/complicações , Esclerose Múltipla/epidemiologia , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
5.
BMC Geriatr ; 21(1): 411, 2021 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34215211

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Frailty is associated with multiple adverse outcomes in stage-5 chronic kidney disease (CKD-5) and upwards of one third of people receiving haemodialysis (HD) are frail. While many frailty screening methods are available in both uremic and non-uremic populations, their implementation in clinical settings is often challenged by time and resource constraints. In this study, we explored the diagnostic accuracy of time-efficient screening tools in people receiving HD. METHODS: A convenience sample of 76 people receiving HD [mean age = 61.1 years (SD = 14), 53.9% male] from three Renal Units were recruited for this cross-sectional study. Frailty was diagnosed by means of the Fried phenotype. Physical performance-based screening tools encompassed handgrip strength, 15-ft gait speed, timed up and go (TUG), and five-repetition sit to stand (STS-5) tests. In addition, participants completed the SF-36 Health Survey, the short-form international physical activity questionnaire and the Tinetti falls efficacy scale (FES) as further frailty-related measures. Outcome measures included the area under the curve (AUC), sensitivity, specificity, positive (PPV) and negative predictive values (NPV). The diagnostic performance of screening tools in assessing fall-risk was also investigated. RESULTS: Overall, 36.8% of participants were classified as frail. All the examined instruments could significantly discriminate frailty status in the study population. Gait speed [AUC = 0.89 (95%CI: 0.81-0.98), sensitivity = 75%, specificity = 93%] and TUG [AUC = 0.90 (95%CI: 0.80-0.99), sensitivity = 89%, specificity = 85%] exhibited the highest diagnostic accuracy. There was a significant difference in gait speed AUC (20%, p = 0.013) between participants aged 65 years or older (n = 36) and those under 65 years of age (n = 40), with better discriminating performance in the younger sub-group. The Tinetti FES was the only instrument showing good diagnostic accuracy (AUCs≥0.80) for both frailty (sensitivity = 82%, specificity = 79%) and fall-risk (sensitivity = 82%, specificity = 71%) screening. CONCLUSIONS: This cross-sectional study revealed that time- and cost-efficient walking performance measures can accurately be used for frailty-screening purposes in people receiving HD. While self-selected gait speed had an excellent performance in people under 65 years of age, TUG may be a more suitable screening method for elderly patients (≥65 years). The Tinetti FES may be a clinically useful test when physical testing is not achievable.


Assuntos
Fragilidade , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Idoso Fragilizado , Fragilidade/diagnóstico , Fragilidade/epidemiologia , Avaliação Geriátrica , Força da Mão , Humanos , Masculino , Diálise Renal
6.
Perit Dial Int ; : 8968608211002384, 2021 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33783265

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Accurate measurement of muscle mass is an important research and clinical tool. High-resolution ultrasound (US) has shown potential as a method to assess muscle and fat mass at specific anatomical sites. However, there is limited evidence for the reliability of US to measure muscle size in patients receiving continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). Therefore, we examined the validity and reliability of an US method compared to a gold standard comparison for the assessment of a quadriceps muscle in this clinical population. METHODS: Twenty people receiving CAPD (mean age = 56.5 ± 16.7 years) at a single dialysis unit were assessed on two occasions, 7 days apart. Measures of the mid-thigh, such as vastus lateralis (VL) anatomical cross-sectional area (ACSA), VL muscle thickness and subcutaneous fat thickness were compared for US reliability and validity compared to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measures. RESULTS: US had high validity against gold standard MRI measures, with intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) equating to VL ACSA of 0.95, VL thickness of 0.99 and fat thickness of 0.98. The US measurements also exhibited high intra-rater reliability (ICCs: VL thickness = 0.98, total muscle thickness = 0.97 and fat thickness = 0.99) in measuring body composition at the mid-VL site in the study population. CONCLUSIONS: Valid assessment of regional body composition can be achieved via high-resolution US in patients receiving CAPD. The validity and reliability of the US in repeated measures (in comparison to the gold standard MRI) warrant further investigation in the wider chronic kidney disease population.

