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2.
Neurogenetics ; 2020 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32939676

RESUMO

Individuals harboring pathogenic variants in ARHGEF9, encoding an essential submembrane protein for gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic synapses named collybistin, show intellectual disability (ID), facial dysmorphism, behavioral disorders, and epilepsy. Only few affected females carrying large chromosomal rearrangements involving ARHGEF9 have been reported so far. Through next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based panels, we identified two single nucleotide variants (SNVs) in ARHGEF9 in two females with neurodevelopmental features. Sanger sequencing revealed that these variants were de novo. The X-inactivation pattern in peripheral blood cells was random. We report the first affected females harboring de novo SNVs in ARHGEF9, expanding the genotypic and phenotypic spectrum of ARHGEF9-related neurodevelopmental disorder in females.

3.
Eur J Paediatr Neurol ; 28: 193-197, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32651081

RESUMO

Prrt2 is a neuron-specific protein expressed at axonal and pre-synaptic domains, involved in synaptic neurotransmitter release and modulation of intrinsic excitability. Mutations in PRRT2 cause a spectrum of autosomal dominant paroxysmal neurological disorders including epilepsy, movement disorders, and hemiplegic migraine and show incomplete penetrance and variable expressivity. We assessed the diagnostic rate of PRRT2 in a cohort of Italian patients with epilepsy and/or paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia (PKD) and evaluated genotype-phenotype correlations. Clinical data were collected using a structured questionnaire. Twenty-seven out of 55 (49.1%) probands carried PRRT2 heterozygous pathogenic variants, including six previously known genotypes and one novel missense mutation. A family history of epilepsy starting in the first year of life and/or PKD was strongly suggestive of a PRRT2 pathogenic variant. Epilepsy patients harbouring PRRT2 pathogenic variants showed earlier seizure onset and more frequent clusters compared with PRRT2-negative individuals with epilepsy. Moreover, we did also identify individuals with PRRT2 pathogenic variants with atypical age at onset, i.e. childhood-onset epilepsy and infantile-onset PKD. However, the lack of a clear correlation between specific PRRT2 genotypes and clinical manifestations and the high incidence of asymptomatic carriers suggest the involvement of additional factors in modulating expressivity of PRRT2-related disorders. Finally, our study supports the pleiotropic and multifaceted physiological role of PRRT2 gene which is emerging from experimental neuroscience.

4.
Seizure ; 80: 145-152, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32570172

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Malformations of cortical development (MCD) are a phenotypically and genetically heterogeneous group of disorders, for which the diagnostic rate of genetic testing in a clinical setting remains to be clarified. In this study we aimed to assess the diagnostic rate of germline and pathogenic variants using a custom panel in a heterogeneous group of subjects with MCD and explore genotype-phenotype correlations. METHODS: A total of 84 subjects with different MCD were enrolled. Genomic DNA was isolated from peripheral blood. Fifty-nine tartget genes were assessed using a custom next-generation sequencing (NGS) panel. RESULTS: Genetic causes were identified in one-fourth of our cohort (21.4 %). Overall, we identified 19 pathogenic or likely pathogenic single-nucleotide variants in 11 genes among 18 subjects, including PAFAH1B1 (LIS1) (n = 3), TUBA1A (n = 3), DYNC1H1 (n = 3), ACTG1 (n = 2), TUBB2B (n = 1), TUBB3 (n = 1), DCX (n = 1), FLNA (n = 1), LAMA2 (n = 1), POMGNT2 (n = 1) and VLDLR (n = 1). The diagnostic yield was higher in patients with lissencephaly/pachygyria (60 %) (p = 0.001), cobblestone malformation (50 %), and subcortical band heterotopia (SBH) (40 %). Furthermore, five out of six subjects with suspect tubulinopathies on imaging harboured pathogenic variants in tubulin genes. Overall, germline pathogenic variants were more likely to be identified if MCD were diffuse (p = 0.002) and associated with other central nervous system malformations (p = 0.029). Moderate to severe intellectual disability was also more commonly associated with pathogenic variants (p = 0.044). CONCLUSION: Customized gene panels may support the diagnostic work-up for some specific MCD, especially when these are diffuse, bilateral and associated with other brain malformations.

