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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33792768

RESUMO

Suicidal ideation and behaviour (SIB) in the perinatal period is prevalent in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Past work has been limited by reliance on self-rated scales, and there are few data on SIB severity in such settings. We collected cross-sectional data on SIB using a clinician-administered scale and explored risk factors associated with the presence of SIB and SIB severity. Data were collected from the Drakenstein Child Health Study cohort antenatally and at 6 months postpartum. SIB was measured using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, and potential sociodemographic, psychosocial, and psychiatric risk factors were assessed. Multivariable analysis determined cross-sectional risk factors. Multinomial regressions determined predictors of SIB risk categories. Among 748 women, the antenatal SIB prevalence was 19.9% and postpartum 22.6%. SIB was associated with younger age (antepartum), PTSD (postpartum), and depression (ante- and postpartum). Depression and PTSD predicted belonging to the high-risk SIB group. The medium-risk group was more likely to have depression, alcohol use during pregnancy, and substance abuse. Depression, PTSD, food insecurity, recent intimate partner violence (IPV), and childhood trauma were associated with the low-risk group versus the no-risk group. Screening is needed for perinatal SIB. Associations of perinatal SIB with younger age and major depression are consistent with previous work. The association with PTSD is novel, and underscores the importance of assessment of trauma exposure and outcomes in this population. Different risk categories of SIB may have different causal pathways and require different interventions.

2.
Pediatr Pulmonol ; 2021 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33765350

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This study investigates drivers of childhood pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) using a childhood ecosystem approach in South Africa. An ecosystem approach toward identifying risk factors for PTB may identify targeted interventions. METHODS: Data were collected as part of a prospective cohort study of children presenting at a primary care facility or tertiary hospital with possible TB. Characterization of the childhood ecosystem included proximal, medial, and distal determinants. Proximal determinants included child characteristics that could impact PTB outcomes. Medial determinants included relational factors, such as caregiver health, which might impact interactions with the child. Distal determinants included macro-level determinants of disease, such as socioeconomic status and food insecurity. Children who started on TB treatment were followed for up to 6 months. Multivariate regression models tested independent associations between factors associated with PTB in children. RESULTS: Of 1202 children enrolled, 242 (20%) of children had confirmed PTB, 756 (63%) were started on TB treatment, and 444 (37%) had respiratory conditions other than TB. In univariate analyses, childhood malnutrition and caregiver smoking were associated with treated or confirmed PTB. In multivariate analyses, proximal factors, such as male gender and hospitalization, as well as low socioeconomic status as a distal factor, were associated with PTB. CONCLUSIONS: Interventions may need to target subgroups of children and families with elevated proximal, medial, and distal risk factors for PTB. Screening for risk factors, such as caregiver's health, may guide targeting. The provision of social protection programs to bolster economic security may be an important intervention for attenuating childhood exposure to risk factors.

3.
Environ Health ; 20(1): 34, 2021 03 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33771185

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An unusual feature of SARS-Cov-2 infection and the COVID-19 pandemic is that children are less severely affected than adults. This is especially paradoxical given the epidemiological links between poor air quality and increased COVID-19 severity in adults and that children are generally more vulnerable than adults to the adverse consequences of air pollution. OBJECTIVES: To identify gaps in knowledge about the factors that protect children from severe SARS-Cov-2 infection even in the face of air pollution, and to develop a transdisciplinary research strategy to address these gaps. METHODS: An international group of researchers interested in children's environmental health was invited to identify knowledge gaps and to develop research questions to close these gaps. DISCUSSION: Key research questions identified include: what are the effects of SAR-Cov-2 infection during pregnancy on the developing fetus and child; what is the impact of age at infection and genetic susceptibility on disease severity; why do some children with COVID-19 infection develop toxic shock and Kawasaki-like symptoms; what are the impacts of toxic environmental exposures including poor air quality, chemical and metal exposures on innate immunity, especially in the respiratory epithelium; what is the possible role of a "dirty" environment in conveying protection - an example of the "hygiene hypothesis"; and what are the long term health effects of SARS-Cov-2 infection in early life. CONCLUSION: A concerted research effort by a multidisciplinary team of scientists is needed to understand the links between environmental exposures, especially air pollution and COVID-19. We call for specific research funding to encourage basic and clinical research to understand if/why exposure to environmental factors is associated with more severe disease, why children appear to be protected, and how innate immune responses may be involved. Lessons learned about SARS-Cov-2 infection in our children will help us to understand and reduce disease severity in adults, the opposite of the usual scenario.