8.
Gait Posture ; 82: 110-117, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32911095

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Static postural balance performance is often impaired in people receiving haemodialysis (HD) for the treatment of stage-5 chronic kidney disease (CKD-5). However, the question as to whether lower postural balance is associated with adverse clinical outcomes such as falls has not been addressed yet. RESEARCH QUESTION: We conducted a prospective cohort study to explore the association between static postural balance and falls in people receiving HD. We hypothesised that higher postural sway would be associated with increased odds of falling. METHODS: Seventy-five prevalent CKD-5 patients receiving HD (age: 61.8 ± 13.4 years) from three Renal Units were enrolled in this prospective cohort study. At baseline, postural balance was assessed with a force platform in eyes open (EO) and eyes closed (EC) conditions. Centre of pressure (CoP) measures of range, velocity and area were taken for the analysis. Falls experienced by study participants were prospectively recorded during 12 months of follow-up. Secondary outcomes included timed-up and go, five-repetition sit-to-stand test and the Tinetti falls efficacy scale (FES). RESULTS: In multivariable logistic regression analysis, higher CoP range in medial-lateral direction during EC was associated with increased odds of falling (OR: 1.04, 95 %CI: 1.00-1.07, p = 0.036). In ROC curve analysis, CoP velocity in EO exhibited the greatest prognostic accuracy (AUC: 0.69, 95 %CI: 0.55-0.82), however this was not statistically different from CoP measures of area and range. None of the postural balance measures exceeded the prognostic accuracy of the FES (AUC: 0.70, 95 %CI: 0.58-0.83, p = 0.005). SIGNIFICANCE: This prospective cohort study showed that higher postural sway in medial-lateral direction was associated with increased odds of falling in people receiving HD. CoP measures of range, velocity and area displayed similar prognostic value in discriminating fallers from non-fallers. The overall utility of static posturography to detect future fall-risk may be limited in a clinical setting.


Assuntos
Acidentes por Quedas/estatística & dados numéricos , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Equilíbrio Postural/fisiologia , Diálise Renal/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
9.
J Aging Phys Act ; 29(1): 162-177, 2020 08 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32788414

RESUMO

Dual-task (DT) consists of the performance of two tasks simultaneously. An index of DT difficulty has been linked to decreased postural control. Because a wide range of DT is employed, this study aimed to evaluate its effects in static balance in older adults. PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus were screened, and the secondary tasks were grouped as manual, reaction time, discrimination and decision making, mental tracking, verbal fluency, working memory, or "other" tasks. A total of 66 studies have been included. The meta-analysis was conducted on 28 effects and showed a significant mean effect size of d = 0.24 (p = .02, SE = 0.10; confidence interval [0.04, 0.44]), indicating a worsening in stability during DT. In conclusion, postural control was worsened by the Stroop test and the arithmetic tasks improved it. The results do not underpin any conclusive statement on the impact of DT, and a standard operating procedure was created.


Assuntos
Acidentes por Quedas/prevenção & controle , Cognição/fisiologia , Marcha/fisiologia , Equilíbrio Postural , Caminhada/fisiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Tempo de Reação , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Caminhada/psicologia
10.
Gait Posture ; 82: 20-25, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32858318

