Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 203
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Childs Nerv Syst ; 35(10): 1665-1671, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31385087

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Chiari malformation type I (CMI), a rare disorder of the craniocerebral junction with an estimated incidence of 1 in 1280, is characterized by the downward herniation of the cerebellar tonsils of at least 5 mm through the foramen magnum, resulting in significant neurologic morbidity. Classical CMI is thought to be caused by an underdeveloped occipital bone, resulting in a posterior cranial fossa which is too small to accommodate the normal-sized cerebellum. In this review, we dissect the lines of evidence supporting a genetic contribution for this disorder. METHODS: We present the results of two types of approaches: animal models and human studies encompassing different study designs such as whole genome linkage analysis, case-control association studies, and expression studies. The update of the literature also includes the most recent findings emerged by whole exome sequencing strategy. RESULTS: Despite evidence for a genetic component, no major genes have been identified and the genetics of CMI is still very much unknown. One major challenge is the variability of clinical presentation within CMI patient population that reflects an underlying genetic heterogeneity. CONCLUSIONS: The identification of the genes that contribute to the etiology of CMI will provide an important step to the understanding of the underlying pathology. The finding of a predisposing gene may lead to the development of simple and accurate diagnostic tests for better prognosis, counseling, and clinical management of patients and their relatives.

2.
Acta Myol ; 38(1): 8-12, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31309175

RESUMO

Tripartite motif-containing protein 32 (TRIM32) is a member of the TRIM ubiquitin E3 ligases which ubiquitinates different substrates in muscle including sarcomeric proteins. Mutations in TRIM32 are associated with Limb-Girdle Muscular Dystrophy 2H. In a 66 old woman with disto-proximal myopathy, we identified a novel homozygous mutation of TRIM32 gene c.1781G > A (p. Ser594Asn) localised in the c-terminus NHL domain. Mutations of this domain have been also associated to Sarcotubular Myopathy (STM), a form of distal myopathy with peculiar features in muscle biopsy, now considered in the spectrum of LGMD2H. Muscle biopsy revealed severe abnormalities of the myofibrillar network with core like areas, lobulated fibres, whorled fibres and multiple vacuoles. Desmin and Myotilin stainings also pointed to accumulation as in Myofibrillar Myopathy. This report further confirms that STM and LGMD2H represent the same disorder and suggests to consider TRIM32 mutations in the genetic diagnosis of Sarcotubular Myopathy and Myofibrillar Myopathy.

4.
Expert Rev Neurother ; 19(10): 1037-1050, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31260640

RESUMO

Introduction: The microbiota-gut brain (MGB) axis is the bidirectional communication between the intestinal microbiota and the brain. An increasing body of preclinical and clinical evidence has revealed that the gut microbial ecosystem can affect neuropsychiatric health. However, there is still a need of further studies to elucidate the complex gene-environment interactions and the role of the MGB axis in neuropsychiatric diseases, with the aim of identifying biomarkers and new therapeutic targets, to allow early diagnosis and improving treatments. Areas covered: To review the role of MGB axis in neuropsychiatric disorders, prediction and prevention of disease through exploitation, integration, and combination of data from existing gut microbiome/microbiota projects and appropriate other International '-Omics' studies. The authors also evaluated the new technological advances to investigate and modulate, through nutritional and other interventions, the gut microbiota. Expert opinion: The clinical studies have documented an association between alterations in gut microbiota composition and/or function, whereas the preclinical studies support a role for the gut microbiota in impacting behaviors which are of relevance to psychiatry and other central nervous system (CNS) disorders. Targeting MGB axis could be an additional approach for treating CNS disorders and all conditions in which alterations of the gut microbiota are involved.

