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1.
Biomedicines ; 8(9)2020 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32932759

RESUMO

The increasing drug resistance of pathogenic microorganisms raises concern worldwide and necessitates the search for new natural compounds with antibacterial properties. Marine algae are considered a natural and attractive biotechnological source of novel antibiotics. The high antimicrobial activity of their polyphenolic compounds is a promising basis for designing innovative pharmaceuticals. They can become both a serious alternative to traditional antimicrobial agents and an effective supplement to antibiotic therapy. The present review summarizes the results of numerous studies on polyphenols from algae and the range of biological activities that determine their biomedical significance. The main focus is put on a group of the polyphenolic metabolites referred to as phlorotannins and, particularly, on their structural diversity and mechanisms of antimicrobial effects. Brown algae are an almost inexhaustible resource with a high biotechnological potential for obtaining these polyfunctional compounds. An opinion is expressed that the effectiveness of the antibacterial activity of phlorotannins depends on the methods of their extraction aimed at preserving the phenolic structure. The use of modern analytical tools opens up a broad range of opportunities for studying the metabolic pathways of phlorotannins and identifying their structural and functional relationships. The high antimicrobial activity of phlorotannins against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria provides a promising framework for creating novel drugs to be used in the treatment and prevention of infectious diseases.

2.
Biomedicines ; 8(9)2020 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32842682

RESUMO

Wound healing involves a complex cascade of cellular, molecular, and biochemical responses and signaling processes. It consists of successive interrelated phases, the duration of which depends on a multitude of factors. Wound treatment is a major healthcare issue that can be resolved by the development of effective and affordable wound dressings based on natural materials and biologically active substances. The proper use of modern wound dressings can significantly accelerate wound healing with minimum scar mark. Sulfated polysaccharides from seaweeds, with their unique structures and biological properties, as well as with a high potential to be used in various wound treatment methods, now undoubtedly play a major role in innovative biotechnologies of modern natural interactive dressings. These natural biopolymers are a novel and promising biologically active source for designing wound dressings based on alginates, fucoidans, carrageenans, and ulvans, which serve as active and effective therapeutic tools. The goal of this review is to summarize available information about the modern wound dressing technologies based on seaweed-derived polysaccharides, including those successfully implemented in commercial products, with a focus on promising and innovative designs. Future perspectives for the use of marine-derived biopolymers necessitate summarizing and analyzing results of numerous experiments and clinical trial data, developing a scientifically substantiated approach to wound treatment, and suggesting relevant practical recommendations.

3.
Mar Drugs ; 18(6)2020 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32486405

RESUMO

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a serious public health problem worldwide. Current therapeutic strategies that use anti-inflammatory drugs, immunosuppressants, and biological treatments are often ineffective and have adverse health effects. In this regard, the use of natural compounds aimed at key pathogenic therapeutic targets in IBD attracts universal attention. Seaweed is a valuable source of structurally diverse biologically active compounds. The materials presented in the review indicate that seaweed extracts and polysaccharides are effective candidates for the development of drugs, biological food additives, and functional nutrition products for the treatment and prevention of IBD. The structural features of algal polysaccharides provide the possibility of exposure to therapeutic targets of IBD, including proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines, adhesion molecules, nuclear factor NF-kB, intestinal epithelial cells, reactive oxygen and nitrogen. Further study of the relationship between the effect of polysaccharides from different types of algae, with different structure and molecular weights on immune and epithelial cells, intestinal microorganisms will contribute to a deeper understanding of their mechanisms and will help in the development of drugs, dietary supplements, functional foods for the treatment of patients with IBD.

