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1.
Orthod Fr ; 91(3): 249-262, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33146619

RESUMO

The use of self-ligating brackets has largely developed in orthodontic practice thanks to numerous advantages, including the reduction of frictional forces during sliding orthodontic mechanic. Faced with scientific evidence, this advantage still seems to be debatable. Our objective was to evaluate in vivo the frictional force of self-ligating brackets by searching for micro-morphological and chemical effects on the active slot surface, after phase of alignment-leveling and after a period in the mouth. 16 brackets from four commercial brands were selected (Damon®, In-Ovation®, Smart-clip® and Carriere®). These brackets were visualized using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and dispersive energy spectroscopy to study their surface and initial chemical composition. After a period in the mouth, these brackets were debonded and evaluated with SEM, to search topographic and chemical changes in relation to the frictional forces. After a period of three months used for dental alignment, all the brackets show considerable changes in topographic and chemical properties related to frictional forces, with deposit of organic debris whose importance is related to the initial surface different from one manufacturer to another.


Assuntos
Braquetes Ortodônticos , Fios Ortodônticos , Ligas Dentárias , Análise do Estresse Dentário , Fricção , Teste de Materiais , Desenho de Aparelho Ortodôntico , Aço Inoxidável , Propriedades de Superfície
2.
Int Orthod ; 17(3): 606-612, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31253455

RESUMO

Coronoradicular dilaceration is a particular abnormality of the permanent incisors, usually maxillary, and usually occurs around the age of 4 to 5 when the crown is formed and the root is still growing. It follows acute mechanical trauma affecting the temporary incisor. This anomaly of shape is characterized by an angulation between the crown and the root of the permanent tooth. The prognosis may be serious because the affected tooth may not erupt normally. It also compromises possible orthodontic treatment later. Our clinical case is that of a young patient (ES) aged 8 years and 4 months, in good general health condition, consulted for the absence 21 on the arch while the contralateral tooth was present. Interrogation revealed that the patient suffered trauma with severe luxation of the 61 at the age of 3 years. Radiographic examination showed the presence of the germ of 21 with an atypical sickle-shaped position and an image of a hand of a traffic policeman with a crown in a horizontal position. Three-dimensional imaging using a CT scan shows the shape of the 21 with a root angulation. The therapeutic attitude allowed the correction of its axis by an orthodontico-surgical treatment.


Assuntos
Incisivo/anormalidades , Maxila , Anormalidades Dentárias/terapia , Coroa do Dente/anormalidades , Criança , Dentição Permanente , Humanos , Imageamento Tridimensional , Planejamento de Assistência ao Paciente , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Anormalidades Dentárias/diagnóstico por imagem , Anormalidades Dentárias/etiologia , Extração Dentária , Raiz Dentária , Dente Decíduo/anormalidades , Dente Decíduo/diagnóstico por imagem , Dente Impactado , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
Int Orthod ; 17(2): 235-242, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30981677

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Interdental stripping is often used in orthodontics to correct discrepancies of tooth shape or size. However, this procedure involves significant risks for the enamel. The roughness of the enamel surface might depend on the instruments used; it can lead to the accumulation of cariogenic plaque and periodontal problems. The main objective of our study was to evaluate the enamel surface condition after interproximal stripping in the mouth, by comparing different manual and mechanized enamel reduction protocols; on the other hand, the topography of the stripped area was observed to specify its location on the stripped proximal surfaces. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An in vivo study was carried out: interdental stripping was performed in the mouths of patients undergoing orthodontic treatment and on healthy teeth intended for extraction for orthodontic or periodontal reasons. The sample was divided into four groups: in group 1, the distal faces were stripped with conventional single-sided diamond abrasive strips and non-stripped mesial faces (control faces); in group 2: the distal faces were stripped with the manual ContacEZ IRP Kit (single-sided abrasive files of different grain sizes) and non-stripped mesial faces (control faces); in group 3: the faces were stripped with ContacEZ IRP diamond discs attached to a handpiece and the mesial faces were not stripped (control faces); in group 4: the distal faces were stripped with the Intensiv Ortho-Strips mechanized system and the mesial faces were not stripped (control faces). RESULTS: Our study showed that regardless of the type of stripping material used, the enamel surface showed some roughness with the presence of striations and grooves of different widths and depths. Our observations objectivised more regular and less roughened enamel surface conditions when using the Intensiv oscillating files. Manual instruments (abrasive strips and files) have shown rougher and more irregular surface conditions that may constitute a real risk of carious and periodontal disease. The macroscopic evaluation of the topography of the stripped area showed that there is great variability in the situation and extent of the stripped area in relation to several parameters. CONCLUSION: The current mechanized instruments (oscillating files) provide enamel stripping with more comfort for the patient and the practitioner, and seem to produce a more regular and less harmful surface condition for the tooth and periodontium.