5.
Epilepsy Res ; 154: 86-89, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31112901

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Geographic isolates are the ideal setting to study the genetic background and the epidemiology of epilepsy. There are only few published reports on the epidemiology of pediatric epilepsy in geographic isolates. METHODS: This study was performed in the Ischia island, district of Napoli (Southern Italy). The local population includes 61,086 individuals, 8381 of them aged from 0 to 14 years. We included children with two or more unprovoked seizures or one unprovoked seizure associated to a high risk of relapse, observed from 2004 to 2017. Neonatal, febrile and acute symptomatic seizures were excluded. Eligible patients were identified through the local pediatricians' medical records. All probands and their parents underwent a face-to-face interview. Clinical charts were reviewed and electroclinical diagnoses were confirmed by two authors (AC, VB). RESULTS: Thirty-six children and adolescents were included. Overall, the prevalence of epilepsy in the Ischia island was 4.3 per 1,000 (95% CI 3.0-5.9). Incidence was 51.7 per 100,000 person-years (95% CI 36.2-71.6). Sixteen (44.4%) patients had a genetic (idiopathic) origin and 20 (55.6%) a symptomatic (structural/metabolic) etiology. Nine probands (25%) had at least one family member with epilepsy (including third-degree relatives). Their pedigrees were suggestive of dominant inheritance in six and of recessive inheritance in three families. CONCLUSIONS: The epidemiological features of pediatric epilepsy in this geographic isolate are similar to the general population. A family history was reported in one fourth of the patients with a wide clinical heterogeneity, likely reflecting genetic heterogeneity in this population.

7.
Epilepsia ; 60(5): 830-844, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30968951

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Pathogenic variants in SCN8A have been associated with a wide spectrum of epilepsy phenotypes, ranging from benign familial infantile seizures (BFIS) to epileptic encephalopathies with variable severity. Furthermore, a few patients with intellectual disability (ID) or movement disorders without epilepsy have been reported. The vast majority of the published SCN8A patients suffer from severe developmental and epileptic encephalopathy (DEE). In this study, we aimed to provide further insight on the spectrum of milder SCN8A-related epilepsies. METHODS: A cohort of 1095 patients were screened using a next generation sequencing panel. Further patients were ascertained from a network of epilepsy genetics clinics. Patients with severe DEE and BFIS were excluded from the study. RESULTS: We found 36 probands who presented with an SCN8A-related epilepsy and normal intellect (33%) or mild (61%) to moderate ID (6%). All patients presented with epilepsy between age 1.5 months and 7 years (mean = 13.6 months), and 58% of these became seizure-free, two-thirds on monotherapy. Neurological disturbances included ataxia (28%) and hypotonia (19%) as the most prominent features. Interictal electroencephalogram was normal in 41%. Several recurrent variants were observed, including Ile763Val, Val891Met, Gly1475Arg, Gly1483Lys, Phe1588Leu, Arg1617Gln, Ala1650Val/Thr, Arg1872Gln, and Asn1877Ser. SIGNIFICANCE: With this study, we explore the electroclinical features of an intermediate SCN8A-related epilepsy with mild cognitive impairment, which is for the majority a treatable epilepsy.

8.
Seizure ; 67: 73-77, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30928698

RESUMO

Familial adult myoclonic epilepsy (FAME), also described with different acronyms (ADCME, BAFME, FEME, FCTE and others), is a high-penetrant autosomal dominant condition featuring cortical hand tremors, myoclonic jerks, and occasional/rare convulsive seizures. Prevalence is unknown since this condition is often under-recognized, but it is estimated to be less than 1/35,000. The disease usually starts in the second decade of life and has been genetically associated with at least 4 different loci (8q24, 2p11.1-q12.2, 5p15.31-p15 and 3q26.32-3q28). Recently, the expansion of non coding TTTTA and TTTCA repeats has been identified as the causative mutation in Japanese families linked to the 8q24. The diagnosis is supported by clinical features and electrophysiological investigations as jerk-locked back averaging, C-reflex, and somatosensory-evoked potential. Photic stimulation, emotional stress, and sleep deprivation may trigger both tonic-clonic and myoclonic seizures. FAME has a slow but progressive clinical course occurring with intellectual disability and worsening of both tremor and myoclonus although with a less severe decline compared to other progressive myoclonic epilepsies. Valproate, levetiracetam, and benzodiazepines are considered the first-line treatments.