4.
Mar Drugs ; 18(4)2020 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32331442

RESUMO

The enzymatic depolymerization of fucoidans from brown algae allowed the production of their standardized derivatives with different biological activities. This work aimed to compare the antiviral activities of native (FeF) and modified with enzyme (FeHMP) fucoidans from F. evanescens. The cytotoxicity and antiviral activities of the FeF and FeHMP against herpes viruses (HSV-1, HSV-2), enterovirus (ECHO-1), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) in Vero and human MT-4 cell lines were examined by methylthiazolyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and cytopathic effect (CPE) reduction assays, respectively. The efficacy of fucoidans in vivo was evaluated in the outbred mice model of vaginitis caused by HSV-2. We have shown that both FeF and FeHMP significantly inhibited virus-induced CPE in vitro and were more effective against HSV. FeF exhibited antiviral activity against HSV-2 with a selective index (SI) > 40, and FeHMP with SI ˃ 20, when they were added before virus infection or at the early stages of the HSV-2 lifecycle. Furthermore, in vivo studies showed that after intraperitoneal administration (10 mg/kg), both FeF and FeHMP protected mice from lethal intravaginal HSV-2 infection to approximately the same degree (44-56%). Thus, FeF and FeHMP have comparable potency against several DNA and RNA viruses, allowing us to consider the studied fucoidans as promising broad-spectrum antivirals.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Fucus/química , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Vírus/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antivirais/isolamento & purificação , Chlorocebus aethiops , Vírus de DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Camundongos , Polissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação , Vírus de RNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Vaginite/tratamento farmacológico , Vaginite/virologia , Células Vero
5.
Mar Drugs ; 18(3)2020 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32168741

RESUMO

Thе study presents the results of a comparative evaluation of the effect of structural modifications of fucoidans from the brown alga Fucus evanescens (native, highly purified рroduct of fucoidan enzymatic hydrolysis, a new regular 1→3;1→4-α-L-fucan, sulphated mainly at C2 and acetylated at C4 of the fucose residue) on the effector functions of innate and adaptive immunity cells in vitro and in vivo. Using flow cytometry, we found that all examined fucoidans induce the maturation of dendritic cells, enhance the ability of neutrophils to migrate and adhere, activate monocytes and enhance their antigen-presenting functions, and increase the cytotoxic potential of natural killers. Fucoidans increase the production of hepatitis B virus (HBs) specific IgG and cytokine Th1 (IFN-γ, TNF-α) and Th2 (IL-4) profiles in vivo. The data obtained suggest that in vitro and in vivo adjuvant effects of the products of fucoidan enzymatic hydrolysis with regular structural characteristics are comparable to those of the native fucoidan. Based on these data, the products of fucoidan enzymatic hydrolysis can be considered as an effective and safe candidate adjuvant to improve the efficacy of prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines.

6.
Biosensors (Basel) ; 10(2)2020 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32059538

RESUMO

Infections pose a serious global public health problem and are a major cause of premature mortality worldwide. One of the most challenging objectives faced by modern medicine is timely and accurate laboratory-based diagnostics of infectious diseases. Being a key factor of timely initiation and success of treatment, it may potentially provide reduction in incidence of a disease, as well as prevent outbreak and spread of dangerous epidemics. The traditional methods of laboratory-based diagnostics of infectious diseases are quite time- and labor-consuming, require expensive equipment and qualified personnel, which restricts their use in case of limited resources. Over the past six decades, diagnostic technologies based on lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) have been and remain true alternatives to modern laboratory analyzers and have been successfully used to quickly detect molecular ligands in biosubstrates to diagnose many infectious diseases and septic conditions. These devices are considered as simplified formats of modern biosensors. Recent advances in the development of label-free biosensor technologies have made them promising diagnostic tools that combine rapid pathogen indication, simplicity, user-friendliness, operational efficiency, accuracy, and cost effectiveness, with a trend towards creation of portable platforms. These qualities exceed the generally accepted standards of microbiological and immunological diagnostics and open up a broad range of applications of these analytical systems in clinical practice immediately at the site of medical care (point-of-care concept, POC). A great variety of modern nanoarchitectonics of biosensors are based on the use of a broad range of analytical and constructive strategies and identification of various regulatory and functional molecular markers associated with infectious bacterial pathogens. Resolution of the existing biosensing issues will provide rapid development of diagnostic biotechnologies.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Doenças Transmissíveis/diagnóstico , Técnicas Analíticas Microfluídicas/métodos , Humanos
7.
Metabolites ; 9(5)2019 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31052506

RESUMO

This review presents an analysis of works devoted to the anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) activity of algae metabolites-sulfated polysaccharides (fucoidans, carrageenans), lectins, laminarans, and polyphenols. Despite the presence of a significant number of antiretroviral drugs, the development of new therapeutic and prophylactic agents against this infection remains very urgent problem. This is due to the variability of HIV, the absence of an animal model (except monkeys) and natural immunity to this virus and the toxicity of therapeutic agents and their high cost. In this regard, the need for new therapeutic approaches and broad-spectrum drugs, which in addition to antiviral effects can have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and immunomodulatory effects, and to which the minimum resistance of HIV strains would be formed. These requirements meet the biologically active substances of marine algae. The results of experimental and clinical studies conducted in vitro and in vivo are presented, and the issues of the anti-HIV activity of these compounds are considered depending on their structural features. On the whole, the presented data prove the high efficiency of seaweed metabolites and justify the possibility of their use as a potential basis for the development of new drugs with a wide spectrum of activity.

8.
Helicobacter ; 20(2): 89-97, 2015 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25660579

RESUMO

Helicobacter pylori possesses a broad spectrum of pathogenic factors that allow it to survive and colonize the gastric mucosa, and thus, the pathogenetic targets, which have the same diversity, require search for and the development of alternative, effective, and innocuous means for the eradication of H. pylori. In recent years, fucoidans have been extensively studied due to the numerous interesting biological activities, including the anti-adhesive, anti-oxidative, antitoxic, immunomodulatory, anticoagulant, and anti-infection effects. This review summarizes the data on the effects of extracts and sulfated polysaccharides of marine algae, mainly fucoidans, on pathogenic targets in Helicobacter infection. The pathogenetic targets for therapeutic agents after H. pylori infection, such as flagellas, urease, and other enzymes, including adhesins, cytotoxin A (VacA), phospholipase, and L-8, are characterized here. The main target for the sulfated polysaccharides of seaweed is cell receptors of the gastric mucosa. This review presents the published data about the pleiotropic anti-inflammatory effects of polysaccharides on the gastric mucosa. It is known that fucoidan and other sulfated polysaccharides from algae have anti-ulcer effects, prevent the adhesion of H. pylori to, and reduce the formation of biofilm. The authors speculate that the effect of sulfated polysaccharides on the infectious process caused by H. pylori is related to their action on innate and adaptive immunity cells, and also anti-oxidant and antitoxic potential. Presented in the review are materials indicated for the study of extracts and sulfated polysaccharides from seaweed during H. pylori infection, as these compounds are characterized by multimodality actions. Based on the analysis of literary materials in recent years, the authors concluded that fucoidan can be attributed to the generation of new candidates to create drugs intended for the inclusion in the scheme of eradication therapy of H. pylori infection.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Helicobacter/tratamento farmacológico , Fitoterapia/métodos , Polissacarídeos/uso terapêutico , Pesquisa Biomédica/tendências , Descoberta de Drogas/tendências , Mucosa Gástrica/efeitos dos fármacos , Helicobacter pylori/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Alga Marinha/química
9.
Mar Drugs ; 11(7): 2413-30, 2013 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23852092

RESUMO

Intracellular fucoidanase was isolated from the marine bacterium, Formosa algae strain KMM 3553. The first appearance of fucoidan enzymatic hydrolysis products in a cell-free extract was detected after 4 h of bacterial growth, and maximal fucoidanase activity was observed after 12 h of growth. The fucoidanase displayed maximal activity in a wide range of pH values, from 6.5 to 9.1. The presence of Mg2+, Ca2+ and Ba2+ cations strongly activated the enzyme; however, Cu2+ and Zn2+ cations had inhibitory effects on the enzymatic activity. The enzymatic activity of fucoidanase was considerably reduced after prolonged (about 60 min) incubation of the enzyme solution at 45 °C. The fucoidanase catalyzed the hydrolysis of fucoidans from Fucus evanescens and Fucus vesiculosus, but not from Saccharina cichorioides. The fucoidanase also did not hydrolyze carrageenan. Desulfated fucoidan from F. evanescens was hydrolysed very weakly in contrast to deacetylated fucoidan, which was hydrolysed more actively compared to the native fucoidan from F. evanescens. Analysis of the structure of the enzymatic products showed that the marine bacteria, F. algae, synthesized an α-l-fucanase with an endo-type action that is specific for 1→4-bonds in a polysaccharide molecule built up of alternating three- and four-linked α-l-fucopyranose residues sulfated mainly at position 2.


Assuntos
Organismos Aquáticos/metabolismo , Bactérias/enzimologia , Bactérias/metabolismo , Fucus/enzimologia , Fucus/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo , Produtos Biológicos/isolamento & purificação , Produtos Biológicos/metabolismo , Cátions/metabolismo , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Hidrolases/metabolismo , Hidrólise , Sulfatos/metabolismo
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