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Motor and cognitive impairments are highly prevalent in people with multiple sclerosis (pwMS). The current theoretical frameworks of cognitive-motor interaction (CMI) suggest that the environment can influence both motor and cognitive performance during walking. However, the relationship between increasing environmental demands and CMI in pwMS remains to be elucidated. RESEARCH QUESTION: What is the impact of increased environmental demands on CMI during walking in people living with and without MS? METHODS: Twenty pwMS and 20 age-matched healthy adults (HA) participated in this cross-sectional study. Participants (age = 57.6 ± 7.8 years) performed four walks (baseline walking (BW), obstacle walking (OW), narrow walking (NW), and narrow with obstacles (NO)) in single-task and dual-task (serial-7 subtraction test) conditions. The dual-task costs (DTC) of gait (% change in walking time) and cognition (% change in correctly verbalized utterances) were calculated to quantify CMI. Secondary outcomes included physiological profile assessment (PPA), measures of cognition and falls efficacy scale international (FES-I). RESULTS: Mixed-factor ANOVAs revealed no main effect of task (F = 1.71, p = 0.196) and group (F = 0.71, p = 0.406) on DTC of gait, while there were significant main effects of both task (F = 23.75, p < 0.001) and group (F = 6.53, p = 0.015) on DTC of cognition. Simple main effects revealed that pwMS had a significantly higher DTC of cognition during BW (+37.6 %, p=0.013), NW (+34.2 %, p=0.014) and NO (+49 %, p=0.016) compared to HA. Additionally, DTC of cognition increased during the more environmentally demanding conditions compared to BW (range: +28.4 % to +54.2 %, all p-values<0.01) in both pwMS and HA. Only DTCs of cognition were significantly correlated with PPA and FES-I. SIGNIFICANCE: The study findings suggest that CMI may be influenced by the individual/environment at levels above those described by the more mechanistic theories of attention.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Exposição Ambiental/normas , Marcha/fisiologia , Esclerose Múltipla/psicologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Caminhada/fisiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
11.
Data Brief ; 31: 105970, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32695852

RESUMO

This article presents data from a research paper entitled "Postural balance, muscle strength, and history of falls in end-stage renal disease patients living with a kidney transplant: a cross-sectional study" available in Journal Gait and Posture [1]. In this article, we reported the minimal detectable changes at the 95% level of confidence (MDC95) of postural balance variables measured in eyes open (EO) and eyes closed (EC) conditions, with a stabilometric platform, in 59 kidney transplant (KT) recipients (mean age= 53.2 ±â€¯11 years). In addition, we also performed receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve analysis to explore the ability of postural balance measures to discriminate fallers and non-fallers (history of falls: yes or no). Sensitivity, specificity and area under the curve (AUC) of mean center of pressure velocity (CoPv), sway area (SA), center of pressure range of displacement in the anterior-posterior (AP) and medio-lateral (ML) directions were calculated. These data can be used by researchers aiming to design psychometric studies of postural balance in KT patients and they also provide clinicians with information on possible prioritization of outcome assessment for future fall-risk research in this clinical population.

12.
BMC Nephrol ; 21(1): 230, 2020 06 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32546225

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Low levels of physical activity are implicated in low life expectancies of people receiving maintenance haemodialysis. Accelerometers are increasingly being used to quantify activity behaviours of this population but guidance to quality-assure such data is lacking. The objective of this study was to provide data processing and reduction recommendations to ensure accelerometer-derived outcomes are sufficiently reliable for interpretative analysis. METHODS: Seventy people receiving maintenance haemodialysis (age 55.9 ± 15.7 years, 34% women, 23% diabetic) from a single outpatient renal unit volunteered for the study. Participants wore Actigraph GT3x and ActivPAL monitors during waking hours over seven days. Reliability of accelerometer output (normalised to wear-time) was assessed via intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). The Spearman-Brown prophecy formula was subsequently applied to the ICCs to derive the minimum required accelerometer wear-time for each behavioural outcome. RESULTS: Monitor wear compliance was greater on dialysis compared to non-dialysis days (90% v 77%). Participants were significantly more active on non-dialysis days compared to dialysis days but there were no significant differences in estimated behaviours between days within the same condition. Average measure ICCs for all accelerometer outcomes were high (range 0.76-0.96). Computations indicated that habitual physical activity and sedentary behaviour could be estimated with a minimum reliability level of 0.80 from one dialysis day and two non-dialysis days, and at least eight hours monitor wear per day. Applying this rubric allowed 90% of participant data to be retained for further analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Regardless of accelerometer, one dialysis and two non-dialysis days data with a minimum of eight hours wear each day should enable habitual activity of people receiving maintenance haemodialysis to be characterised with acceptable reliability. These recommendations reconcile the tension between wear-time criteria stringency and retention of an adequately representative sample.