Assuntos
Expansão das Repetições de DNA , Epilepsias Mioclônicas/genética , Epilepsias Mioclônicas/fisiopatologia , Humanos
9.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(4): 721-730, 2019 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30929742

RESUMO

VAMP2 encodes the vesicular SNARE protein VAMP2 (also called synaptobrevin-2). Together with its partners syntaxin-1A and synaptosomal-associated protein 25 (SNAP25), VAMP2 mediates fusion of synaptic vesicles to release neurotransmitters. VAMP2 is essential for vesicular exocytosis and activity-dependent neurotransmitter release. Here, we report five heterozygous de novo mutations in VAMP2 in unrelated individuals presenting with a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by axial hypotonia (which had been present since birth), intellectual disability, and autistic features. In total, we identified two single-amino-acid deletions and three non-synonymous variants affecting conserved residues within the C terminus of the VAMP2 SNARE motif. Affected individuals carrying de novo non-synonymous variants involving the C-terminal region presented a more severe phenotype with additional neurological features, including central visual impairment, hyperkinetic movement disorder, and epilepsy or electroencephalography abnormalities. Reconstituted fusion involving a lipid-mixing assay indicated impairment in vesicle fusion as one of the possible associated disease mechanisms. The genetic synaptopathy caused by VAMP2 de novo mutations highlights the key roles of this gene in human brain development and function.

10.
Cell Death Differ ; 26(11): 2464-2478, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30858606

RESUMO

Mutations in TBC1D24 are described in patients with a spectrum of neurological diseases, including mild and severe epilepsies and complex syndromic phenotypes such as Deafness, Onycodystrophy, Osteodystrophy, Mental Retardation and Seizure (DOORS) syndrome. The product of TBC1D24 is a multifunctional protein involved in neuronal development, regulation of synaptic vesicle trafficking, and protection from oxidative stress. Although pathogenic mutations in TBC1D24 span the entire coding sequence, no clear genotype/phenotype correlations have emerged. However most patients bearing predicted loss of function mutations exhibit a severe neurodevelopmental disorder. Aim of the study is to investigate the impact of TBC1D24 knockdown during the first stages of neuronal differentiation when axonal specification and outgrowth take place. In rat cortical primary neurons silenced for TBC1D24, we found defects in axonal specification, the maturation of axonal initial segment and action potential firing. The axonal phenotype was accompanied by an impairment of endocytosis at the growth cone and an altered activation of the TBC1D24 molecular partner ADP ribosylation factor 6. Accordingly, acute knockdown of TBC1D24 in cerebrocortical neurons in vivo analogously impairs callosal projections. The axonal defect was also investigated in human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neurons from patients carrying TBC1D24 mutations. Reprogrammed neurons from a patient with severe developmental encephalopathy show significant axon formation defect that were absent from reprogrammed neurons of a patient with mild early onset epilepsy. Our data reveal that alterations of membrane trafficking at the growth cone induced by TBC1D24 loss of function cause axonal and excitability defects. The axonal phenotype correlates with the disease severity and highlight an important role for TBC1D24 in connectivity during brain development.

