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2.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(3): 606-615, 2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31474318

RESUMO

Cerebellar malformations are diverse congenital anomalies frequently associated with developmental disability. Although genetic and prenatal non-genetic causes have been described, no systematic analysis has been performed. Here, we present a large-exome sequencing study of Dandy-Walker malformation (DWM) and cerebellar hypoplasia (CBLH). We performed exome sequencing in 282 individuals from 100 families with DWM or CBLH, and we established a molecular diagnosis in 36 of 100 families, with a significantly higher yield for CBLH (51%) than for DWM (16%). The 41 variants impact 27 neurodevelopmental-disorder-associated genes, thus demonstrating that CBLH and DWM are often features of monogenic neurodevelopmental disorders. Though only seven monogenic causes (19%) were identified in more than one individual, neuroimaging review of 131 additional individuals confirmed cerebellar abnormalities in 23 of 27 genetic disorders (85%). Prenatal risk factors were frequently found among individuals without a genetic diagnosis (30 of 64 individuals [47%]). Single-cell RNA sequencing of prenatal human cerebellar tissue revealed gene enrichment in neuronal and vascular cell types; this suggests that defective vasculogenesis may disrupt cerebellar development. Further, de novo gain-of-function variants in PDGFRB, a tyrosine kinase receptor essential for vascular progenitor signaling, were associated with CBLH, and this discovery links genetic and non-genetic etiologies. Our results suggest that genetic defects impact specific cerebellar cell types and implicate abnormal vascular development as a mechanism for cerebellar malformations. We also confirmed a major contribution for non-genetic prenatal factors in individuals with cerebellar abnormalities, substantially influencing diagnostic evaluation and counseling regarding recurrence risk and prognosis.

3.
Dev Med Child Neurol ; 2019 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31420882

RESUMO

AIM: To determine the nature and frequency of behavioral phenotypes and sleep disturbances in individuals with SATB2-associated syndrome (SAS). METHOD: The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and an age-appropriate sleep questionnaire were distributed to the parents of individuals with SAS. All scores were compared to available normative data. RESULTS: Thirty-one individuals completed the assessment (18 females, 13 males; mean age 7y 4mo [SD 4y 1mo], range 2-16y). Individuals with SAS had significantly higher Total Difficulty scores than the normative sample (14.9 [SD 5.8] vs 7.1 [SD 5.7], p<0.001). A high frequency of emotional problems (22.6% vs 8%, p=0.01), peer problems (48.4% vs 10%, p<0.001), hyperactivity (48.4% vs 9%, p<0.001), and low prosocial behaviors (45.2% vs 9%, p<0.001) contribute to the behavioral profile in SAS. Concurrent sleeping difficulties were also frequently identified. Ten individuals in the 5 to 15 years age range had at least one sleep disorder (mean Sleep Disturbance Scale for Children total score 40.9 [SD 8.4] vs 35.1 [SD 7.7], p<0.001). INTERPRETATION: With previous limited available objective neurobehavioral data on the SAS population, we reported evidence of high-risk for a broad spectrum of burdensome behavioral phenotype and concurrent sleeping difficulties, the latter being particularly prevalent during early childhood. Routine assessment and treatment for behavioral issues and sleep problems is recommended. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS: Emotional and peer problems, hyperactivity, and low prosocial behavior are common in SATB2-associated syndrome. The Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire Total Difficulty scores are atypical in nearly half of individuals. Behavioral difficulties are perceived as burdensome to over half of the parents. Nearly half of individuals have at least one sleep disorder. Sleep-wake transition disorders were most common.

4.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(10): 2049-2055, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31400068

RESUMO

Histone Gene Cluster 1 Member E, HIST1H1E, encodes Histone H1.4, is one of a family of epigenetic regulator genes, acts as a linker histone protein, and is responsible for higher order chromatin structure. HIST1H1E syndrome (also known as Rahman syndrome, OMIM #617537) is a recently described intellectual disability (ID) syndrome. Since the initial description of five unrelated individuals with three different heterozygous protein-truncating variants (PTVs) in the HIST1H1E gene in 2017, we have recruited 30 patients, all with HIST1H1E PTVs that result in the same shift in frame and that cluster to a 94-base pair region in the HIST1H1E carboxy terminal domain. The identification of 30 patients with HIST1H1E variants has allowed the clarification of the HIST1H1E syndrome phenotype. Major findings include an ID and a recognizable facial appearance. ID was reported in all patients and is most frequently of moderate severity. The facial gestalt consists of a high frontal hairline and full lower cheeks in early childhood and, in later childhood and adulthood, affected individuals have a strikingly high frontal hairline, frontal bossing, and deep-set eyes. Other associated clinical features include hypothyroidism, abnormal dentition, behavioral issues, cryptorchidism, skeletal anomalies, and cardiac anomalies. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is frequently abnormal with a slender corpus callosum a frequent finding.

5.
Clin Genet ; 96(6): 485-492, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31392730

RESUMO

SATB2-associated syndrome (SAS) is a recently identified disorder characterized by neurodevelopmental deficits and craniofacial anomalies. Assessments of speech, language, and feeding-related issues were conducted among 61 individuals with SAS (median age = 86 months, range = 26 months to 29 years of age). Individuals with SAS were mostly non-verbal communicators (72.1%) with severe deficits in both language comprehension and expression. The majority of individuals had receptive vocabulary skills of a child younger than 3 years of age. Based on parent report, the average spoken lexicon was 28.6 (SD = 84.6, n = 55) with a range of 0 to 500 (median = 5 words). All of the individuals with SAS with enough verbal ability either showed signs of childhood apraxia of speech or already had a diagnosis (n = 40) and 73.3% exhibited problems with reliable communication with unfamiliar partners. Hypernasal resonance (17.8%) due to velopharyngeal insufficiency secondary to a history of cleft palate and/or apraxic palatal movement (60.0% of hypernasal patients with no history of cleft palate), problems with chewing (68.2%), overstuffing the mouth with solids (64.9%), pharyngeal phase dysphagia (60.8%), and sialorrhea (63.3%) were common in this population. Mutation type was not predictive of receptive or expressive language abilities. We developed language and communication treatment recommendations based on these findings.

6.
Birth Defects Res ; 111(16): 1192-1204, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31313527

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With their unique history of exposure to extensive nuclear testing between 1946 and 1958, descendants of Marshall Island residents may have underappreciated genetic abnormalities, increasing their risk of birth defects. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of resident women with at least one singleton live birth between 1997 and 2013 in northwest Arkansas using state birth certificate data linked to data from the Arkansas Reproductive Health Monitoring System, a statewide birth defects registry. We calculated unadjusted and adjusted prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) from modified Poisson regression analyses for non-Hispanic (NH) whites, NH-blacks, Hispanics and Marshallese, using NH-whites as the reference group. RESULTS: Of the 91,662 singleton births during the study period, 2,488 were to Marshallese women. Due to the relatively small number of Marshallese births, we could not calculate prevalence estimates for some defects. Marshallese infants had higher rates of congenital cataracts (PR = 9.3; 95% CI: 3.1, 27.9). Although the number of defects was low, Marshallese infants also had higher rates of truncus arteriosus (PR = 44.0; 95% CI: 2.2, 896.1). CONCLUSIONS: Marshallese infants may have increased risk of specific birth defects, but estimates are unstable because of small sample size so results are inconclusive. Larger population-based studies would allow for further investigation of this potential risk among Marshallese infants.

7.
Bone ; 127: 488-498, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31325654

RESUMO

Special AT-rich sequence binding protein 2 (Satb2) is a matrix attachment region (MAR) binding protein. Satb2 impacts skeletal development by regulating gene transcription required for osteogenic differentiation. Although its role as a high-order transcription factor is well supported, other roles for Satb2 in skeletal development remain unclear. In particular, the impact of dosage sensitivity (heterozygous mutations) and variance on phenotypic severity is still not well understood. To further investigate molecular and cellular mechanisms of Satb2-mediated skeletal defects, we used the CRISPR/Cas9 system to generate Satb2 mutations in MC3T3-E1 cells. Our data suggest that, in addition to its role in differentiation, Satb2 regulates progenitor proliferation. We also find that mutations in Satb2 cause chromatin defects including nuclear blebbing and donut-shaped nuclei. These defects may contribute to a slight increase in apoptosis in mutant cells, but apoptosis is insufficient to explain the proliferation defects. Satb2 expression exhibits population-level variation and is most highly expressed from late G1 to late G2. Based on these data, we hypothesize that Satb2 may regulate proliferation through two separate mechanisms. First, Satb2 may regulate the expression of genes necessary for cell cycle progression in pre-osteoblasts. Second, similar to other MAR-binding proteins, Satb2 may participate in DNA replication. We also hypothesize that variation in the severity or penetrance of Satb2-mediated proliferation defects is due to stochastic variation in Satb2 binding to DNA, which may be buffered in some genetic backgrounds. Further elucidation of the role of Satb2 in proliferation has potential impacts on our understanding of both skeletal defects and cancer.

8.
Hum Mutat ; 40(8): 1013-1029, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31021519

RESUMO

SATB2-associated syndrome (SAS) is an autosomal dominant neurodevelopmental disorder caused by alterations in the SATB2 gene. Here we present a review of published pathogenic variants in the SATB2 gene to date and report 38 novel alterations found in 57 additional previously unreported individuals. Overall, we present a compilation of 120 unique variants identified in 155 unrelated families ranging from single nucleotide coding variants to genomic rearrangements distributed throughout the entire coding region of SATB2. Single nucleotide variants predicted to result in the occurrence of a premature stop codon were the most commonly seen (51/120 = 42.5%) followed by missense variants (31/120 = 25.8%). We review the rather limited functional characterization of pathogenic variants and discuss current understanding of the consequences of the different molecular alterations. We present an expansive phenotypic review along with novel genotype-phenotype correlations. Lastly, we discuss current knowledge of animal models and present future prospects. This review should help provide better guidance for the care of individuals diagnosed with SAS.

9.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 14(1): 85, 2019 04 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31023354

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hypophosphatasia (HPP) is a rare, inherited, metabolic disease caused by tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase deficiency, characterized by bone mineralization defects and systemic complications. Understanding of the clinical course and burden of HPP is limited by its rarity. This systematic literature review and synthesis of case report data aimed to determine the frequency and timing of clinical HPP manifestations and events. METHODS: Case reports and series of patients with HPP who had been followed longitudinally for ≥1 year were identified. Demographics and clinical data of interest, identified through consultation with clinical experts in HPP, were extracted. Occurrences of clinical manifestations/events of interest were categorized, classified by age at first reported occurrence of HPP manifestations and visualized over time. Clinical manifestations/events considered to contribute to the clinical burden of HPP were identified. Kaplan-Meier curves were used to estimate the median (range) age at first occurrence of the most frequently reported manifestations/events. RESULTS: From the 283 studies that met the inclusion criteria, 265 patients with HPP with ≥1 year of longitudinal follow-up were identified (median [interquartile range] age 4 [0-34] years; 45% male). The types of clinical manifestations/events of interest experienced by individuals with ≥1 such manifestation/event (n = 261) often differed between older and younger patients. Most (94%) of the 265 patients experienced ≥1 manifestation/event deemed to contribute to the clinical burden of HPP; premature tooth loss (53.5%), fractures (35.8%), pain (33.6%), and gross motor/ambulation difficulties (30.9%) were most frequently reported. The median (range) age at first reported occurrence of respiratory symptoms, cranial abnormalities, and premature tooth loss ranged from 0.3 to 10 years, whereas the median age at first reported occurrence of fractures, pain, gross motor/ambulation difficulties, and surgery ranged from 33 to 70 years. CONCLUSIONS: HPP is associated with a high clinical burden of disease, regardless of age at first reported occurrence of HPP manifestations. Over an individual's lifetime, the types of manifestations/events experienced can change and multiple HPP-related clinical manifestations/events can accumulate. These observations may reflect evolution and progression of the disease.


Assuntos
Hipofosfatasia/epidemiologia , Hipofosfatasia/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fosfatase Alcalina/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Terapia de Reposição de Enzimas , Feminino , Fraturas Ósseas/epidemiologia , Fraturas Ósseas/genética , Humanos , Hipofosfatasia/complicações , Hipofosfatasia/genética , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Dor/epidemiologia , Dor/etiologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(6): 1047-1052, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30941910

RESUMO

Kosaki overgrowth syndrome is a recently described syndrome characterized by distinctive facial features, brain white matter lesions, and developmental delay. Germline activating heterozygous PDGFRB mutations have been reported in this condition. Systemic connective tissue-type findings have been described in some individuals. We describe a 19-year-old Caucasian female with a history of hydrocephalus, Dandy-Walker malformation, cervical spine arachnoid cyst, progressive scoliosis, and overgrowth. Her physical exam included distinctive craniofacial dysmorphism, as well as soft and hyperextensible skin. Cardiovascular imaging during adolescence revealed saccular aneurysms in both coronary artery systems and subtle tortuosity of the cervical vertebral arteries. Exome sequencing trio analysis identified a de novo previously reported pathogenic variant in PDGFRB, c.1696T>C (p.[Trp566Arg]). Further functional studies included platelet-derived growth factor cellular metabolic pathway activity that confirmed the variant causes a constitutive activation of the PI3K-AKT pathway. This is the first report to characterize the activating nature of this PDGFRB variant. We also highlight the connective tissue findings seen in Kosaki overgrowth syndrome and recommend baseline echocardiographic evaluation in all individuals with this condition with particular emphasis on coronary arteries.

11.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(3): 530-541, 2019 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30827496

RESUMO

Acetylation of the lysine residues in histones and other DNA-binding proteins plays a major role in regulation of eukaryotic gene expression. This process is controlled by histone acetyltransferases (HATs/KATs) found in multiprotein complexes that are recruited to chromatin by the scaffolding subunit transformation/transcription domain-associated protein (TRRAP). TRRAP is evolutionarily conserved and is among the top five genes intolerant to missense variation. Through an international collaboration, 17 distinct de novo or apparently de novo variants were identified in TRRAP in 24 individuals. A strong genotype-phenotype correlation was observed with two distinct clinical spectra. The first is a complex, multi-systemic syndrome associated with various malformations of the brain, heart, kidneys, and genitourinary system and characterized by a wide range of intellectual functioning; a number of affected individuals have intellectual disability (ID) and markedly impaired basic life functions. Individuals with this phenotype had missense variants clustering around the c.3127G>A p.(Ala1043Thr) variant identified in five individuals. The second spectrum manifested with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and/or ID and epilepsy. Facial dysmorphism was seen in both groups and included upslanted palpebral fissures, epicanthus, telecanthus, a wide nasal bridge and ridge, a broad and smooth philtrum, and a thin upper lip. RNA sequencing analysis of skin fibroblasts derived from affected individuals skin fibroblasts showed significant changes in the expression of several genes implicated in neuronal function and ion transport. Thus, we describe here the clinical spectrum associated with TRRAP pathogenic missense variants, and we suggest a genotype-phenotype correlation useful for clinical evaluation of the pathogenicity of the variants.

12.
Acta Neurol Belg ; 119(3): 493-496, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30707408
13.
Spec Care Dentist ; 39(2): 220-224, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30648748

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Identify, diagnose, and document oral clinical and radiographic evidence associated with the genetic condition known as special AT-rich sequence-binding protein 2 (SATB2)-associated syndrome. Through identifying and publishing these common dental and behavioral findings, we hope to educate oral and medical healthcare providers to identify this condition in an attempt to develop meaningful comprehensive care to this patient population. METHODS: A total of 37 patients (19 female), ranging from ages 2 to 20 were evaluated at Arkansas Children's Hospital in Little Rock, Arkansas. Patient geographic distribution included: the United States, Canada, Portugal, Spain, and the Netherlands. Patients were clinically and radiographically examined for oral findings. Panoramic radiographs were obtained when patient's behavior allowed. Patient's parents or guardians were also interviewed concerning dental, medical, and behavioral histories. RESULTS: Clinical findings included delayed tooth eruption, bruxism, sialorrhea, larger than normal teeth with an increased propensity for maxillary anterior tooth trauma due to unsteady ambulation. Radiographic findings included delayed permanent root formation, significantly delayed or missing second bicuspids, malformed teeth, and taurodontism. Medical and behavioral issues included: insomnia, hyperphagia, cognitive delays, and an extremely high pain threshold. CONCLUSION: Patients with SATB2-associated syndrome have shown to have a consistent and unique set of dental findings both clinically and radiographically. A thorough health and dental history along with the aforementioned results of the study may facilitate a diagnosis of this syndrome. Due to the complexity of the patient's dental needs and behavior, a health practitioner with special needs care experience on a comprehensive craniofacial team would be optimal.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/diagnóstico , Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Proteínas de Ligação à Região de Interação com a Matriz/genética , Doenças da Boca/diagnóstico , Doenças da Boca/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Adolescente , Arkansas , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Radiografia Panorâmica , Síndrome , Adulto Jovem
14.
Clin Oral Investig ; 22(8): 2947-2951, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30315422

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To characterize the radiographic dental phenotype of individuals with SATB2-associated syndrome (SAS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Participants were evaluated by a multidisciplinary team during a concurrent clinic conducted during the 1st international SAS family meeting held in 2017 at a single institution. Whenever possible, panoramic and/or periapical radiographs were obtained in clinic or previously obtained and provided by the caregiver. RESULTS: Of the 37 individuals evaluated, 18 (12 males, median age 8.5 years) underwent radiographic examination. Dental radiographs revealed anomalies in all individuals starting at 2 years of age. The most consistent finding was delayed development of the mandibular second bicuspids (83%) with other common radiographic findings including delayed development of the roots of the permanent teeth (78%), severely rotated (56%) or malformed teeth (44%), and taurodontism (44%). CONCLUSIONS: Dental anomalies are fully penetrant and can be documented radiographically in all individuals with SAS. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Dental radiographic findings of delayed second premolar development and delayed development of permanent root formation, especially concurrent with findings of taurodontism and malformed teeth, support a clinical suspicion for SAS and should help differentiate SAS from other neurodevelopmental syndromes.

15.
Cleft Palate Craniofac J ; : 1055665618773192, 2018 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29708799

RESUMO

This report describes the presentation of a newborn male with circumferential tongue-palate fusion associated with cleft palate and alveolar bands. After intraoral adhesions lysis, the patient was diagnosed with Pierre Robin sequence. A family history of cleft lip and palate was noted, and interferon regulatory factor 6 ( IRF6) sequencing revealed a heterozygous variant, confirming the diagnosis of van der Woude syndrome. The disruption of IRF6 resulted in abnormal orofacial development including micrognathia and intraoral adhesions as well as tongue-palate fusion, then resulting in glossoptosis with airway obstruction and cleft palate.

16.
Am J Med Genet A ; 176(4): 925-935, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29436146

RESUMO

SATB2-associated syndrome (SAS) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by significant neurodevelopmental disabilities with limited to absent speech, behavioral issues, and craniofacial anomalies. Previous studies have largely been restricted to case reports and small series without in-depth phenotypic characterization or genotype-phenotype correlations. Seventy two study participants were identified as part of the SAS clinical registry. Individuals with a molecularly confirmed diagnosis of SAS were referred after clinical diagnostic testing. In this series we present the most comprehensive phenotypic and genotypic characterization of SAS to date, including prevalence of each clinical feature, neurodevelopmental milestones, and when available, patient management. We confirm that the most distinctive features are neurodevelopmental delay with invariably severely limited speech, abnormalities of the palate (cleft or high-arched), dental anomalies (crowding, macrodontia, abnormal shape), and behavioral issues with or without bone or brain anomalies. This comprehensive clinical characterization will help clinicians with the diagnosis, counseling and management of SAS and help provide families with anticipatory guidance.

18.
Ophthalmic Genet ; 39(1): 29-34, 2018 Jan-Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28726533

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Arterial tortuosity syndrome (ATS) is a rare autosomal recessive disease hallmarked by tortuosity, stenosis, and aneurysm development of large- and medium-sized arteries. Mutations in SLC2A10, a gene that encodes the facilitative glucose transporter GLUT10, cause ATS. Several case reports have noted associated ophthalmic findings such as keratoconus, keratoglobus, and myopia without detailed descriptions or standardized examinations. We report the ophthalmic findings in a cohort of compound heterozygous ATS patients and heterozygous carriers of SLC2A10 mutations. METHODS: Five ATS patients and three carriers were identified through an ATS specialty clinic at the Arkansas Children's Hospital in Little Rock, Arkansas. Patients underwent complete eye examinations, including corneal pachymetry, topography, and optical coherence tomography when indicated. RESULTS: All five patients with ATS had myopia and thin corneas with an average central corneal thickness of 426 µm, and three had corneal ectasia, two with early keratoconus and one with keratoglobus and deep stromal corneal opacities. One patient had bilateral high irregular astigmatism, and one had unilateral high regular astigmatism. All carriers had myopia, one had corneal thinning, and one developed keratectasia in one eye many years after laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) surgery. CONCLUSION: We document a spectrum of ophthalmic manifestations of ATS with universal findings of myopia, corneal thinning, and a propensity for corneal ectasia leading to keratoconus or keratoglobus. Heterozygous carriers may develop keratectasia after corneal refractive surgery. Our data support regular eye examinations for all patients carrying SLC2A10 mutations with follow-up tailored to clinical findings.


Assuntos
Artérias/anormalidades , Córnea/patologia , Proteínas Facilitadoras de Transporte de Glucose/genética , Heterozigoto , Instabilidade Articular/diagnóstico , Ceratocone/diagnóstico , Mutação , Miopia/diagnóstico , Dermatopatias Genéticas/diagnóstico , Malformações Vasculares/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Paquimetria Corneana , Topografia da Córnea , Dilatação Patológica , Feminino , Humanos , Instabilidade Articular/genética , Ceratocone/genética , Masculino , Miopia/genética , Dermatopatias Genéticas/genética , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica , Malformações Vasculares/genética , Adulto Jovem
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29162653

RESUMO

Using whole-exome sequencing, we identified seven unrelated individuals with global developmental delay, hypotonia, dysmorphic facial features, and an increased frequency of short stature, ataxia, and autism with de novo heterozygous frameshift, nonsense, splice, and missense variants in the Early B-cell Transcription Factor Family Member 3 (EBF3) gene. EBF3 is a member of the collier/olfactory-1/early B-cell factor (COE) family of proteins, which are required for central nervous system (CNS) development. COE proteins are highly evolutionarily conserved and regulate neuronal specification, migration, axon guidance, and dendritogenesis during development and are essential for maintaining neuronal identity in adult neurons. Haploinsufficiency of EBF3 may affect brain development and function, resulting in developmental delay, intellectual disability, and behavioral differences observed in individuals with a deleterious variant in EBF3.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Adolescente , Sequência de Aminoácidos/genética , Ataxia/genética , Transtorno Autístico/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Sequência Conservada/genética , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Exoma , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Deficiência Intelectual , Masculino , Hipotonia Muscular/genética , Mutação , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Síndrome de Prader-Willi/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma/métodos , Adulto Jovem
20.
Am J Med Genet A ; 173(10): 2814-2820, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28815955

RESUMO

While X-linked intellectual disability (XLID) syndromes pose a diagnostic challenge for clinicians, an increasing number of recognized disorders and their genetic etiologies are providing answers for patients and their families. The availability of clinical exome sequencing is broadening the ability to identify mutations in genes previously unrecognized as causing XLID. In recent years, the IQSEC2 gene, located at Xp11.22, has emerged as the cause of multiple cases of both nonsyndromic and syndromic XLID. Herein we present a case series of six individuals (five males, one female) with intellectual disability and seizures found to have alterations in IQSEC2. In all cases, the diagnostic odyssey was extensive and expensive, often including invasive testing such as muscle biopsies, before ultimately reaching the diagnosis. We report these cases to demonstrate the exhaustive work-up prior to finding the changes in IQSEC2 gene, recommend that this gene be considered earlier in the diagnostic evaluation of individuals with global developmental delay, microcephaly, and severe, intractable epilepsy, and support the use of intellectual disability panels including IQSEC2 in the first-line evaluation of these patients.


Assuntos
Fatores de Troca do Nucleotídeo Guanina/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/diagnóstico , Mutação , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Masculino , Prognóstico , Síndrome , Adulto Jovem
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