5.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 28(11): 1509-1519, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32572202

RESUMO

Major Facilitator Superfamily Domain containing 2a (MFSD2A) is an essential endothelial lipid transporter at the blood-brain barrier. Biallelic variants affecting function in MFSD2A cause autosomal recessive primary microcephaly 15 (MCPH15, OMIM# 616486). We sought to expand our knowledge of the phenotypic spectrum of MCPH15 and demonstrate the underlying mechanism of inactivation of the MFSD2A transporter. We carried out detailed analysis of the clinical and neuroradiological features of a series of 27 MCPH15 cases, including eight new individuals from seven unrelated families. Genetic investigation was performed through exome sequencing (ES). Structural insights on the human Mfsd2a model and in-vitro biochemical assays were used to investigate the functional impact of the identified variants. All patients had primary microcephaly and severe developmental delay. Brain MRI showed variable degrees of white matter reduction, ventricular enlargement, callosal hypodysgenesis, and pontine and vermian hypoplasia. ES led to the identification of six novel biallelic MFSD2A variants (NG_053084.1, NM_032793.5: c.556+1G>A, c.748G>T; p.(Val250Phe), c.750_753del; p.(Cys251SerfsTer3), c.977G>A; p.(Arg326His), c.1386_1435del; p.(Gln462HisfsTer17), and c.1478C>T; p.(Pro493Leu)) and two recurrent variants (NM_032793.5: c.593C>T; p.(Thr198Met) and c.476C>T; p.(Thr159Met)). All these variants and the previously reported NM_032793.5: c.490C>A; p.(Pro164Thr) resulted in either reduced MFSD2A expression and/or transport activity. Our study further delineates the phenotypic spectrum of MCPH15, refining its clinical and neuroradiological characterization and supporting that MFSD2A deficiency causes early prenatal brain developmental disruption. We also show that poor MFSD2A expression despite normal transporter activity is a relevant pathomechanism in MCPH15.

7.
Pharmacogenomics ; 21(5): 325-335, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32308125

RESUMO

Aim: Pharmacoresistance is a major burden in epilepsy treatment. We aimed to identify genetic biomarkers in response to specific antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in genetic generalized epilepsies (GGE). Materials & methods: We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 3.3 million autosomal SNPs in 893 European subjects with GGE - responsive or nonresponsive to lamotrigine, levetiracetam and valproic acid. Results: Our GWAS of AED response revealed suggestive evidence for association at 29 genomic loci (p <10-5) but no significant association reflecting its limited power. The suggestive associations highlight candidate genes that are implicated in epileptogenesis and neurodevelopment. Conclusion: This first GWAS of AED response in GGE provides a comprehensive reference of SNP associations for hypothesis-driven candidate gene analyses in upcoming pharmacogenetic studies.

8.
Epilepsia ; 61(4): 657-666, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32141622

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Drug resistance is a major concern in the treatment of individuals with epilepsy. No genetic markers for resistance to individual antiseizure medication (ASM) have yet been identified. We aimed to identify the role of rare genetic variants in drug resistance for three common ASMs: levetiracetam (LEV), lamotrigine (LTG), and valproic acid (VPA). METHODS: A cohort of 1622 individuals of European descent with epilepsy was deeply phenotyped and underwent whole exome sequencing (WES), comprising 575 taking LEV, 826 LTG, and 782 VPA. We performed gene- and gene set-based collapsing analyses comparing responders and nonresponders to the three drugs to determine the burden of different categories of rare genetic variants. RESULTS: We observed a marginally significant enrichment of rare missense, truncating, and splice region variants in individuals who were resistant to VPA compared to VPA responders for genes involved in VPA pharmacokinetics. We also found a borderline significant enrichment of truncating and splice region variants in the synaptic vesicle glycoprotein (SV2) gene family in nonresponders compared to responders to LEV. We did not see any significant enrichment using a gene-based approach. SIGNIFICANCE: In our pharmacogenetic study, we identified a slightly increased burden of damaging variants in gene groups related to drug kinetics or targeting in individuals presenting with drug resistance to VPA or LEV. Such variants could thus determine a genetic contribution to drug resistance.