Assuntos
Esmalte Dentário/ultraestrutura , Polimento Dentário/efeitos adversos , Dente Pré-Molar , Esmalte Dentário/diagnóstico por imagem , Polimento Dentário/métodos , Gengiva , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Propriedades de Superfície , Técnicas de Movimentação Dentária/efeitos adversos , Técnicas de Movimentação Dentária/métodos
4.
Int Orthod ; 17(2): 243-248, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30987958

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Interproximal enamel reduction (IPR) is a clinical procedure that has been in use since the advent of non-extraction orthodontic techniques. However, such a procedure affects the surface condition of the enamel and may predispose patients to cavities and hypersensitivity. The use of a remineralizing agent is recommended to prevent these side effects. The objective of our study was to evaluate the evolution of stripped proximal dental surfaces after exposure to the oral environment for 4 months with and without fluoride protection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Our sample consisted of 14 premolars (PM) from 6 patients of the Dentofacial Orthopaedics Department of the Consultation and Dental Treatment Centre of Rabat (CDTC) who required orthodontic treatment with PM extraction and had given their informed consent. The teeth were divided into 5 groups: group 1: intact enamel; group 2: intact enamel+fluoride varnish+4-month oral exposure; group 3: IPR (manual and mechanized)+extraction; group 4: IPR (manual and mechanized) without varnish+4-month oral exposure; group 5: IPR (manual and mechanized)+fluoride varnish+4-month oral exposure. Proximal surfaces were subjected to qualitative analysis by scanning electron microscopy and quantitative analysis by Dispersive Energy Spectroscopy (DES) to quantify the percentage of mineral elements. RESULTS: Exposure of stripped dental surfaces to the oral environment for 4 months with or without fluoride protection showed the persistence of surface irregularities caused by stripping. We noted an improvement in the percentage of mineral elements for both groups with and without fluoride protection. However, the percentages of calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) were close to that of intact enamel in the fluoride varnish group. CONCLUSION: Protecting stripped surfaces with fluoride varnish could help preserve the integrity of the enamel surface by restoring some of the mineral elements lost during stripping.


Assuntos
Esmalte Dentário/efeitos dos fármacos , Esmalte Dentário/ultraestrutura , Polimento Dentário/efeitos adversos , Fluoretos Tópicos/uso terapêutico , Dente Pré-Molar , Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Fluoretos Tópicos/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade/prevenção & controle , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Substâncias Protetoras/uso terapêutico , Técnicas de Movimentação Dentária/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
Int Orthod ; 16(4): 603-612, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30314953

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: A number of studies have been published regarding the behaviour of titanium inside the oral cavity or in a similar environment. Very often the results converge although they may on occasion be divergent. There appears to be a strong need for a systematic review because of this disparity, with a view to designing an experimental working method. Our study will attempt to analyse the various aspects of this problem. It will therefore focus on fluoride and its impact, as well as on the role it plays in corroding titanium orthodontic brackets (Ti) according to the synthesis and critical analysis drawn from literature. METHODS: An exhaustive bibliography search was conducted in the following databases: PubMed, Science Direct and Cochrane Library using a search equation based on the following key-words: corrosion, titanium brackets and fluoride. RESULTS: Out of 459 identified references, only 5 matched our inclusion criteria. CONCLUSION: Although very few articles look into the impact of fluoride on titanium orthodontic brackets, one may conclude that in the presence of fluoride ions, resistance to corrosion of Ti attachments decreases in the presence of high fluoride concentrations and lengthy exposure to fluoride ions and an acid pH.


