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1.
Food Chem ; 305: 125445, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31499288

RESUMO

This research compared the distribution and mobility of water in the longissimus thoracis muscle of 51 Apulo-Calabrese and 52 crossbred pigs differing in growth performances. The Apulo-Calabrese and crossbreed pigs were fed the same diet and slaughtered at 135 and 155 kg live weight, respectively. Besides meat quality measurement, water status was assessed from transverse relaxation time (T2) weighted signals registered by Time Domain Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (TD-NMR). A mixed model indicated that Apulo-Calabrese pigs had higher a* (P-value < 0.0001), chroma (P-value < 0.0001) and total intensity (P-value = 0.011) values. A Principal Component Analysis showed that the samples from Apulo-Calabrese had higher scores along Principal Component (PC) 2 (P-value = 4.07 × 10-5) and lower scores along PC3 (P-value = 1.50 × 10-7). However PC2 and PC3 explained a low fraction of the total variance, suggesting that few differences characterize meat quality traits of the two genetic types.

2.
Meat Sci ; 156: 75-84, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31132591

RESUMO

The objective of the study was to test the associations between backfat fatty acid composition (FAC) in a sample of 536 Italian Large White pigs and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in candidate genes, using univariate and multivariate approaches. The strongest associations were identified for the SNP AY183428 c.265T>C in Fatty acid synthase (FASN) gene, with the T allele linked to lower backfat contents of stearic (P = 0.003) and arachidic (P < 0.0001) acids, and increased amounts of dihomo-γ-linolenic (P = 0.003) and arachidonic (P = 0.009) acids. These associations were in agreement with the results of a multivariate analysis performed on backfat FAC, and an in silico analysis of the sequence flanking FASN SNP suggested that the T allele may disrupt a putative exonic splicing enhancer sequence therefore possibly affecting FASN activity. If the results will be further confirmed, the studied FASN SNP could be of particular interest for better understanding the regulative patterns controlling porcine backfat FAC.


Assuntos
Ácido Graxo Sintases/genética , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Gordura Subcutânea/química , Sus scrofa/genética , Animais , Ácidos Graxos/genética , Feminino , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
3.
PLoS One ; 14(2): e0212449, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30785965

RESUMO

Supplementing pig diets with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) may produce meat products with an increased n-3 fatty acid content, and the combined antioxidants addition could prevent lipid oxidation in the feed. However, to date, the effects of these bioactive compounds at the molecular level in porcine skeletal muscle are mostly unknown. This study aimed to analyse changes in the Longissimus thoracis transcriptome of 35 pigs fed three diets supplemented with: linseed (L); linseed, vitamin E and Selenium (LES) or linseed and plant-derived polyphenols (LPE). Pigs were reared from 80.8 ± 5.6 kg to 151.8 ± 9.9 kg. After slaughter, RNA-Seq was performed and 1182 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were submitted to functional analysis. The L vs LES comparison did not show differences, while L vs LPE showed 1102 DEGs and LES vs LPE 80 DEGs. LPE compared to the other groups showed the highest number of up-regulated genes involved in preserving muscle metabolism and structure. Results enlighten that the combined supplementation of bioactive lipids (n-3 PUFA from linseed) with plant extracts as a source of polyphenols increases, compared to the only addition of linseed, the expression of genes involved in mRNA metabolic processes and transcriptional regulation, glucose uptake and, finally, in supporting muscle development and physiology. These results improve the knowledge of the biological effect of bioactive compounds in Longissimus thoracis muscle, and sustain the growing interest over their use in pig production.

4.
Meat Sci ; 148: 38-40, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30300804

RESUMO

Pork technological and sensory qualities are greatly affected by water-holding capacity (WHC), pH, color, tenderness, and chemical composition, and the identification of genetic markers affecting these traits is regarded as a primary goal in pig selection. Phosphorylase Kinase Catalytic Subunit Gamma 1 (PHKG1) gene has been reported in the literature to be a candidate gene for meat drip loss, ultimate pH, color and glycolytic potential. This study was mainly aimed at testing whether PHKG1 g.8283C>A SNP was associated with meat quality traits in heavy pigs. The associations between PHKG1 g.8283C>A SNP, WHC, meat color and pH measurements were evaluated in 250 Italian Large White pigs. The marker showed an additive effect on WHC (P = .008) and a dominant effect on a* color parameter (P = .004). Further studies are needed to elucidate the effects of this polymorphism on heavy pig meat quality traits before this mutation could be considered a marker of interest for heavy pig selection schemes.