Assuntos
Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , Resistência a Medicamentos/genética , Epilepsia/tratamento farmacológico , Epilepsia/genética , Variantes Farmacogenômicos/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Lamotrigina/uso terapêutico , Levetiracetam/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Ácido Valproico/uso terapêutico
9.
Expert Rev Neurother ; 20(4): 341-350, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32153206

RESUMO

Introduction: Progressive myoclonus epilepsies (PMEs) are a group of neurodegenerative diseases, invariably leading to severe disability or fatal outcome in a few years or decades. Nowadays, PMEs treatment remains challenging with a significant burden of disability for patients. Pharmacotherapy is primarily used to treat seizures, which impact patients' quality of life. However, new approaches have emerged in the last few years, which try to curb the neurological deterioration of PMEs through a better knowledge of the pathogenetic process. This is a review on the newest therapeutic options for the treatment of PMEs.Areas covered: Experimental and clinical results on novel therapeutic approaches for the different forms of PME are reviewed and discussed. Special attention is primarily focused on the efficacy and tolerability outcomes, trying to infer the role novel approaches may have in the future.Expert opinion: The large heterogeneity of disease-causing mechanisms prevents researchers from identifying a single approach to treat PMEs. Understanding of pathophysiologic processes is leading the way to targeted therapies, which, through enzyme replacement or underlying gene defect correction have already proved to potentially strike on neurodegeneration.

10.
Neurobiol Dis ; 137: 104757, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31978608

RESUMO

Elastin microfibril interface-located proteins (EMILINs) are extracellular matrix glycoproteins implicated in elastogenesis and cell proliferation. Recently, a missense mutation in the EMILIN1 gene has been associated with autosomal dominant connective tissue disorder and motor-sensory neuropathy in a single family. We identified by whole exome sequencing a novel heterozygous EMILIN1 mutation c.748C>T [p.R250C] located in the coiled coil forming region of the protein, in four affected members of an autosomal dominant family presenting a distal motor neuropathy phenotype. In affected patient a sensory nerve biopsy showed slight and unspecific changes in the number and morphology of myelinated fibers. Immunofluorescence study of a motor nerve within a muscle biopsy documented the presence of EMILIN-1 in nerve structures. Skin section and skin derived fibroblasts displayed a reduced extracellular deposition of EMILIN-1 protein with a disorganized network of poorly ramified fibers in comparison with controls. Downregulation of emilin1a in zebrafish displayed developmental delay, locomotion defects, and abnormal axonal arborization from spinal cord motor neurons. The phenotype was complemented by wild-type zebrafish emilin1a, and partially the human wild-type EMILIN1 cRNA, but not by the cRNA harboring the novel c.748C>T [p.R250C]. These data suggest a role of EMILIN-1 in the pathogenesis of diseases affecting the peripheral nervous system.

11.
Expert Rev Neurother ; 20(3): 251-269, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31941393

RESUMO

Introduction: Epileptic disorders are a heterogeneous group of medical conditions with epilepsy as the common denominator. Genetic causes, electro-clinical features, and management significantly vary according to the specific condition.Areas covered: Relevant diagnostic advances have been achieved thanks to the advent of Next Generation Sequencing (NGS)-based molecular techniques. These revolutionary tools allow to sequence all coding (whole exome sequencing, WES) and non-coding (whole genome sequencing, WGS) regions of human genome, with a potentially huge impact on patient care and scientific research.Expert opinion: The application of these tests in children and adults with epilepsy has led to the identification of new causative genes, widening the knowledge on the pathophysiology of epilepsy and resulting in therapeutic implications. This review will explore the most recent advancements in genetic testing and provide up-to-date approaches for the choice of the correct test in patients with epilepsy.

12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(2)2020 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31940887

RESUMO

The study of the pathomechanisms by which gene mutations lead to neurological diseases has benefit from several cellular and animal models. Recently, induced Pluripotent Stem Cell (iPSC) technologies have made possible the access to human neurons to study nervous system disease-related mechanisms, and are at the forefront of the research into neurological diseases. In this review, we will focalize upon genetic epilepsy, and summarize the most recent studies in which iPSC-based technologies were used to gain insight on the molecular bases of epilepsies. Moreover, we discuss the latest advancements in epilepsy cell modeling. At the two dimensional (2D) level, single-cell models of iPSC-derived neurons lead to a mature neuronal phenotype, and now allow a reliable investigation of synaptic transmission and plasticity. In addition, functional characterization of cerebral organoids enlightens neuronal network dynamics in a three-dimensional (3D) structure. Finally, we discuss the use of iPSCs as the cutting-edge technology for cell therapy in epilepsy.


Assuntos
Epilepsia/genética , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/citologia , Células-Tronco Neurais/citologia , Animais , Terapia Baseada em Transplante de Células e Tecidos , Epilepsia/terapia , Humanos , Camundongos , Modelos Biológicos , Organoides/citologia , Análise de Célula Única
13.
Brain ; 143(2): 441-451, 2020 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31855252

RESUMO

Heterozygous mutations in the STXBP1 gene encoding the presynaptic protein MUNC18-1 cause STXBP1 encephalopathy, characterized by developmental delay, intellectual disability and epilepsy. Impaired mutant protein stability leading to reduced synaptic transmission is considered the main underlying pathogenetic mechanism. Here, we report the first two cases carrying a homozygous STXBP1 mutation, where their heterozygous siblings and mother are asymptomatic. Both cases were diagnosed with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. In Munc18-1 null mouse neurons, protein stability of the disease variant (L446F) is less dramatically affected than previously observed for heterozygous disease mutants. Neurons expressing Munc18L446F showed minor changes in morphology and synapse density. However, patch clamp recordings demonstrated that L446F causes a 2-fold increase in evoked synaptic transmission. Conversely, paired pulse plasticity was reduced and recovery after stimulus trains also. Spontaneous release frequency and amplitude, the readily releasable vesicle pool and the kinetics of short-term plasticity were all normal. Hence, the homozygous L446F mutation causes a gain-of-function phenotype regarding release probability and synaptic transmission while having less impact on protein levels than previously reported (heterozygous) mutations. These data show that STXBP1 mutations produce divergent cellular effects, resulting in different clinical features, while sharing the overarching encephalopathic phenotype (developmental delay, intellectual disability and epilepsy).


Assuntos
Encefalopatias/genética , Mutação com Ganho de Função/genética , Proteínas Munc18/genética , Transmissão Sináptica/genética , Animais , Epilepsia/genética , Epilepsia/fisiopatologia , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Camundongos Knockout
14.
Epilepsia Open ; 4(4): 563-571, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31819912

RESUMO

Objective: Clinical and genetic predictors of response to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are largely unknown. We examined predictors of lacosamide response in a real-world clinical setting. Methods: We tested the association of clinical predictors with treatment response using regression modeling in a cohort of people with refractory epilepsy. Genetic assessment for lacosamide response was conducted via genome-wide association studies and exome studies, comprising 281 candidate genes. Results: Most patients (479/483) were treated with LCM in addition to other AEDs. Our results corroborate previous findings that patients with refractory genetic generalized epilepsy (GGE) may respond to treatment with LCM. No clear clinical predictors were identified. We then compared 73 lacosamide responders, defined as those experiencing greater than 75% seizure reduction or seizure freedom, to 495 nonresponders (<25% seizure reduction). No variants reached the genome-wide significance threshold in our case-control analysis. Significance: No genetic predictor of lacosamide response was identified. Patients with refractory GGE might benefit from treatment with lacosamide.

15.
Ital J Pediatr ; 45(1): 138, 2019 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31703719

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: 17q11.2 microdeletions, which include the neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) gene region, are responsible for the NF1 microdeletion syndrome, observed in 4.2% of all NF1 patients. Large deletions of the NF1 gene and its flanking regions are associated with a more severe NF1 phenotype than the NF1 general population. CASE PRESENTATION: We hereby describe the clinical and molecular features of two girls (aged 2 and 4 years, respectively), with non-mosaic atypical deletions. Patient 1 showed fifteen café-au-lait spots and axillary freckling, as well as a Lisch nodule in the left eye, strabismus, high-arched palate, malocclusion, severe kyphoscoliosis, bilateral calcaneovalgus foot, mild generalized hypotonia, hyperactivity and deficits of speech-related abilities. NF1 genomic rearrangements through multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) detected an heterozygous deletion of the whole NF1 gene. Array comparative genomic hybridization (a-CGH) analysis defined a 17q11.2 deletion of about 1 Mb (breakpoints at positions 29,124,299 and 30,151,654), which involved different genes (partially CRLF3, ATAD5, TEFM, ADAP2, RNF135, OMG, EVI2B, EVI2A, RAB11FIP4), including NF1. Patient 2 showed growth and developmental delay, supravalvular pulmonary stenosis, twenty-five café-au-lait spots, axillary freckling, craniofacial dysmorphic features, short neck with pterygium, limb abnormalities and foci of neural dysplasia on brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MLPA detected an heterozygous deletion of NF1, which was detailed by a-CGH indicating the positions 29,124,299 and 30,326,958 as its breakpoints, and which included aside from the genes deleted in Patient 1 also COPRS, UTP6 and partially SUZ12. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis of the parents documented a de novo origin of the deletions in both cases. CONCLUSIONS: The present report will likely provide further insights and a better characterization of NF1 microdeletion syndrome.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Craniofaciais/diagnóstico , Deficiência Intelectual/diagnóstico , Deficiências da Aprendizagem/diagnóstico , Neurofibromatoses/diagnóstico , Pré-Escolar , Deleção Cromossômica , Cromossomos Humanos Par 17 , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/complicações , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/complicações , Deficiência Intelectual/psicologia , Deficiências da Aprendizagem/complicações , Deficiências da Aprendizagem/psicologia , Neurofibromatoses/complicações , Neurofibromatoses/psicologia
16.
Epilepsia Open ; 4(3): 420-430, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31440723

RESUMO

Objective: To study the effectiveness and tolerability of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) commonly used in juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME). Methods: People with JME were identified from a large database of individuals with epilepsy, which includes detailed retrospective information on AED use. We assessed secular changes in AED use and calculated rates of response (12-month seizure freedom) and adverse drug reactions (ADRs) for the five most common AEDs. Retention was modeled with a Cox proportional hazards model. We compared valproate use between males and females. Results: We included 305 people with 688 AED trials of valproate, lamotrigine, levetiracetam, carbamazepine, and topiramate. Valproate and carbamazepine were most often prescribed as the first AED. The response rate to valproate was highest among the five AEDs (42.7%), and significantly higher than response rates for lamotrigine, carbamazepine, and topiramate; the difference to the response rate to levetiracetam (37.1%) was not significant. The rates of ADRs were highest for topiramate (45.5%) and valproate (37.5%). Commonest ADRs included weight change, lethargy, and tremor. In the Cox proportional hazards model, later start year (1.10 [1.08-1.13], P < 0.001) and female sex (1.41 [1.07-1.85], P = 0.02) were associated with shorter trial duration. Valproate was associated with the longest treatment duration; trials with carbamazepine and topiramate were significantly shorter (HR [CI]: 3.29 [2.15-5.02], P < 0.001 and 1.93 [1.31-2.86], P < 0.001). The relative frequency of valproate trials shows a decreasing trend since 2003 while there is an increasing trend for levetiracetam. Fewer females than males received valproate (76.2% vs 92.6%, P = 0.001). Significance: In people with JME, valproate is an effective AED; levetiracetam emerged as an alternative. Valproate is now contraindicated in women of childbearing potential without special precautions. With appropriate selection and safeguards in place, valproate should remain available as a therapy, including as an alternative for women of childbearing potential whose seizures are resistant to other treatments.