Assuntos
Acelerometria , Exercício Físico , Cooperação do Paciente , Diálise Renal , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Comportamento Sedentário , Fatores de Tempo
13.
BMC Nephrol ; 21(1): 99, 2020 03 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32169050

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stage 5 chronic kidney disease (CKD-5) patients on haemodialysis (HD) are at high risk of accidental falls. Previous research has shown that frailty is one of the primary contributors to the increased risk of falling in this clinical population. However, HD patients often present with abnormalities of cardiovascular function such as baroreflex impairment and orthostatic dysregulation of blood pressure (BP) which may also be implicated in the aetiology of falling. Therefore, we aimed to explore the relative importance of frailty and cardiovascular function as potential exercise-modifiable predictors of falls in these patients. METHODS: Ninety-three prevalent CKD-5 patients on HD from three Renal Units were recruited for this prospective cohort study, which was conducted between October 2015 and August 2018. At baseline, frailty status was assessed using the Fried's frailty phenotype, while physical function was evaluated through timed up and go (TUG), five repetitions chair sit-to-stand (CSTS-5), objectively measured physical activity, and maximal voluntary isometric strength. Baroreflex and haemodynamic function at rest and in response to a 60° head-up tilt test (HUT-60°) were also assessed by means of the Task Force Monitor. The number of falls experienced was recorded once a month during 12 months of follow-up. RESULTS: In univariate negative binomial regression analysis, frailty (RR: 4.10, 95%CI: 1.60-10.51, p = 0.003) and other physical function determinants were associated with a higher number of falls. In multivariate analysis however, only worse baroreflex function (RR: 0.96, 95%CI: 0.94-0.99, p = 0.004), and orthostatic decrements of BP to HUT-60° (RR: 0.93, 95%CI: 0.87-0.99, p = 0.033) remained significantly associated with a greater number of falls. Eighty falls were recorded during the study period and the majority of them (41.3%) were precipitated by dizziness symptoms, as reported by participants. CONCLUSIONS: This prospective study indicates that cardiovascular mechanisms implicated in the short-term regulation of BP showed a greater relative importance than frailty in predicting falls in CKD-5 patients on HD. A high number of falls appeared to be mediated by a degree of cardiovascular dysregulation, as evidenced by the predominance of self-reported dizziness symptoms. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov (trial registration ID: NCT02392299; date of registration: March 18, 2015).


Assuntos
Acidentes por Quedas/prevenção & controle , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Cardiovasculares , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Fragilidade/fisiopatologia , Falência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia , Desempenho Físico Funcional , Diálise Renal , Acidentes por Quedas/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Tontura/complicações , Feminino , Fragilidade/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
14.
Gait Posture ; 76: 358-363, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31901763