4.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 24(3): e25671, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33719199

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: There are limited data on Tuberculosis (TB) in adolescents with perinatally acquired HIV (APHIV). We examined the incidence and determinants of TB infection and disease in the Cape Town Adolescent Antiretroviral Cohort (CTAAC). METHODS: Youth between nine and fourteen years on antiretroviral therapy (ART) for more than six months in public sector care, and age-matched HIV-negative adolescents, were enrolled between July 2013 through March 2015 and followed six-monthly. Data were censored on 31 October 2018. Symptom screening, chest radiograph, viral load, CD4 count, QuantiFERON (QFT) and sputum for Xpert MTB/RIF, microscopy, culture and sensitivity were performed annually. TB infection was defined by a QFT of >0.35 IU/mL. TB diagnosis was defined as confirmed (culture or Xpert MTB/RIF positive) or unconfirmed (clinical diagnosis and started on TB treatment). Analyses examined the incidence and determinants of TB infection and disease. RESULTS: Overall 496 HIV+ and 103 HIV-negative participants (median age at enrolment 12 years (interquartile range, IQR 10.6 to 13.3) were followed for a median of 3.1 years (IQR 3.0 to 3.4); 50% (298/599) were male. APHIV initiated ART at median age 4.4 years (IQR 2.1 to 7.6). At enrolment, 376/496 (76%) had HIV viral load <40 copies/mL, median CD4 count was 713 cells/mm3 and 179/559 (32%) were QFT+, with no difference by HIV status (APHIV 154/468, 33%; HIV negative 25/91, 27%; p = 0.31). The cumulative QFT+ prevalence was similar (APHIV 225/492, 46%; 95%CI 41% to 50%; HIV negative 44/98, 45%; 95% CI 35% to 55%; p = 0.88). APHIV had a higher incidence of all TB disease than HIV-negative adolescents (2.2/100PY, 95% CI 1.6 to 3.1 vs. 0.3/100PY, 95% CI 0.04 to 2.2; IRR 7.36, 95% CI 1.01 to 53.55). The rate of bacteriologically confirmed TB in APHIV was 1.3/100 PY compared to 0.3/100PY for HIV-negative adolescents, suggesting a fourfold increased risk of developing TB disease in APHIV despite access to ART. In addition, a positive QFT at enrolment was not predictive of TB in this population. CONCLUSIONS: High incidence rates of TB disease occur in APHIV despite similar QFT conversion rates to HIV-negative adolescents. Strategies to prevent TB in this vulnerable group must be strengthened.

5.
Brain Behav ; 11(4): e01950, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33666359

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Neurocognitive dysfunction has been associated with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depressive disorder (MDD). However, although PTSD is often comorbid with MDD, there is little neurocognitive work to date on individuals who suffer from both PTSD and MDD. Here, we compared neurocognitive domains in individuals with PTSD, MDD, and comorbid PTSD and MDD with those of healthy controls. METHODS: Participants comprised of mothers enrolled in the Drakenstein Child Health Study, a study exploring child health determinants in the Drakenstein district, Western Cape. N = 175 mothers (between 18 and 50 years) were recruited and divided into 4 groups: PTSD, MDD, PTSD with MDD, and healthy controls. Participants were assessed using the computerized NIH Toolbox, and paper and pencil neurocognitive tests. Domains assessed included executive function, memory, attention, learning, and processing speed. RESULTS: Distinct patterns of neurocognitive dysfunction were observed in this sample. PTSD was associated with more intrusion errors and MDD was associated with delayed recall impairment, relative to healthy controls. PTSD with comorbid MDD was associated with processing speed impairments, relative to healthy controls, and monodiagnostic groups. No group differences were observed on measures of attention and executive function. CONCLUSION: Distinct patterns of neurocognitive dysfunction were associated with diagnoses of MDD and PTSD. Greater anticipated dysfunction and impairment in comorbid PTSD and MDD was not observed, however. Further work is needed to replicate and extend these findings.