12.
Epilepsia ; 60(4): 689-706, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30866059

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Copy number variations (CNVs) represent a significant genetic risk for several neurodevelopmental disorders including epilepsy. As knowledge increases, reanalysis of existing data is essential. Reliable estimates of the contribution of CNVs to epilepsies from sizeable populations are not available. METHODS: We assembled a cohort of 1255 patients with preexisting array comparative genomic hybridization or single nucleotide polymorphism array based CNV data. All patients had "epilepsy plus," defined as epilepsy with comorbid features, including intellectual disability, psychiatric symptoms, and other neurological and nonneurological features. CNV classification was conducted using a systematic filtering workflow adapted to epilepsy. RESULTS: Of 1097 patients remaining after genetic data quality control, 120 individuals (10.9%) carried at least one autosomal CNV classified as pathogenic; 19 individuals (1.7%) carried at least one autosomal CNV classified as possibly pathogenic. Eleven patients (1%) carried more than one (possibly) pathogenic CNV. We identified CNVs covering recently reported (HNRNPU) or emerging (RORB) epilepsy genes, and further delineated the phenotype associated with mutations of these genes. Additional novel epilepsy candidate genes emerge from our study. Comparing phenotypic features of pathogenic CNV carriers to those of noncarriers of pathogenic CNVs, we show that patients with nonneurological comorbidities, especially dysmorphism, were more likely to carry pathogenic CNVs (odds ratio = 4.09, confidence interval = 2.51-6.68; P = 2.34 × 10-9 ). Meta-analysis including data from published control groups showed that the presence or absence of epilepsy did not affect the detected frequency of CNVs. SIGNIFICANCE: The use of a specifically adapted workflow enabled identification of pathogenic autosomal CNVs in 10.9% of patients with epilepsy plus, which rose to 12.7% when we also considered possibly pathogenic CNVs. Our data indicate that epilepsy with comorbid features should be considered an indication for patients to be selected for a diagnostic algorithm including CNV detection. Collaborative large-scale CNV reanalysis leads to novel declaration of pathogenicity in unexplained cases and can promote discovery of promising candidate epilepsy genes.

13.
Epilepsia ; 60(5): e31-e36, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30719712

RESUMO

Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) is a common syndrome of genetic generalized epilepsies (GGEs). Linkage and association studies suggest that the gene encoding the bromodomain-containing protein 2 (BRD2) may increase risk of JME. The present methylation and association study followed up a recent report highlighting that the BRD2 promoter CpG island (CpG76) is differentially hypermethylated in lymphoblastoid cells from Caucasian patients with JME compared to patients with other GGE subtypes and unaffected relatives. In contrast, we found a uniform low average percentage of methylation (<4.5%) for 13 CpG76-CpGs in whole blood cells from 782 unrelated European Caucasians, including 116 JME patients, 196 patients with genetic absence epilepsies, and 470 control subjects. We also failed to confirm an allelic association of the BRD2 promoter single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs3918149 with JME (Armitage trend test, P = 0.98), and we did not detect a substantial impact of SNP rs3918149 on CpG76 methylation in either 116 JME patients (methylation quantitative trait loci [meQTL], P = 0.29) or 470 German control subjects (meQTL, P = 0.55). Our results do not support the previous observation that a high DNA methylation level of the BRD2 promoter CpG76 island is a prevalent epigenetic motif associated with JME in Caucasians.

14.
Seizure ; 65: 131-137, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30685520

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Heterozygous SYNGAP1 gene mutations have been associated with several forms of idiopathic generalized epilepsy, autism spectrum disorders and delay of psychomotor development. We report eight patients with a SYNGAP1 mutation and chewing/eating induced reflex seizures as new phenotype and compare them to other patients with eating epilepsy and genetic mutations. METHODS: Presentation of clinical and anamnestic features and retrospective analysis of Video-EEG data of a 4 year old index patient with SYNGAP1 mutation and chewing /eating induced seizures. Clinical and anamnestic features and home videos of seven additional patients (4 female; age: 4-14 years) with SYNGAP1 mutation and eating induced reflex seizures were compared. RESULTS: All reflex seizures of the index patient showed similar focal EEG pattern with 1-5 seconds high amplitude, irregular 3/sec spike-wave complexes with initiation from left temporo-occipital, right temporo-occipital or bi- occipital / temporo-occipital regions. Eyelid myoclonia, the most common seizure type in all 8 patients, were typically initiated by eating or other simple orofacial stimuli. In the index patient eye closure preceded eating induced-eyelid myoclonia in 30/38 seizures. CONCLUSION: The main clinical features of our patient (i.e. intellectual disability, epilepsy, autistic features) are compatible with previous reports on patients with SYNGAP1 mutations. This is the first complete description of eating induced seizures in association with SYNGAP1 mutations. Whether eye closure sensitivity (ECS) represents an independent reflex epileptic trait, as seen in other patients with idiopathic "generalized" epilepsies (IGE), or eye closure is part of a complex trigger mechanism in SYNGAP1 patients' remains to be elucidated.