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: End-stage renal disease patients living with a kidney transplant (KT) often present with frailty, functional disability, and mobility impairments that may result in a high risk of falls. Postural balance and muscle strength are implicated in the etiology of falls in the geriatric population, and both may be impaired in KT patients. RESEARCH QUESTION: We conducted a cross-sectional investigation to estimate the prevalence of falls, as well as to explore the association between postural balance, muscle strength and history of falls in end-stage renal disease patients living with a KT. METHODS: Fifty-nine prevalent KT patients (age = 53.2 ±â€¯11 years) were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Participants were classified as fallers/non-fallers and underwent an objectively-measured assessment of postural balance on a stabilometric platform in eyes open (EO), eyes closed (EC), and dual-task (DT) conditions. Center of pressure (CoP) variables were taken for the analysis. In addition, participants underwent isometric (IM) and isokinetic (IK) assessments of lower limb muscle strength on a multi-joint evaluation system. RESULTS: Thirty-four percent of the study participants reported at least one fall in the previous 12 months. In logistic regression analysis, CoP velocity in EO (OR: 1.23, 95 % CI: 1.06-1.43, p = .007), and IK ankle dorsiflexion strength (OR: 0.87, 95 % CI: 0.77-0.99, p = .034) were independently associated with increased odds of falling. SIGNIFICANCE: This cross-sectional study indicates that patients living with a KT presented with a prevalence of falls indicative of a high risk of falling. Postural balance and muscle strength are exercise-modifiable factors and further research is warranted to establish to what extent these measures may be implicated in the etiology of falling in this patient group.


Assuntos
Acidentes por Quedas/estatística & dados numéricos , Falência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia , Transplante de Rim , Força Muscular , Equilíbrio Postural , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos Transversais , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Fragilidade/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Falência Renal Crônica/cirurgia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
15.
PLoS One ; 13(12): e0208127, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30521545

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stage 5 chronic kidney disease patients on haemodialysis (HD) often present with dizziness and pre-syncopal events as a result of the combined effect of HD therapy and cardiovascular disease. The dysregulation of blood pressure (BP) during orthostasis may be implicated in the aetiology of falls in these patients. Therefore, we explored the relationship between baroreflex function, the haemodynamic responses to a passive orthostatic challenge, and falls in HD patients. METHODS: Seventy-six HD patients were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Participants were classified as "fallers" and "non-fallers" and completed a passive head up tilting to 60o (HUT-60°) test on an automated tilt table. ECG signals, continuous and oscillometric BP measurements and impedance cardiography were recorded. The following variables were derived from these measurements: heart rate (HR) stroke volume (SV), cardiac output (CO), total peripheral resistance (TPR), number of baroreceptor events, and baroreceptor effectiveness index (BEI). RESULTS: The forty-four participants who were classified as fallers (57.9%) had a lower number of baroreceptor events (6.5±8.5 vs 14±16.7, p = .027) and BEI (20.8±24.2% vs 33.4±23.3%, p = .025). In addition, fallers experienced a significantly larger drop in systolic (-6.4±10.9 vs -0.4±7.7 mmHg, p = .011) and diastolic (-2.7±7.3 vs 1.8±6 mmHg, p = .027) oscillometric BP from supine to HUT-60° compared with non-fallers. None of the variables taken for the analysis were significantly associated with falls in multivariate logistic regression analysis. CONCLUSIONS: This cross-sectional comparison indicates that, at rest, HD patients with a positive history of falls present with a lower count of baroreceptor sequences and BEI. Short-term BP regulation warrants further investigation as BP drops during a passive orthostatic challenge may be implicated in the aetiology of falls in HD.


Assuntos
Acidentes por Quedas/prevenção & controle , Tontura/fisiopatologia , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Diálise Renal/efeitos adversos , Síncope/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Barorreflexo/fisiologia , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Débito Cardíaco/fisiologia , Estudos Transversais , Tontura/diagnóstico , Tontura/etiologia , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Falência Renal Crônica/complicações , Falência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Volume Sistólico/fisiologia , Síncope/diagnóstico , Síncope/etiologia , Teste da Mesa Inclinada , Resistência Vascular/fisiologia
16.
J Exerc Rehabil ; 13(1): 55-61, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28349034

RESUMO

The aim was to investigate the effect of a dietary supplementation on the repeated sprint ability (RSA) performance in recreationally trained team sports athletes. Twelve young men underwent a RSA exercise protocol in five trials, in which participants ingested carbohydrates (CHO) plus caffeine (Caf), CHO plus arginine (Arg), CHO plus branched-chain amino acids (BCAA), CHO plus Caf, Arg, and BCAA (ALL), and CHO only. Heart rate, oxygen saturation, hematic lactate, ratings of perceived exertion, average sprint time, total time, best sprint time, peak power, and average power were taken. Data revealed no significant effects neither on physiological nor performance parameters with any of the supplements.

17.
Front Aging Neurosci ; 6: 271, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25374539

RESUMO

Dual-task performance assessments of competing parallel tasks and postural outcomes are growing in importance for geriatricians, as it is associated with predicting fall risk in older adults. This study aims to evaluate the postural stability during different dual-task conditions including visual (SMBT), verbal (CBAT) and cognitive (MAT) tasks in comparison with the standard Romberg's open eyes position (OE). Furthermore, these conditions were investigated in a sample of young adults and a group of older healthy subjects to examine a potential interaction between type of secondary task and age status. To compare these groups across the four conditions, a within-between mixed model ANOVA was applied. Thus, a stabilometric platform has been used to measure center of pressure velocity (CoPV), sway area (SA), antero-posterior (AP) and medio-lateral (ML) oscillations as extents of postural sway. Tests of within-subjects effects indicated that different four conditions influenced the static balance for CoPV (p < 0.001), SA (p < 0.001). Post-hoc analyses indicated that CBAT task induced the worst balance condition on CoPV and resulted in significantly worse scores than OE (-11.4%; p < 0.05), SMBT (-17.8%; p < 0.01) and MAT (-17.8%; p < 0.01) conditions; the largest SA was found in OE, and it was statistically larger than SMBT (-27.0%; p < 0.01) and MAT (-23.1%; p < 0.01). The between-subjects analysis indicated a general lower balance control in the group of elderly subjects (CoPV p < 0.001, SA p < 0.002), while, the mixed model ANOVA did not detect any interaction effect between types of secondary task and groups in any parameters (CoPV p = 0.154, SA p = 0.125). Postural sway during dual-task assessments was also found to decrease with advancing age, however, no interactions between aging and types of secondary tasks were found. Overall, these results indicated that the secondary task which most influenced the length of sway path, as measured by postural stability was a simple verbal assignment.

18.
Curr Aging Sci ; 7(2): 115-36, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24679341

RESUMO

Investigations on how exercise and physical activity affect dual-task (DT) performance in the elderly are growing rapidly due to the fact that DT activities are commonplace with activities of daily living. Preliminary evidence has shown the benefit in exercise on DT balance, though it is unclear to what extent the effect exercise has on DT performance in elderly subjects with disease conditions, including subjects with a high risk of falls. Hence, the objective of this study was to critically review the existing evidence of a potential relationship between exercise and improvement of static and dynamic balance during DT conditions as well as secondary outcomes in elderly subjects with different disease conditions. A systematic search using online databases was performed to source documents. Inclusion criteria sourced articles classified as randomized controlled trials (RCT), controlled trials (CT) and uncontrolled trials (UT). Moreover, the studies had to administrate an exercise or physical activity protocol in the intervention. Seventeen studies met the eligibility criteria and were comprised of 12 RCTs, 3 CTs, and 2 UTs. Overall, 13 studies supported exercise being effective to improve parameters of static and dynamic balance during single or DT conditions. Despite the heterogeneity of pathologic conditions, exercise showed similar benefits to improve function in two main areas: neurological conditions and frailty conditions. The lack of a common method to assess DT performance limited the ability to compare different interventions directly. Future research is warranted to study the optimal dose and exercise modalities to best reduce the risk of falls in the elderly with multiple disease conditions.


Assuntos
Acidentes por Quedas/prevenção & controle , Envelhecimento/psicologia , Cognição , Terapia por Exercício , Atividade Motora , Equilíbrio Postural , Atividades Cotidianas , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Idoso Fragilizado , Avaliação Geriátrica , Humanos , Masculino , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
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