Assuntos
Corrosão , Fluoretos/química , Braquetes Ortodônticos , Titânio/química , Bases de Dados Factuais , Ligas Dentárias/química , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio
7.
Int Orthod ; 16(3): 530-544, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30017773

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The aim of our study was to try to standardize the surgeon's clinical sense in order to avoid revision surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-nine patients with skeletal Class III treated by bimaxillary surgery were selected according to inclusion and exclusion criteria. These patients were divided into two groups according to the type of surgery: Group 1 (G1): bimaxillary surgery alone, and Group 2 (G2): bimaxillary surgery with genioplasty. The study was conducted based on the presurgical (t0) and postchirurgical (t1) lateral cephalograms. The different changes were compared between the two groups using the Mann-Whitney Test. One way and multiple linear regression analyses were used to determine the variables influencing the amount of displacement of the chin fragment during the genioplasty procedure. The significance level was fixed at 0.05. RESULTS: The labiomental profile was significantly more improved in group G2 (bimaxillary surgery with genioplasty), the aesthetic changes included the thickness increase of the lower labial sulcus and soft tissue pogonion, and also the reduction of the labiomental angle (P<0.05). Only the presurgical value of the labiomental angle would influence the amount of chin displacement. Starting from the regression analysis, we suggested a predictive equation allowing to predict this amount of displacement, based on the presurgical value of the labiomental angle. CONCLUSION: The analysis of changes (specifically the aesthetic ones) between the two groups of patients, allowed the proposal of a model predicting the amount of chin displacement performed in genioplasty group, based on the presurgical parameters. This model could contribute to determine an indicative value for bimaxillary surgery with additional genioplasty.


Assuntos
Mentoplastia/métodos , Adulto , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino
9.
Int Orthod ; 16(3): 409-424, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30001980

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Retention during both the active and passive phases of treatment has given rise to numerous publications concerning its efficacy, the range of systems available and its variability over time. There are currently many different retention protocols regularly used by orthodontists; however, their efficacy and duration are still subject to debate. There is as yet no consensus as to which retention protocol is the most effective or for how long the retention device needs to be worn. The aim of this research was to perform a systematic review of the scientific literature in order to evaluate the efficacy of the different retention systems and clinical protocols among those most widely used, so as to make recommendations beneficial to both patient and practitioner. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A search of the literature was performed in the following databases: PubMed (MEDLINE), ScienceDirect and Cochrane Library. The search was limited to publications in English and French during the period 2006-2016. RESULTS: Out of 1952 references initially identified, 17 articles corresponded to our inclusion criteria. The results show that: fixed retention is more effective than removable retainers for the maintenance of incisor alignment during the first six months of retention; there is no significant difference in efficacy between the different fixed retention systems; there is no significant difference in efficacy between the vacuum-formed systems and the Hawley retainer; part-time use of removable retainers (between 8-10h/day) is sufficient; the most widely used retention protocol combines a vacuum-formed splint or Hawley retainer in the upper arch with mandibular fixed retention. CONCLUSION: Despite the large number of studies devoted to orthodontic retention only a few articles corresponded to the methodological criteria of bio statistical analysis. Also, on account of the variations in experimental protocols, the levels of proof relating to the efficacy of different systems are very weak. Research into this topic should first seek to normalize methods of analysis and then perform randomized controlled long-term trials to shed light on this problem.


Assuntos
Retenção em Prótese Dentária , Bioestatística , Retenção em Prótese Dentária/instrumentação , Humanos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Int Orthod ; 16(2): 361-373, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29685399

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The aim of this regression analysis was to identify the determining factors, which impact the curve of Spee during its genesis, its therapeutic reconstruction, and its stability, within a continuously evolving craniofacial morphology throughout life. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We selected a total of 107 patients, according to the inclusion criteria. A morphological and functional clinical examination was performed for each patient: plaster models, tracing of the curve of Spee, crowding, Angle's classification, overjet and overbite were thus recorded. Then, we made a cephalometric analysis based on the standardized lateral cephalograms. In the sagittal dimension, we measured the values of angles ANB, SNA, SNB, SND, I/i; and the following distances: AoBo, I/NA, i/NB, SE and SL. In the vertical dimension, we measured the values of angles FMA, GoGn/SN, the occlusal plane, and the following distances: SAr, ArD, Ar/Con, Con/Gn, GoPo, HFP, HFA and IF. The statistical analysis was performed using the SPSS software with a significance level of 0.05. RESULTS: Our sample including 107 subjects was composed of 77 female patients (71.3%) and 30 male patients (27.8%) 7 hypodivergent patients (6.5%), 56 hyperdivergent patients (52.3%) and 44 normodivergent patients (41.1%). Patients' mean age was 19.35±5.95 years. The hypodivergent patients presented more pronounced curves of Spee compared to the normodivergent and the hyperdivergent populations; patients in skeletal Class I presented less pronounced curves of Spee compared to patients in skeletal Class II and Class III. These differences were non significant (P>0.05). The curve of Spee was positively and moderately correlated with Angle's classification, overjet, overbite, sellion-articulare distance, and breathing type (P<0.05). We found no correlation between age, gender and the other parameters included in the study with the curve of Spee (P>0.05). Seventy five percent (75%) of the hyperdivergent patients with an oral breathing presented an overbite of 3mm, which is quite excessive given the characteristics often admitted for this typology; this parameter could explain the overbite observed in the hyperdivergent population included in this study. For the multivariate analysis, the overbite and the sellion-articulare distance remained independently related to the curve of Spee according to the breathing type, Angle's classification, and overjet. This regression model explains 21.4% of the changes in the curve of Spee.


Assuntos
Arco Dental/anatomia & histologia , Má Oclusão/classificação , Má Oclusão/complicações , Sobremordida/classificação , Sobremordida/complicações , Adolescente , Adulto , Pontos de Referência Anatômicos , Cefalometria/métodos , Oclusão Dentária , Face/anatomia & histologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incisivo/anatomia & histologia , Masculino , Má Oclusão de Angle Classe II/classificação , Má Oclusão de Angle Classe II/complicações , Mandíbula/anatomia & histologia , Análise Multivariada , Análise de Regressão , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Dimensão Vertical , Adulto Jovem
13.
Int Orthod ; 16(1): 114-132, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29478925

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Relapse in orthodontics, and particularly, mandibular anterior crowding is an unforeseeable phenomenon and a quite embarrassing situation for the orthodontist, as it may be interpreted by the patient as a treatment failure. Relapse may be inherent to various factors (periodontal, anatomical, muscular, occlusal, residual growth, third molars development…), which must be imperatively acknowledged in order to be managed during orthodontic treatment and therefore ensure an optimal control on the stability of the achieved final outcomes. The aim of this review was to determine, through a systematic analysis based on a Medline PubMed search, the scientific relevant factors involved in the relapse of mandibular anterior crowding. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic research was performed based on an electronic search (between 2005 and December 2016) among various databases. The search was limited to the use of several specific search words expressed in two languages: English and French. Two investigators selected those meeting the exclusion/inclusion criteria. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Out of the 1055 references, only 19 studies met our inclusion criteria. The factors addressed by these studies are: extraction or non-extraction treatment, residual growth, facial divergence, periodontium, type of retainer, incisor morphology and quality of dental occlusion. Divergence in female patients, thin cortical bone and treatment using aligners were associated with a higher rate of mandibular anterior crowding relapse. However, due to the low level of evidence of the included studies, as well as the heterogeneity of protocols between the studies, it was not possible to determine factors truly involved in mandibular crowding relapse. Future reliable prospective studies are required to provide unbiased and quantifiable results.


Assuntos
Má Oclusão/terapia , Densidade Óssea , Humanos , Incisivo/patologia , Má Oclusão/patologia , Má Oclusão/fisiopatologia , Desenvolvimento Maxilofacial , Contenções Ortodônticas , Ortodontia Corretiva/métodos , Recidiva , Extração Dentária
16.
Int Orthod ; 15(4): 698-707, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29122570