6.
Lancet ; 397(10277): 928-940, 2021 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33631128

RESUMO

Low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) bear a disproportionately high burden of the global morbidity and mortality caused by chronic respiratory diseases (CRDs), including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, bronchiectasis, and post-tuberculosis lung disease. CRDs are strongly associated with poverty, infectious diseases, and other non-communicable diseases (NCDs), and contribute to complex multi-morbidity, with major consequences for the lives and livelihoods of those affected. The relevance of CRDs to health and socioeconomic wellbeing is expected to increase in the decades ahead, as life expectancies rise and the competing risks of early childhood mortality and infectious diseases plateau. As such, the World Health Organization has identified the prevention and control of NCDs as an urgent development issue and essential to the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals by 2030. In this Review, we focus on CRDs in LMICs. We discuss the early life origins of CRDs; challenges in their prevention, diagnosis, and management in LMICs; and pathways to solutions to achieve true universal health coverage.

7.
J Neurovirol ; 2021 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33554325

RESUMO

We recently demonstrated that adolescents perinatally infected with HIV-1 (PHIV+) have accelerated aging as measured by a highly accurate epigenetic biomarker of aging known as the epigenetic clock. However, whether epigenetic age acceleration in PHIV+ impacts brain development at the macro- and microstructural levels of brain anatomy has not been studied. We report on a cross-sectional study of PHIV+ enrolled in the Cape Town Adolescent Antiretroviral Cohort (CTAAC). The Illumina Infinium Methylation EPIC array was used to generate DNA methylation data from the blood samples of 180 PHIV+ aged 9 to 12 years. The epigenetic clock software and method was used to estimate two measures, epigenetic age acceleration (AgeAccelerationResidual) and extrinsic epigenetic age acceleration (EEAA). Each participant underwent T1 structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). In order to investigate the associations of chronological age, sex, epigenetic age acceleration and treatment variables (CNS penetration effectiveness score (CPE)) of antiretroviral regimen on brain structure in PHIV+, we developed stepwise multiple regression models in R (version 3.4.3, 2017) including grey and white matter volumes, cortical thickness, cortical surface area and DTI measures of white matter microstructural integrity. The mean DNAm age (16.01 years) of the participants was higher than their mean chronological age (10.77 years). Epigenetic age acceleration contributed more to regional alterations of brain volumes, cortical thickness, cortical surface areas and neuronal microstructure than chronological age, in a range of regions. CPE positively contributed to volume of the brain stem. Understanding the drivers of epigenetic age acceleration could lead to valuable insights into structural brain alterations, and the persistence of neurocognitive disorders in seen in PHIV+ .

8.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 2704, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33526828

RESUMO

Pediatric tuberculosis (TB) remains a global health crisis. Despite progress, pediatric patients remain difficult to diagnose, with approximately half of all childhood TB patients lacking bacterial confirmation. In this pilot study (n = 31), we identify a 4-compound breathprint and subsequent machine learning model that accurately classifies children with confirmed TB (n = 10) from children with another lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) (n = 10) with a sensitivity of 80% and specificity of 100% observed across cross validation folds. Importantly, we demonstrate that the breathprint identified an additional nine of eleven patients who had unconfirmed clinical TB and whose symptoms improved while treated for TB. While more work is necessary to validate the utility of using patient breath to diagnose pediatric TB, it shows promise as a triage instrument or paired as part of an aggregate diagnostic scheme.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33528016

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Since non-epidemic, seasonal human coronaviruses (sHCoV) commonly infect children, an improved understanding of the epidemiology of these infections may offer insights into the context of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV-2. We investigated the epidemiology of sHCoV infection during the first year of life, including risk factors and association with lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI). METHODS: We conducted a nested case-control study of infants enrolled in a birth cohort near Cape Town, South Africa, from 2012 to 2015. LRTI surveillance was implemented, and nasopharyngeal swabs were collected fortnightly over infancy. Quantitative PCR detected respiratory pathogens, including coronaviruses-229E, -NL63, -OC43, and -HKU1. Swabs were tested from infants at the time of LRTI and from the 90 days prior as well as from age-matched control infants from the cohort over the equivalent period. RESULTS: In total, 885 infants were included, among whom 464 LRTI events occurred. Of the 4751 samples tested for sHCoV, 9% tested positive, with HCoV-NL63 the most common. Seasonal HCoV detection was associated with LRTI; this association was strongest for coronavirus-OC43, which was also found in all sHCoV-associated hospitalizations. Birth in winter was associated with sHCoV-LRTI, but there were no clear seasonal differences in detection. Co-detection of Streptococcus pneumoniae was weakly associated with sHCoV-LRTI (odds ratio: 1.8; 95% confidence interval: 0.9-3.6); detection of other respiratory viruses or bacteria was not associated with sHCoV status. CONCLUSIONS: Seasonal HCoV infections were common and associated with LRTI, particularly sHCoV-OC43, which is most closely related to the SARS group of coronaviruses. Interactions of coronaviruses with bacteria in the pathogenesis of LRTI require further study.