Assuntos
Epilepsia Reflexa , Olho , Mastigação , Mutação/genética , Mioclonia , Proteínas Ativadoras de ras GTPase/genética , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Eletroencefalografia , Epilepsia Reflexa/diagnóstico , Epilepsia Reflexa/etiologia , Epilepsia Reflexa/genética , Olho/inervação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mioclonia/diagnóstico , Mioclonia/etiologia , Mioclonia/genética
15.
PLoS One ; 13(8): e0202022, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30148849

RESUMO

Genetic Generalized Epilepsy (GGE) and benign epilepsy with centro-temporal spikes or Rolandic Epilepsy (RE) are common forms of genetic epilepsies. Rare copy number variants have been recognized as important risk factors in brain disorders. We performed a systematic survey of rare deletions affecting protein-coding genes derived from exome data of patients with common forms of genetic epilepsies. We analysed exomes from 390 European patients (196 GGE and 194 RE) and 572 population controls to identify low-frequency genic deletions. We found that 75 (32 GGE and 43 RE) patients out of 390, i.e. ~19%, carried rare genic deletions. In particular, large deletions (>400 kb) represent a higher burden in both GGE and RE syndromes as compared to controls. The detected low-frequency deletions (1) share genes with brain-expressed exons that are under negative selection, (2) overlap with known autism and epilepsy-associated candidate genes, (3) are enriched for CNV intolerant genes recorded by the Exome Aggregation Consortium (ExAC) and (4) coincide with likely disruptive de novo mutations from the NPdenovo database. Employing several knowledge databases, we discuss the most prominent epilepsy candidate genes and their protein-protein networks for GGE and RE.

16.
Neurotherapeutics ; 15(4): 1112-1126, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30112700

RESUMO

Epilepsy of infancy with migrating focal seizures (EIMFS) is a rare early-onset developmental epileptic encephalopathy resistant to anti-epileptic drugs. The most common cause for EIMFS is a gain-of-function mutation in the KCNT1 potassium channel gene, and treatment with the KCNT1 blocker quinidine has been suggested as a rational approach for seizure control in EIMFS patients. However, variable results on the clinical efficacy of quinidine have been reported. In the present study, we provide a detailed description of the clinical, genetic, in vitro, and in vivo electrophysiological profile and pharmacological responses to quinidine of 2 EIMFS unrelated patients with a heterozygous de novo KCNT1 mutation: c.2849G>A (p.R950Q) in patient 1 and c.2677G>A (p.E893K) in patient 2. When expressed heterologously in CHO cells, KCNT1 channels carrying each variant showed gain-of-function effects, and were more effectively blocked by quinidine when compared to wild-type KCNT1 channels. On the basis of these in vitro results, add-on quinidine treatment was started at 3 and 16 months of age in patients 1 and 2, respectively. The results obtained reveal that quinidine significantly reduced seizure burden (by about 90%) and improved quality of life in both patients, but failed to normalize developmental milestones, which persisted as severely delayed. Based on the present experience, early quinidine intervention associated with heart monitoring and control of blood levels is among the critical factors for therapy effectiveness in EIMFS patients with KCNT1 gain-of-function mutations. Multicenter studies are needed to establish a consensus protocol for patient recruitment, quinidine treatment modalities, and outcome evaluation, to optimize clinical efficacy and reduce risks as well as variability associated to quinidine use in such severe developmental encephalopathy.