Assuntos
Mutação , Carne Vermelha/análise , Sus scrofa/genética , Água , Animais , Cor , Feminino , Marcadores Genéticos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Masculino
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30479765

RESUMO

Background: Supplementing farm animals diet with functional ingredients may improve the nutritional quality of meat products. Diet composition has been also demonstrated to influence the gene expression with effect on biological processes and pathways. However, the knowledge on the effect of nutrients at the molecular level is scant. In particular, studies on the effects of antioxidants and polyphenols dietary supplementation have been investigated mainly in rodents, and only scarcely in farm animals so far. RNA-Seq with next-generation sequencing is increasingly the method of choice for studying changes in the transcriptome and it has been recently employed also in pig nutrigenomics studies to identify diet-induced changes in gene expression. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of diets enriched with functional ingredients (linseed, vitamin E and plant extracts) on the transcriptome of pig Longissimus thoracis to elucidate the role of these compounds in influencing genes involved in muscle physiology and metabolism compared to a standard diet. Results: Eight hundred ninety-three significant differentially expressed genes (DEGs) (FDR adjusted P-value ≤ 0.05) were detected by RNA-Seq analysis in the three diet comparisons (D2-D1, D3-D1, D4-D1). The functional analysis of DEGs showed that the diet enriched with n-3 PUFA from linseed (D2) mostly downregulated genes in pathways and biological processes (BPs) related to muscle development, contraction, and glycogen metabolism compared to the standard diet. The diet supplemented with linseed and vitamin E/Selenium (D3) showed to mostly downregulate genes linked to oxidative phosphorylation. Only few genes involved in extracellular matrix (ECM) organization were upregulated by the D3. Finally, the comparison D4-D1 showed that the diet supplemented with linseed and plant extracts (D4) upregulated the majority of genes compared to D1 that were involved in a complex network of pathways and BPs all connected by hub genes. In particular, IGF2 was a hub gene connecting protein metabolism, ECM organization, immune system and lipid biosynthesis pathways. Conclusion: The supplementation of pig diet with n-3 PUFA from linseed, antioxidants and plant-derived polyphenols can influence the expression of a relevant number of genes in Longissimus thoracis muscle that are involved in a variety of biochemical pathways linked to muscle function and metabolism.

6.
PLoS One ; 13(10): e0204869, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30286141

RESUMO

Porcine fat traits depend mostly on the interaction between nutritional and genetic factors. However, the pathways and biological processes influenced by this interaction are still poorly known in pigs, although they can have a huge impact on meat quality traits. The present research provides new knowledge insight into the effect of four diets (D1 = standard diet; D2 = linseed supplementation; D3 = linseed, vitamin E and selenium supplementation; D4 = linseed and plant-derived polyphenols supplementation) on the expression of 24 candidate genes selected for their role in lipid and energy metabolism. The data indicated that 10 out of 24 genes were differentially expressed among diets, namely ACACA, ADIPOQ, ADIPOR1, CHREBP (MLXPL), ELOVL6, FASN, G6PD, PLIN2, RXRA and SCD. Results from the univariate analysis displayed an increased expression of ACACA, ADIPOQ, ADIPOR1, CHREBP, ELOVL6, FASN, PLIN2, RXRA and SCD in D4 compared to D2. Similarly, ACACA, ADIPOQ, ADIPOR1, ELOVL6 and SCD were highly expressed in D4 compared to D3, while no differences were observed in D2-D3 comparison. Moreover, an increased expression of G6PD and ELOVL6 genes in D4 compared to D1 was observed. Results from the multivariate analysis confirmed that D2 was not different from D3 and that ACACA, SCD and FASN expression made D4 different from D2 and D3. Comparing D4 and D1, the expression levels of ELOVL6 and ACACA were the most influenced. This research provides evidence that the addition of both n-3 PUFA and polyphenols, derived from linseed, grape-skin and oregano supplementation in the diets, stimulates the expression of genes involved in lipogenesis and in oxidative processes. Results evidenced a greater effect on gene expression of the diet added with both plant extracts and n-3 PUFA, resulting in an increased expression of genes coding for fatty acid synthesis, desaturation and elongation in pig Longissimus thoracis muscle.

7.
Animals (Basel) ; 8(10)2018 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30308950

RESUMO

Despite the increasing interest in the welfare of animals during transport, very little is known on the response of local pig breeds to the transport procedures. This study aims to compare the effect of short journey on behaviour, blood parameters, and meat quality traits in 51 Apulo-Calabrese and 52 crossbreed [Duroc × (Landrace × Large White)] pigs. All the animals were blood sampled five days before delivery (basal condition) and at exsanguination for the analysis of creatine kinase, cortisol, glucose, lactate, albumin, albumin/globulin, total protein, urea, creatinine, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphate, sodium, and potassium. Post mortem pH, color, drip loss, cooking loss, and Warner-Bratzler shear force were measured at different times in longissimus thoracis samples. Univariate and multivariate analyses showed that glucose, albumin/globulin, urea, and AST at exsanguination were influenced by the genetic type. Apulo-Calabrese showed the highest increase in blood values of lactate, creatinine, sodium and potassium after the short distance transport. Behavioural occurrences were similar in both genetic types during unloading and lairage. Small differences were observed for meat quality although significantly higher a* and lower L* were found in Apulo-Calabrese pigs, showing meat with a deeper red colour than crossbreeds.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29527304