10.
AIDS Care ; : 1-5, 2021 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33625933

RESUMO

HIV-associated functional impairment may cause cognitive impairment secondary to the viral infection, hence, associations between cognitive impairment and functional impairment in youth living with HIV are important to assess. We sought to determine whether cognitive impairment is associated with functional impairment and if it carries higher risk for also having functional impairment. We collected parent-rated information regarding youth functional impairment on four different measures and administered a cognitive battery to youth to determine cognitive impairment, 203 HIV-infected youth and 44 HIV-uninfected controls. Degree of cognitive impairment correlated strongly with decreased function: CBCL, r = -.17, p = .01; VABS2, r = -.28, p < .001; repeated-grades, r = .26, p < .001. Presence of cognitive impairment was associated with increased risk of functional impairment: 3.47 (CIS); 1.71 (CBCL); 2.17 (VABS2); 2.97 (repeated-grades). Repeated-grades strongly associated with cognitive impairment and functional impairment. We found strong associations between HIV-infected youth functional impairment on CBCL, VABS2 and repeated-grades with degree of cognitive impairment; and that when cognitive impairment was present youth had higher risk of experiencing functional impairment as well. Asking whether youth have repeated a grade at school could be a helpful screening question for assessing potential functional impairment and provide clinicians with an indication as to whether a further in-depth assessment is required.

11.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33414500

RESUMO

Maternal anxiety during pregnancy is associated with adverse foetal, neonatal, and child outcomes, but biological mechanisms remain unclear. Altered foetal DNA methylation (DNAm) has been proposed as a potential underlying mechanism. In the current study, we performed a meta-analysis to examine the associations between maternal anxiety, measured prospectively during pregnancy, and genome-wide DNAm from umbilical cord blood. Sixteen non-overlapping cohorts from 12 independent longitudinal studies of the Pregnancy And Childhood Epigenetics Consortium participated, resulting in a combined dataset of 7243 mother-child dyads. We examined prenatal anxiety in relation to genome-wide DNAm and differentially methylated regions. We observed no association between the general symptoms of anxiety during pregnancy or pregnancy-related anxiety, and DNAm at any of the CpG sites, after multiple-testing correction. Furthermore, we identify no differentially methylated regions associated with maternal anxiety. At the cohort-level, of the 21 associations observed in individual cohorts, none replicated consistently in the other cohorts. In conclusion, contrary to some previous studies proposing cord blood DNAm as a promising potential mechanism explaining the link between maternal anxiety during pregnancy and adverse outcomes in offspring, we found no consistent evidence for any robust associations between maternal anxiety and DNAm in cord blood. Larger studies and analysis of DNAm in other tissues may be needed to establish subtle or subgroup-specific associations between maternal anxiety and the foetal epigenome.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33452708

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are conflicting data concerning the impact of antenatal influenza vaccination on birth outcomes including low birthweight (LBW), preterm birth, small for gestational age (SGA), and stillbirth. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective observational cohort study of infants born to women residing in Mitchells Plain, Cape Town. Infants were born at 4 health facilities during May 28 - December 31, 2015 and April 15 - December 31, 2016. We performed crude and multivariable logistic regression, propensity score (PS) matching logistic regression, and inverse probability of treatment weighted (IPTW) regression to assess vaccine effectiveness (VE) against LBW, preterm birth, SGA, and stillbirth adjusting for measured confounders. RESULTS: Maternal vaccination status, antenatal history, and ≥1 birth outcome(s) were available for 4084/5333 (76.6%) pregnancies, 2109 (51.6%) vaccinated, and 1975 (48.4%) unvaccinated. The proportion LBW was lower in vaccinated (6.9%) vs. unvaccinated (12.5%) in multivariable [VE 0.27 (95% CI 0.07-0.42)], PS [VE 0.30 (95% CI 0.09-0.51)], and IPTW [VE 0.24 (95% CI 0.04-0.45)]. Preterm birth was less frequent in vaccinated (8.6%) than unvaccinated (16.4%) in multivariable [VE 0.26 (0.09-0.40)], PS [VE 0.25 (95% CI 0.09-0.41)], and IPTW [VE 0.34 (95% CI 0.18-0.51)]. The proportion SGA was lower in vaccinated (6.0%) than unvaccinated (8.8%) but not in adjusted models. There were few stillbirths in our study population, 30/4084 (0.7%). CONCLUSIONS: Using multiple analytic approaches, we found that influenza vaccination was associated with lower prevalence of LBW (24-30%) and preterm birth (25-34%) in Cape Town during 2015-2016.

13.
BMC Med Res Methodol ; 21(1): 17, 2021 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33430789

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Recurrent episodes of pneumonia are frequently modeled using extensions of the Cox proportional hazards model with the underlying assumption of time-constant relative risks measured by the hazard ratio. We aim to relax this assumption in a study on the effect of factors on the evolution of pneumonia incidence over time based on data from a South African birth cohort study, the Drakenstein child health study. METHODS: We describe and apply two models: a time-constant and a time-varying relative effects model in a piece-wise exponential additive mixed model's framework for recurrent events. A more complex model that fits in the same framework is applied to study the continuously measured seasonal effects. RESULTS: We find that several risk factors (male sex, preterm birth, low birthweight, lower socioeconomic status, lower maternal education and maternal cigarette smoking) have strong relative effects that are persistent across time. When time-varying effects are allowed in the model, HIV exposure status (HIV exposed & uninfected versus HIV unexposed) shows a strong relative effect for younger children, but this effect weakens as children grow older, with a null effect reached from about 15 months. Weight-for-length at birth shows a time increasing relative effect. We also find that children born in the summer have a much higher risk of pneumonia in the 3-to-8-month age period compared with children born in winter. CONCLUSION: This work highlights the usefulness of flexible modelling tools in recurrent events models. It avoids stringent assumptions and allows estimation and visualization of absolute and relative risks over time of key factors associated with incidence of pneumonia in young children, providing new perspectives on the role of risk factors such HIV exposure.

14.
Pediatr Clin North Am ; 68(1): 131-145, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33228928

RESUMO

Respiratory complications comprise a large proportion of the burden of mortality and morbidity in children with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). HIV-associated lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) has declined in incidence with early diagnosis and use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) but is widespread in areas with limited access to ART. HIV-exposed uninfected infants have a higher risk of LRTI early in life than unexposed infants. Pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) presenting as acute or chronic disease is common in highly TB endemic areas. Chronic lung disease is common; preceding LRTI, PTB or late initiation of ART are risk factors.

15.
Proc IEEE Int Symp Biomed Imaging ; 2020: 995-998, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33299534

RESUMO

We present a new method for constructing structural inference brain networks from functional measures of cortical features. Instead of averaging vertex-wise cortical features, we propose the use of full functions of spatial densities of measures such as thickness and use two dimensional pairwise correlations between regions to construct population networks. We show increased within group correlations for both healthy controls and toddlers with prenatal alcohol exposure compared to the existing mean-based correlation approach. Further, we also show significant differences in brain connectivity between the healthy controls and the exposed group.

16.
Child Dev ; 2020 Dec 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33369736

RESUMO

Maternal responses to infant facial expressions were examined in two socioeconomically diverse samples of South African mothers (Study I, N = 111; and Study II, N = 214; age: 17-44 years) using pupil and gaze tracking. Study I showed increased pupil response to infant distress expressions in groups recruited from private as compared to public maternity clinics, possibly reflecting underlying differences in socioeconomic status (SES) across the groups. Study II, sampling uniformly low-SES neighborhoods, found increased pupil dilation and faster orientation to expressions of infant distress, but only in the highest income group. These results are consistent with maternal physiological and attentional sensitivity to infant distress cues but challenge the universality of this sensitivity across socioeconomic diversity.

17.
Lancet Glob Health ; 2020 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33248481

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human metapneumovirus is a common virus associated with acute lower respiratory infections (ALRIs) in children. No global burden estimates are available for ALRIs associated with human metapneumovirus in children, and no licensed vaccines or drugs exist for human metapneumovirus infections. We aimed to estimate the age-stratified human metapneumovirus-associated ALRI global incidence, hospital admissions, and mortality burden in children younger than 5 years. METHODS: We estimated the global burden of human metapneumovirus-associated ALRIs in children younger than 5 years from a systematic review of 119 studies published between Jan 1, 2001, and Dec 31, 2019, and a further 40 high quality unpublished studies. We assessed risk of bias using a modified Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. We estimated incidence, hospital admission rates, and in-hospital case-fatality ratios (hCFRs) of human metapneumovirus-associated ALRI using a generalised linear mixed model. We applied incidence and hospital admission rates of human metapneumovirus-associated ALRI to population estimates to yield the morbidity burden estimates by age bands and World Bank income levels. We also estimated human metapneumovirus-associated ALRI in-hospital deaths and overall human metapneumovirus-associated ALRI deaths (both in-hospital and non-hospital deaths). Additionally, we estimated human metapneumovirus-attributable ALRI cases, hospital admissions, and deaths by combining human metapneumovirus-associated burden estimates and attributable fractions of human metapneumovirus in laboratory-confirmed human metapneumovirus cases and deaths. FINDINGS: In 2018, among children younger than 5 years globally, there were an estimated 14·2 million human metapneumovirus-associated ALRI cases (uncertainty range [UR] 10·2 million to 20·1 million), 643 000 human metapneumovirus-associated hospital admissions (UR 425 000 to 977 000), 7700 human metapneumovirus-associated in-hospital deaths (2600 to 48 800), and 16 100 overall (hospital and community) human metapneumovirus-associated ALRI deaths (5700 to 88 000). An estimated 11·1 million ALRI cases (UR 8·0 million to 15·7 million), 502 000 ALRI hospital admissions (UR 332 000 to 762 000), and 11 300 ALRI deaths (4000 to 61 600) could be causally attributed to human metapneumovirus in 2018. Around 58% of the hospital admissions were in infants under 12 months, and 64% of in-hospital deaths occurred in infants younger than 6 months, of which 79% occurred in low-income and lower-middle-income countries. INTERPRETATION: Infants younger than 1 year have disproportionately high risks of severe human metapneumovirus infections across all World Bank income regions and all child mortality settings, similar to respiratory syncytial virus and influenza virus. Infants younger than 6 months in low-income and lower-middle-income countries are at greater risk of death from human metapneumovirus-associated ALRI than older children and those in upper-middle-income and high-income countries. Our mortality estimates demonstrate the importance of intervention strategies for infants across all settings, and warrant continued efforts to improve the outcome of human metapneumovirus-associated ALRI among young infants in low-income and lower-middle-income countries. FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

18.
Paediatr Respir Rev ; 2020 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33139219

RESUMO

Early treatment with combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) has improved survival of children perinatally infected with HIV into adolescence. This population is at risk of long term complications related to HIV infection, particularly chronic respiratory disease. Limited data on chest imaging findings in HIV-infected adolescents, suggest that the predominant disease is of small and large airways: predominantly bronchiolitis obliterans or bronchiectasis. Single cases of emphysema have been reported. Lung fibrosis, lymphocytic interstitial pneumonitis, post tuberculous apical fibrocystic changes and malignancies do not feature in this population. Chest radiograph (CXR) is easily accessible and widely used, especially in resource limited settings, such as sub Saharan Africa, where the greatest burden of HIV disease occurs. Lung ultrasound has been described for the diagnosis of pneumonia in children, pulmonary oedema and interstitial lung disease [1-3]. The use of this modality in chronic respiratory disease in adolescents where the predominant finding is small airway disease and bronchiectasis has however not been described. CXR is useful to evaluate structural/post infective changes, parenchymal opacification and nodules, hyperinflation or extensive bronchiectasis. CXR however, is inadequate for diagnosing small airway disease, for which high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) is the modality of choice. Where available, low dose HRCT should be used early in the course of symptomatic disease in adolescents and for follow up in children who are non responsive to treatment or clinically deteriorating. This article provides a pictorial review of the spectrum of CXR and HRCT imaging findings of chronic pulmonary disease in perinatally HIV-infected adolescents on cART and guidelines for imaging.

20.
Paediatr Respir Rev ; 36: 65-72, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33160839

RESUMO

Tuberculosis (TB) remains a significant cause of death from an infectious disease worldwide. The diagnosis of pulmonary TB in children is often challenging as children present with non-specific clinical symptoms, have difficulties providing specimens and have a low bacillary load. Radiological imaging supports a clinical diagnosis of pulmonary TB in children, can assess response to treatment and evaluate complications of TB. However, radiological signs on plain radiographs are often non-specific and inter-observer variability in the interpretation contribute to the difficulties in radiological interpretation and diagnosis. The goal of this review is to discuss the advantages and features of cross-sectional imaging such as ultrasound, Computed tomography (CT) and Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in diagnosing pulmonary TB (PTB) and its complications in children.

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