17.
Childs Nerv Syst ; 35(10): 1665-1671, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31385087

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Chiari malformation type I (CMI), a rare disorder of the craniocerebral junction with an estimated incidence of 1 in 1280, is characterized by the downward herniation of the cerebellar tonsils of at least 5 mm through the foramen magnum, resulting in significant neurologic morbidity. Classical CMI is thought to be caused by an underdeveloped occipital bone, resulting in a posterior cranial fossa which is too small to accommodate the normal-sized cerebellum. In this review, we dissect the lines of evidence supporting a genetic contribution for this disorder. METHODS: We present the results of two types of approaches: animal models and human studies encompassing different study designs such as whole genome linkage analysis, case-control association studies, and expression studies. The update of the literature also includes the most recent findings emerged by whole exome sequencing strategy. RESULTS: Despite evidence for a genetic component, no major genes have been identified and the genetics of CMI is still very much unknown. One major challenge is the variability of clinical presentation within CMI patient population that reflects an underlying genetic heterogeneity. CONCLUSIONS: The identification of the genes that contribute to the etiology of CMI will provide an important step to the understanding of the underlying pathology. The finding of a predisposing gene may lead to the development of simple and accurate diagnostic tests for better prognosis, counseling, and clinical management of patients and their relatives.

19.
Acta Myol ; 38(1): 8-12, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31309175

RESUMO

Tripartite motif-containing protein 32 (TRIM32) is a member of the TRIM ubiquitin E3 ligases which ubiquitinates different substrates in muscle including sarcomeric proteins. Mutations in TRIM32 are associated with Limb-Girdle Muscular Dystrophy 2H. In a 66 old woman with disto-proximal myopathy, we identified a novel homozygous mutation of TRIM32 gene c.1781G > A (p. Ser594Asn) localised in the c-terminus NHL domain. Mutations of this domain have been also associated to Sarcotubular Myopathy (STM), a form of distal myopathy with peculiar features in muscle biopsy, now considered in the spectrum of LGMD2H. Muscle biopsy revealed severe abnormalities of the myofibrillar network with core like areas, lobulated fibres, whorled fibres and multiple vacuoles. Desmin and Myotilin stainings also pointed to accumulation as in Myofibrillar Myopathy. This report further confirms that STM and LGMD2H represent the same disorder and suggests to consider TRIM32 mutations in the genetic diagnosis of Sarcotubular Myopathy and Myofibrillar Myopathy.


Assuntos
Distrofia Muscular do Cíngulo dos Membros/genética , Mutação/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Proteínas com Motivo Tripartido/genética , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos
20.
Expert Rev Neurother ; 19(10): 1037-1050, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31260640

RESUMO

Introduction: The microbiota-gut brain (MGB) axis is the bidirectional communication between the intestinal microbiota and the brain. An increasing body of preclinical and clinical evidence has revealed that the gut microbial ecosystem can affect neuropsychiatric health. However, there is still a need of further studies to elucidate the complex gene-environment interactions and the role of the MGB axis in neuropsychiatric diseases, with the aim of identifying biomarkers and new therapeutic targets, to allow early diagnosis and improving treatments. Areas covered: To review the role of MGB axis in neuropsychiatric disorders, prediction and prevention of disease through exploitation, integration, and combination of data from existing gut microbiome/microbiota projects and appropriate other International '-Omics' studies. The authors also evaluated the new technological advances to investigate and modulate, through nutritional and other interventions, the gut microbiota. Expert opinion: The clinical studies have documented an association between alterations in gut microbiota composition and/or function, whereas the preclinical studies support a role for the gut microbiota in impacting behaviors which are of relevance to psychiatry and other central nervous system (CNS) disorders. Targeting MGB axis could be an additional approach for treating CNS disorders and all conditions in which alterations of the gut microbiota are involved.

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