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between facial divergence and the parameters of dentomaxillary discrepancy (DMD), in particular crowding, the curve of Spee and the position of the incisors in the sagittal dimension. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 90 young adult patients was selected from among the Moroccan orthodontic population attending the dentofacial orthopedic department and satisfying the following inclusion criteria: complete permanent dentition and a skeletal class I pattern with no previous orthodontic treatment, no crossbite, no periodontal disease, no mandibular asymmetry and no condylodiscal disunion. On cephalometric tracings, measurements were made of angles FMA, Go-Gn/SN, Occ/SN in the vertical direction, and of the values I/NA et i/NB in the sagittal direction. The curve of Spee and dental crowding were assessed using the one-way ANOVA test and the Bonferroni post-hoc test. Correlation analysis was performed between divergence and the different variables measured, using SPSS software with a 0.05 significance threshold. RESULTS: Patients recruited for the study had a mean age of 19.8±0.5 and were distributed as follows: 28 normodivergent, 31 hypodivergent and 31 hyperdivergent, 42 females and 48 males. Comparison showed that hypodivergent subjects had less crowding than hypo- or normodivergent individuals (P<0.05). Hypodivergent subjects had a more pronounced curve of Spee than the other two groups. This difference was not significant (P>0.05). Hyperdivergent subjects presented more labioversion and vestibular positioning of the incisors compared with the hypodivergent (P<0.05) and normodivergent (P<0.05) groups. Correlation analysis showed that crowding and the incisor positions in millimeters and in degrees were positively correlated to a moderate extent with facial divergence (r=0.3, r=0.5, r=0.4; P<0.05), while the curve of Spee was not (P>0.05). No correlation was found between age or sex and the DMD parameters (P>0.05).


Assuntos
Arco Dental/anatomia & histologia , Face/anatomia & histologia , Incisivo/anatomia & histologia , Má Oclusão , Cefalometria , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mandíbula/anatomia & histologia , Maxila/anatomia & histologia , Marrocos , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
17.
Int Orthod ; 15(3): 297-311, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28778722

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Over the last few years, the use of self-ligating brackets in orthodontics has progressed considerably. These systems have been the subject of numerous studies with good levels of evidence making it possible to evaluate their efficacy and efficiency compared to conventional brackets. The aim of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of self-ligating brackets by means of a systematic review of the scientific literature. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic study was undertaken in the form of a recent search of the electronic Pubmed database, oriented by the use of several keywords combined by Boolean operators relating to the therapeutic efficacy of self-ligating brackets through the study of tooth alignment, space closure, expansion, treatment duration and degree of discomfort. The search was limited to randomized controlled studies, and two independent readers identified studies corresponding to the selection criteria. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: The chosen articles comprised 20 randomized controlled trials. The studies analyzed revealed the absence of significant differences between the two types of system on the basis of the clinical criteria adopted, thereby refuting the hypothesis of the superiority of self-ligating brackets over conventional systems.


Assuntos
Má Oclusão/terapia , Desenho de Aparelho Ortodôntico , Braquetes Ortodônticos , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Int Orthod ; 15(3): 515-528, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28755866

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In the current state of our knowledge, the effects of corrosion on the performance of orthodontic appliances and on patient health are far from clear. Awareness of these problems has led to a growing demand for nickel-free products. Titanium brackets were recently launched on the market as an alternative to stainless-steel brackets. However, the use of fluorides for caries prevention creates a risk of corrosion of these titanium appliances. The aim of this study is to examine the corrosion of stainless-steel and titanium brackets in clinical orthodontic use, focusing on the impact of fluorine. METHODS: After approval by the ethics committee and the informed consent of the patients, 30 candidates for multi-bracket treatment were selected on the basis of certain exclusion criteria. The patients were divided into 4 groups: group 1: titanium brackets and fluorine protection; group 2: titanium brackets without fluorine protection; group 3: stainless-steel brackets and fluorine protection; group 4: stainless-steel brackets without fluorine protection. RESULTS: Analysis of the brackets removed after 4months in the mouth, using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with phase contrast, revealed a difference in the surface topography of the metal brackets and the presence of chromium coating on the surface of the titanium appliances.


Assuntos
Braquetes Ortodônticos , Aço Inoxidável , Titânio , Corrosão , Humanos , Teste de Materiais , Boca , Desenho de Aparelho Ortodôntico , Estudos Prospectivos , Aço Inoxidável/química , Propriedades de Superfície , Fatores de Tempo , Titânio/química
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