RESUMO

Background: Colostrum is the first secretion produced by mammary glands during the hours immediately preceding and succeeding parturition. This secretion differs from milk and represents an essential vehicle of passive immunity, prebiotic compounds and growth factors involved in intestinal development. Most of the literature concerning colostrum composition refers mainly to human and cow; and little is known about pig colostrum metabolome and how it varies between pig breeds and different farrowing parity. Thus, the aim of the present research is to provide new information about pig colostrum composition and the associations between metabolites, the sows' breed and the survival and growth rates of their litters. Results: Colostrum samples were gathered from 58 parturitions of sows belonging to three different breeds chosen for their importance in Italian heavy pig production: 31 Large White, 15 Landrace and 12 Duroc respectively. The defatted and ultrafiltered colostrum samples were analysed using 1H-NMR spectroscopy. Principal Components Analysis (PCA) was assessed on the obtained spectra. In addition, using a Stepwise Regression and a Linear Regression analyses the metabolites named after the signals assignment were tested for their associations with piglets' performances. Twenty-five metabolites were identified, comprehending monosaccharides, disaccharides (such as lactose), organic acids (lactate, citrate, acetate and formate), nitrogenous organic acids (such as creatine) and other compounds, including nucleotides. PCA results evidence a clustering due to breed and season effects. Lactose was the main compound determining the assignment of the samples into different clusters according to the sow breed. Furthermore, some metabolites showed to be associated with piglets' performance and survival traits: acetate and taurine were positively related to litter weight gain and piglets' survival rate, respectively, while dimethylamine and cis-aconitate were linked to new-borns' impaired ability to survive. Conclusions: The results obtained suggest that colostrum composition is affected by breed, which, together with environmental conditions, may cause changes in colostrum metabolites content with possible consequences on piglets' performances. Among the identified metabolites, acetate, taurine, dimethylamine and cis-aconitate showed consistent associations with piglets' survival rate and litter weight gain, implying that these compounds may affect new-borns' ability to survive.

9.
Poult Sci ; 95(12): 2771-2785, 2016 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27591279

RESUMO

White Striping and Wooden Breast (WS/WB) are abnormalities increasingly occurring in the fillets of high breast yield and growth rate chicken hybrids. These defects lead to consistent economic losses for poultry meat industry, as affected broiler fillets present an impaired visual appearance that negatively affects consumers' acceptability. Previous studies have highlighted in affected fillets a severely damaged muscle, showing profound inflammation, fibrosis, and lipidosis. The present study investigated the differentially expressed genes and pathways linked to the compositional changes observed in WS/WB breast muscles, in order to outline a more complete framework of the gene networks related to the occurrence of this complex pathological picture. The biochemical composition was performed on 20 pectoralis major samples obtained from high breast yield and growth rate broilers (10 affected vs. 10 normal) and 12 out of the 20 samples were used for the microarray gene expression profiling (6 affected vs. 6 normal). The obtained results indicate strong changes in muscle mineral composition, coupled to an increased deposition of fat. In addition, 204 differentially expressed genes (DEG) were found: 102 up-regulated and 102 down-regulated in affected breasts. The gene expression pathways found more altered in WS/WB muscles are those related to muscle development, polysaccharide metabolic processes, proteoglycans synthesis, inflammation, and calcium signaling pathway. On the whole, the findings suggest that a multifactorial and complex etiology is associated with the occurrence of WS/WB muscle abnormalities, contributing to further defining the transcription patterns associated with these myopathies.


Assuntos
Galinhas/metabolismo , Doenças Musculares/veterinária , Músculos Peitorais/metabolismo , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/metabolismo , Animais , Eletroforese em Gel de Poliacrilamida/veterinária , Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Masculino , Desenvolvimento Muscular/genética , Proteínas Musculares/metabolismo , Doenças Musculares/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos/veterinária , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/veterinária
10.
Meat Sci ; 121: 27-32, 2016 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27236338

RESUMO

Intramuscular fat (IMF) content has a prominent role in meat quality, affecting sensory attributes such as flavour and texture. In the present research, we studied in samples of porcine Semimembranosus muscle four genes related to lipid metabolism and whose gene expressions have been associated to IMF deposition: FASN, SCD, LIPE and LPL. We analysed both mRNA and protein expressions in two groups of Italian Large White pigs divergent for Semimembranosus IMF deposition, with the aim of comparing the levels of four genes and enzymes between the two groups and identifying possible coexpression links. The obtained results suggest a prominent role of LIPE enzyme in IMF hydrolysis, as the samples with low IMF deposition show a significantly higher amount of this lipase. Finally, a poorly known correlation was found between LIPE and FASN enzymes only in female individuals. These results provide new information for the understanding of IMF deposition.


Assuntos
Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Suínos/genética , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Animais , Ácido Graxo Sintases/genética , Ácido Graxo Sintases/metabolismo , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Lipase/genética , Lipase/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Lipase Lipoproteica/genética , Lipase Lipoproteica/metabolismo , Masculino , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Estearoil-CoA Dessaturase/genética , Estearoil-CoA Dessaturase/metabolismo
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