17.
Cereb Cortex ; 2018 Apr 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29912316

RESUMO

Mutations in PRoline-Rich Transmembrane protein 2 (PRRT2) underlie a group of paroxysmal disorders including epilepsy, kinesigenic dyskinesia and migraine. Most of the mutations lead to impaired PRRT2 expression and/or function, emphasizing the pathogenic role of the PRRT2 deficiency. In this work, we investigated the phenotype of primary hippocampal neurons obtained from mouse embryos in which the PRRT2 gene was constitutively inactivated. Although PRRT2 is expressed by both excitatory and inhibitory neurons, its deletion decreases the number of excitatory synapses without significantly affecting the number of inhibitory synapses or the nerve terminal ultrastructure. Analysis of synaptic function in primary PRRT2 knockout excitatory neurons by live imaging and electrophysiology showed slowdown of the kinetics of exocytosis, weakened spontaneous and evoked synaptic transmission and markedly increased facilitation. Inhibitory neurons showed strengthening of basal synaptic transmission, accompanied by faster depression. At the network level these complex synaptic effects resulted in a state of heightened spontaneous and evoked activity that was associated with increased excitability of excitatory neurons in both PRRT2 knockout primary cultures and acute hippocampal slices. The data indicate the existence of network instability/hyperexcitability as the possible basis of the paroxysmal phenotypes associated with PRRT2 mutations.

18.
Front Integr Neurosci ; 12: 22, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29946244

RESUMO

Laminar heterotopia is a rare condition consisting in an extra layer of gray matter under properly migrated cortex; it configures an atypical presentation of periventricular nodular heterotopia (PNH) or a double cortex (DC) syndrome. We conducted an original functional MRI (fMRI) analysis in a drug-resistant epilepsy patient with "double-cortex"-like malformation to reveal her functional connectivity (FC) as well as a wide genetic analysis to identify possible genetic substrates. Heterotopias were segmented into region of interests (ROIs), whose voxel-wise FC was compared to that of (i) its normally migrated counterpart, (ii) its contralateral homologous, and (iii) those of 30 age-matched healthy controls. Extensive genetic analysis was conducted to screen cortical malformations-associated genes. Compared to healthy controls, both laminar heterotopias and the overlying cortex showed significant reduction of FC with the contralateral hemisphere. Two heterozygous variants of uncertain clinical significance were found, involving autosomal recessive disease-causing genes, FAT4 and COL18A1. This first FC analysis of a unique case of "double-cortex"-like malformation revealed a hemispheric connectivity segregation both in the laminar cortex as in the correctly migrated one, with a new pattern of genes' mutations. Our study suggests the altered FC could have an electrophysiological and functional impact on large-scale brain networks, and the involvement of not yet identified genes in "double-cortex"-like malformation with a possible role of rare variants in recessive genes as pathogenic cofactors.

20.
Ital J Pediatr ; 44(1): 45, 2018 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29618358

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this retrospective study was to define clinical and molecular characteristics of a large sample of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) patients, as well as to evaluate mutational spectrum and genotype-phenotype correlation. NF1 is a relatively common neurogenetic disorder (1:2500-1:3000 individuals). It is caused by mutations of the NF1 gene on chromosome 17ql1.2, with autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance and wide phenotypical variability. Café-au-lait spots (CALs), cutaneous and/or subcutaneous neurofibromas (CNFs/SCNFs), skinfold freckling, skeletal abnormalities, Lisch nodules of the iris and increased risk of learning and intellectual disabilities, as well as tumors of the nervous system and other organs are its main clinical features. METHODS: The preliminary group collected 168 subjects with clinical suspicion of NF1. They were evaluated following the National Institutes of Health (NIH) criteria for NF1, revised by Gutmann et al. 1997, integrated for 67 of them by molecular testing. According to these references, 112 of 168 patients were diagnosed as NF1. The sample was characterized by an equal sex ratio (57 males, 55 females) and age distribution ranging from 10 days to 60 years of age (mean age, 13 years). RESULTS: A wide spectrum of clinical features has been observed in our patients. Mutational analysis resulted positive in 51 cases (76%). Twenty-four mutations detected in our cohort have not been reported to date. CONCLUSIONS: This study may contribute to a better definition of genotypic and phenotypic features of NF1 patients, with respect to further insights into the clinical characterization of the disease. In addition, an amplification of the spectrum of mutations in the NF1 gene has been documented.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/epidemiologia , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Neurofibromatose 1/diagnóstico , Neurofibromatose 1/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Feminino , Genes da Neurofibromatose 1 , Estudos de Associação Genética , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neurofibromatose 1/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA