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1.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34204927

RESUMO

This study examined the effects of parental feeding practices and adolescent emotional eating (EE) on dietary outcomes among overweight African American adolescents. Based on Family Systems Theory, it was hypothesized that parental feeding practices, such as parental monitoring and responsibility, would buffer the effects of EE on poor dietary quality, whereas practices such as concern about a child's weight, restriction, and pressure-to-eat would exacerbate this relationship. Adolescents (N = 127; Mage = 12.83 ± 1.74; MBMI% = 96.61 ± 4.14) provided baseline data from the Families Improving Together (FIT) for Weight Loss trial and an ancillary study. Dietary outcomes (fruit and vegetables (F&Vs), energy intake, sweetened beverage, total fat, and saturated fat) were assessed using random 24-h dietary recalls. Validated surveys were used to assess adolescent-reported EE and parental feeding practices. Results demonstrated a significant interaction between EE and parental monitoring (adjusted analyses; B = 0.524, SE = 0.176, p = 0.004), restriction (B = -0.331, SE = 0.162, p = 0.043), and concern (B = -0.602, SE = 0.171, p = 0.001) on F&V intake; under high monitoring, low restriction, and low concern, EE was positively associated with F&V intake. There were no significant effects for the other dietary outcomes. These findings indicate that parental feeding practices and EE may be important factors to consider for dietary interventions, specifically for F&V intake, among overweight African American adolescents.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Ingestão de Alimentos , Comportamento Alimentar , Pais/psicologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/etiologia , Adolescente , Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Bebidas Gaseificadas , Criança , Ingestão de Alimentos/etnologia , Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Emoções , Ingestão de Energia , Comportamento Alimentar/etnologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Feminino , Frutas , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade Pediátrica/etnologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Verduras
2.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34210069

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to conduct in-depth individual interviews with 30 African American adolescents with overweight and obesity and their families (caregiver/adolescent dyads) to gain a better understanding of how to integrate stress and coping essential elements into an existing family-based health promotion program for weight loss. Interview data from 30 African American adolescents with overweight and obesity (Mage = 15.30 ± 2.18; MBMI%-ile = 96.7 ± 3.90) were transcribed and coded for themes using inductive and deductive approaches by two independent coders. Inter-rater reliability was acceptable (r = 0.70-0.80) and discrepancies were resolved to 100% agreement. The themes were guided by the Relapse Prevention Model, which focuses on assessing barriers of overall coping capacity in high stress situations that may undermine health behavior change (physical activity, diet, weight loss). Prominent themes included feeling stressed primarily in response to relationship conflicts within the family and among peers, school responsibilities, and negative emotions (anxiety, depression, anger). A mix of themes emerged related to coping strategies ranging from cognitive reframing and distraction to avoidant coping. Recommendations for future programs include addressing sources of stress and providing supportive resources, as well as embracing broader systems such as neighborhoods and communities. Implications for future intervention studies are discussed.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Adolescente , Terapia Comportamental , Criança , Dieta/psicologia , Família/psicologia , Relações Familiares/psicologia , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade Pediátrica/terapia , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Programas de Redução de Peso
3.
Dev Psychopathol ; : 1-11, 2021 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34308803

RESUMO

Moral disengagement is a social cognition people use to engage in wrongdoings even when they know it is wrong. However, little is known about the antecedents that predict moral disengagement. The current study focuses on the development of self-control and cooperation during middle childhood as two antecedents of moral disengagement among 1,103 children (50% female; 77% White, 12% Black, 6% Hispanic, and 5% other). Children's self-control at age 8 and growth in self-control from age 8 to 11 were positively linked to adolescents seeing themselves as having self-control at age 15, which then predicted less moral disengagement at age 18. Children's cooperation at age 8 also was positively linked to adolescents' self-views of cooperation at age 15, which in turn, was associated with less moral disengagement at age 18. These findings demonstrate the potential of self-control and cooperation as intrapersonal and interpersonal strengths during middle childhood for mitigating moral disengagement 10 years later.

4.
J Pediatr Psychol ; 46(8): 980-990, 2021 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33738484

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study set out to examine the role of parenting practices in protecting or exacerbating the negative effects of parent and adolescent stress on adolescent body mass index (BMI) over time. Separate longitudinal models were conducted to evaluate how parenting practices interacted with parental perceived stress and adolescent perceived stress in predicting adolescent BMI. METHODS: Baseline data were collected from 148 African American adolescents (Mage = 12.93, SD = 1.75; Mz-BMI = 0.78, SD = 0.50; MBMI%-ile = 96.7, SD = 3.90) and their caregivers (Mage = 44.45, SD = 8.65; MBMI = 37.63, SD = 8.21) enrolled in the Families Improving Together for Weight Loss trial. Adolescents self-reported their perceptions of caregiver parenting style and feeding practices. Both caregivers and adolescents self-reported their perceptions of chronic stress. BMI for parents and adolescents was assessed objectively at baseline and 16 weeks post-intervention. RESULTS: Hierarchical regression models predicting adolescent BMI z-score (z-BMI) indicated a significant interaction between parental perceived stress and parental pressure to eat. Simple slopes analyses demonstrated that for those parents that exhibit higher pressure to eat, parent stress was positively associated with adolescent z-BMI. CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide preliminary support suggesting that certain parenting practices interact with chronic stress on adolescent weight-related outcomes and that future interventions may consider integrating these factors.

5.
J Behav Med ; 44(3): 379-391, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33677766

RESUMO

The current study is a randomized controlled trial to test a novel 10-week climate-based intervention within pre-existing afterschool programs, designed to increase moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in underserved (low-income, minority status) middle school youth by addressing youth social developmental needs. Participants (n = 167; 56% female; 62% Black; 50% overweight/obese) enrolled in 6 middle schools were randomized to either the Connect through PLAY intervention or a wait-list control. Process evaluation measures (i.e., observations of external evaluators; staff surveys) indicated that essential elements were implemented with fidelity, and staff endorsed implementation ease/feasibility and acceptability. Regression analysis demonstrated that participation in the intervention (vs. control) was associated with an increase of 8.17 min of daily accelerometry-measured MVPA (56 min of additional weekly MVPA) at post-intervention controlling for baseline MVPA, school, gender, and weight status. The results provide support for social-motivational climate-based interventions for increasing MVPA in underserved youth that can inform future school-based health initiatives.Trial Registration: NCT03850821: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/study/NCT03850821?term=NCT03850821&rank=1.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Instituições Acadêmicas , Acelerometria , Adolescente , Feminino , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Motivação , Meio Social
6.
J Behav Med ; 44(4): 541-550, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33751355

RESUMO

This study evaluated the associations between parenting factors and adolescent weight related outcomes in African American adolescents with overweight and obesity. Baseline heights and weights were collected from 241 African American adolescents (11-16 years) with overweight and obesity. Self-reported adolescent perceptions of caregiver's parenting style (responsiveness, demandingness), parental feeding practices (monitoring, responsibility, weight related concerns, pressure-to-eat, and restriction), and their own dietary self-efficacy for healthy eating were assessed. Results demonstrated that greater parental responsiveness was significantly associated with lower adolescent body mass index (BMI) and higher adolescent dietary self-efficacy. In contrast, parental concern about adolescent weight was significantly associated with greater adolescent BMI, while greater parental responsibility for foods was associated with lower adolescent BMI. Although parental pressure-to-eat was significantly associated with higher dietary self-efficacy, greater parental restriction was associated with lower dietary self-efficacy. The results of this study highlight the importance of parental responsiveness and responsibility in understanding obesity related outcomes in African American adolescents with overweight and obesity.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos , Poder Familiar , Adolescente , Índice de Massa Corporal , Comportamento Alimentar , Humanos , Obesidade , Sobrepeso , Relações Pais-Filho , Inquéritos e Questionários
7.
Dev Psychol ; 57(3): 397-409, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33539122

RESUMO

Developmental theories and previous research have emphasized the significance of cooperation and self-control in middle childhood. The present study extends previous research by examining (a) the growth of cooperation and self-control as well as the relations between them in middle childhood (third to sixth grade) and (b) the extent to which mothers' and fathers' parenting during early childhood (54 months and first grade) was associated with children's cooperation and self-control. The sample included 705 children (51% female, 86% White) and their mothers, fathers, and teachers in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD). Children, on average, exhibited increases in self-control but not cooperation from third to sixth grade though the increases were smaller for children who had higher self-control or cooperation at third grade. Children who exhibited higher self-control at third grade tended to exhibit higher cooperation at third grade; similar positive associations emerged for the changes in self-control and cooperation over time. In addition, if a child exhibited higher self-control at one time point relative to their typical average level, they tended to also exhibit higher cooperation at the same time point relative to their typical average level. However, these relative deviations within person were not associated over time. Lastly, maternal and paternal sensitive and stimulating parenting in early childhood was positively associated with children's cooperation and self-control in middle childhood. Overall, our findings shed light on the growth of and the relations between cooperation and self-control in middle childhood and highlight the role of maternal and paternal parenting in early childhood. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Pai , Autocontrole , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Relações Pai-Filho , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mães , Poder Familiar
8.
Dev Psychol ; 56(12): 2281-2292, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33001668

RESUMO

Children's work habits at school include being a hard worker, turning in work on time, following classroom rules, and putting forward one's best effort. Models on youth character, noncognitive skills, and social-emotional learning suggest that self-management skills like work habits are critical for individuals' subsequent academic success. Using data from 1,124 children in the NICHD Study of Early Childcare and Youth Development (49% female; 77% White), we examined children's developing work habits from first to sixth grade and their developmental cascading effects on academic outcomes at the beginning and end of high school as well as at age 26. The findings on differential stability of work habits (i.e., bivariate correlations) suggest that children were likely to maintain their relative position among peers from first to sixth grade. The complementary findings on mean-level changes from the latent growth curves suggest that children's work habits exhibited mean-level increases over the same period, meaning that children's work habits became more advanced from first to sixth grade. Models used to examine the developmental cascades of work habits suggest that children's work habits at first grade and the growth in children's work habits from first to sixth grade (a) directly predicted their academic outcomes at the beginning and the end of high school, and (b) indirectly predicted their educational attainment at age 26 through their academic outcomes during adolescence. These findings underscore the importance of foundational noncognitive skills during middle childhood that predict individuals' academic outcomes up to 20 years later in adulthood. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).

9.
Health Promot Pract ; : 1524839920939572, 2020 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32639170

RESUMO

Background. The purpose of the current article is to demonstrate how formative process evaluation was used in a pilot study to optimize the design and implementation of two motivationally targeted community-based physical activity (PA) interventions for inactive African American women. Method. Fifteen African American women (M age: 41.6 years) were randomized to a challenge-focused program targeted toward high autonomous motivation or a rewards-focused program targeted toward low autonomous motivation. The challenge-focused program targeted enjoyment and valuation of PA and a team-based positive social climate through competitive intergroup activities and team-based goals, whereas the rewards-focused program targeted PA interest, competency, and partner-based social support through a walking program, individual-based goals with financial incentives, and partner-based action-plans. Results. Feedback from participants revealed high levels of acceptability of essential elements. Average weekly attendance exceeded the a priori goal of ≥75% of members in attendance each week. External systematic observation demonstrated that session content dose was ≥93% in both programs. Facilitator-level fidelity exceeded the a priori goal of averaging ≥3 on a 4-point scale for behavioral skills, communication, autonomy support, and session content. The process evaluation also revealed areas for improvement, including facilitator-level social support and behavioral skills at the group-level. Process data collected through FitBits revealed that participants were engaged in self-monitoring PA during the 6-week programs. Conclusions. The formative process evaluation demonstrated adequate levels of feasibility and acceptability and also provided key insights into adjustments needed before proceeding with implementing the motivationally targeted group-based programs in a larger randomized study.

10.
Am J Community Psychol ; 66(3-4): 232-243, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32589272

RESUMO

To address gaps in the youth participation and adolescent physical activity (PA) promotion literature, we examined the feasibility of youth participatory action research (YPAR) in (a) general aftercare (YPAR only) and (b) with a physical activity intervention, (YPAR + PA) to reach marginalized youth and impact individual empowerment and second-order change for equitable PA access. We intervened during middle school, a developmental stage conducive to changing health habits. We used a concurrent, mixed-method triangulation design. Participants were students (94% non-Hispanic Black/African American, 75% free/reduced lunch) in the southeastern United States. YPAR was adapted from online modules. Youth conducted photovoice, capturing and analyzing social/environmental factors contributing to inequities in their schools/programs. PA inequities emerged for girls. Findings indicated feasibility of YPAR with systems supports. Changes occurred at the individual and systems level in the YPAR + PA program. Sociopolitical skills, participatory behavior, and perceived control empowerment subdomains increased pre-post, and youth qualitative responses aligned. A follow-up interview with the director revealed all youth-proposed changes occurred. A feedback loop was developed for continued youth input. Youth-led changes to increase PA access have potential to decrease health disparities by generating unique solutions likely missed when adults intervene alone.

11.
Clin Med Insights Pediatr ; 14: 1179556520918902, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32547286

RESUMO

Most interventions do not reach full implementation in real-world settings. Due to this issue, formative process evaluation during pilot programs can be especially useful to understand implementation strengths and areas for improvement so that full implementation can be reached in future iterations. This study demonstrated how a formative process evaluation of the Connect through Positive Leisure Activities for Youth (Connect) pilot informed course corrections for year 2 implementation. Connect is an intervention to promote a positive social motivational climate for physical activity (PA) in pre-existing after school programs. Connect ran 3 days a week for 8 weeks and had 2 components: a 30-minute "Get-to-Know-You" (GTKY) session and a 60-minute PA session. Formative evaluation was assessed using an observational tool and staff surveys. Changes in youth PA during program hours was assessed as a process outcome using the System for Observing Children's Activity and Relationships during Play (SOCARP). All Connect essential elements were assessed with the observational tool including (a) social goal-oriented support; (b) collaborative, cooperative play; (c) equal treatment/access; and (d) an inclusive and engaging climate. Adequate dose was achieved on all items in all sessions. Although GTKY and PA sessions both reached high fidelity in promoting equal treatment and access, success in reaching fidelity varied for the 3 remaining essential elements. Post-intervention staff surveys indicated acceptability/adoptability of the Connect program and SOCARP observations indicated significant increases in PA from baseline to post-intervention. Changes for year 2 implementation based on the findings are discussed.

12.
J Early Adolesc ; 40(5): 662-688, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32341617

RESUMO

Inconsistencies exist regarding the relation between physical activity (PA) and internalizing symptomology in early adolescence, and there is need for investigation of potential moderators that may account for these discrepancies. The current study utilized a Self-Determination Theory Framework to investigate the main effects of five key motivations to exercise and their moderating effects between PA and internalizing problems in an underserved sample of adolescents (n = 167; mean age = 12.19 years; 73% African American). Analyses showed that intrinsic motivations were negatively related to internalizing problems and extrinsic motivations were positively related. PA was only protective against internalizing problems when intrinsic motivations were high and had iatrogenic effects when these were low. Exploratory analyses further delineated the unique effects of motivational orientations. Clinical implications and future research directions are discussed.

13.
J Adolesc ; 78: 1-8, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31790833

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Early adolescence is a developmental period in which peer victimization, bullying, relational aggression, and social exclusion are particularly prominent. As these behaviors have long-term implications for children, in this study, we investigated early variations of prosocial behaviors as one of the critical precedents that shape youth's subsequent peer relational outcomes. Specifically, we identified different profiles of prosocial behaviors in middle childhood (Grade 4) and related these profiles to peer relationships in early adolescence (Grade 6). METHOD: Using longitudinal data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (N = 914; 52% girls), a three-step latent profile analysis was conducted on Grade 4 prosocial behaviors, which were then related to Grade 6 teacher- and student-rated peer relationships (e.g., relational aggression). RESULTS: Four patterns of prosocial behaviors emerged: low prosocial (18%), high prosocial (67%), primarily friendly (8%), and primarily kind (7%). These four patterns of prosocial behaviors were differentially related to later problematic peer relationships: Low prosocial youth demonstrated the most problematic peer relationships (Mdiff = 0.36-0.93, all p < .001). Primarily friendly (but not kind) youth displayed more general and relational aggression (Mdiff = 0.22, SE = 0.07, p = .002; and Mdiff = 0.18, SE = 0.06, p = .006, respectively). CONCLUSION: Both low prosocial and primarily friendly youth are at risk for displaying peer-related problems; interventions that build prosocial behaviors in youth with a low prosocial or primarily friendly profile may help prevent problematic peer relationships at early adolescence.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Relações Interpessoais , Infuência dos Pares , Adolescente , Bullying/psicologia , Criança , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino
14.
Appl Dev Sci ; 22(1): 58-73, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30147291

RESUMO

Afterschool programs (ASPs) have become increasingly recognized as a key context to support youth daily physical activity (PA) accrual. Using Self-Determination Theory (SDT) as a framework, this study examined staff perspectives on the strengths and barriers within under-resourced ASPs for establishing a social-motivational climate for encouraging and supporting youth PA. Analysis of semi-structured staff interviews (28 staff; 7 ASPs) indicated that staff had knowledge and value for establishing a PA-supportive motivational climate. However, the feasibility of implementing PA curricula was identified as challenging across programs. Findings suggest increased need for staff training and supports to provide a PA climate that meets the developmental needs/interests of all youth, with particular attention toward increasing the PA of girls and older program youth. Furthermore, striking an appropriate balance between PA and other competing program demands (e.g., academics) will be required to optimize on the effectiveness of PA program components.

15.
Transl Behav Med ; 7(4): 912-914, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28660591

RESUMO

The Society of Behavioral Medicine recommends adoption of policies at the district, state, and federal levels that minimize weight gain among youth over the summertime, particularly among low-income, minority school-age youth who appear to be at greater risk. Policies that facilitate (1) partnerships between school districts and community organizations to provide affordable summertime programming, (2) strategic efforts by schools and communities to encourage families to enroll and attend summertime programming via the creation of community-wide summertime offerings offices, (3) adoption of joint-use/shared use agreements in communities to promote use of indoor and outdoor school facilities to provide affordable programming during the summer months, and (4) implementation of strategies that help summer programs achieve the Healthy Eating and Physical Activity (HEPA) standards which have been endorsed by the Healthy Out-of-School Time (HOST) coalition. Research is needed to elucidate key mechanisms by which involvement in structured programming may reduce weight gain over the summer months.


Assuntos
Política de Saúde , Promoção da Saúde , Sociedades Médicas , Ganho de Peso , Adolescente , Medicina do Comportamento , Criança , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estações do Ano , Estados Unidos , Populações Vulneráveis
16.
J Sch Health ; 87(5): 338-345, 2017 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28382669

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We examined the effectiveness of Peaceful Playgrounds™ (P2) to decrease antisocial behaviors (ASB) while increasing physical activity (PA) and prosocial behaviors (PSB) in elementary school children. METHODS: A longitudinal, cluster-randomized design was employed in 4 elementary school playgrounds where students (third to fifth) from 2 intervention and 2 control schools were observed during recess periods. The intervention included environmental changes (eg, marked surfaces) and student education. Data were collected using systematic observations of youth behavior and semistructured interviews conducted with key informants. Mixed-effects regression models controlling for scans nested within days nested within schools estimated the interaction of measurement period and treatment condition on children's PA, PSB, and ASB. It was hypothesized that children in intervention, but not control schools, would demonstrate increased PA/PSB and decreased ASB. RESULTS: Contrary to the hypotheses, intervention and control schools showed favorable changes for all dependent variables except for PSB, but 1 intervention and 1 control school drove these effects. Follow-up interviews indicated variability in implementation and lack of adherence to the control condition. CONCLUSIONS: P2 may promote increased PA during recess, but these results demonstrate the complexity of intervention implementation and the need for rigor when measuring intervention fidelity in real-world settings.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/prevenção & controle , Exercício Físico , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Jogos e Brinquedos , Instituições Acadêmicas/organização & administração , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Recreação , Serviços de Saúde Escolar
17.
Int Rev Sociol Sport ; 52(2): 240-259, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28344426

RESUMO

The objective of this analysis is to examine how participation in different types of competitive sports (based on level of contact) during high school is associated with substance use 1 to 4 years after the 12th grade. The analysis uses nationally representative samples of 12th graders from the Monitoring the Future Study who were followed 1 to 4 years after the 12th grade. The longitudinal sample consisted of 970 12th graders from six recent cohorts (2006-2011). The analyses found that respondents who participated in at least one competitive sport during the 12th grade had greater odds of binge drinking during the past two weeks (AOR = 2.04; 95% CI = 1.43, 2.90) 1 to 4 years after the 12th grade, when compared to their peers who did not participate in sports during their 12th grade year. Moreover, respondents who participated in high-contact sports (i.e., football, ice hockey, lacrosse, and wrestling) had greater odds of binge drinking (AOR = 1.80; 95% CI = 1.18, 2.72) and engaging in marijuana use during the past 30 days (AOR = 1.81; 95% CI = 1.12, 2.93) 1 to 4 years after the 12th grade when compared to their peers who did not participate in these types of sports during their 12th grade year. Accordingly, the findings indicate important distinctions in sport participation experiences on long-term substance use risk that can help inform potential interventions among young athletes.

18.
Eval Program Plann ; 61: 134-143, 2017 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28068554

RESUMO

Movement integration (MI), which involves infusing physical activity (PA) into regular classroom time in schools, is widely recommended to help children meet the national guideline of 60min of PA each day. Understanding the perspective of elementary classroom teachers (ECTs) toward MI is critical to program planning for interventions/professional development. This study examined the MI perceptions of ECTs in order to inform the design and implementation of a school-based pilot program that focused in part on increasing children's PA through MI. Twelve ECTs (Grades 1-3) from four schools were selected to participate based on their responses to a survey about their use of MI. Based on the idea that MI programming should be designed with particular attention to teachers who integrate relatively few movement opportunities in their classrooms, the intent was to select the teacher who reported integrating movement the least at her/his respective grade level at each school. However, not all of these teachers agreed to participate in the study. The final sample included two groups of ECTs, including eight lowest integrating teachers and four additional teachers. Each ECT participated in an interview during the semester before the pilot program was implemented. Through qualitative analysis of the interview transcripts, four themes emerged: (a) challenges and barriers (e.g., lack of time), (b) current and ideal resources (e.g., school support), (c) current implementation processes (e.g., scheduling MI into daily routines), and (e) teachers' ideas and tips for MI (e.g., stick with it and learn as you go). The themes were supported by data from both groups of teachers. This study's findings can inform future efforts to increase movement opportunities for children during regular classroom time.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Promoção da Saúde/organização & administração , Percepção , Professores Escolares/psicologia , Instituições Acadêmicas/organização & administração , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde
19.
Am J Community Psychol ; 57(3-4): 308-19, 2016 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27216561

RESUMO

Although extracurricular participation has been linked to positive youth outcomes in the general population, no research to date has examined benefits for youth diagnosed with mental health challenges. Youth in systems of care (SOCs) receive a variety of services and supports that could help them capitalize on this potential for positive development, such as access to flexible funding to support recreational interests. However, research has not examined the degree to which the increased community involvement (e.g., extracurricular participation) sought in SOCs contributes to improved outcomes. This study addresses these gaps by investigating the relationships between both average and increased extracurricular participation frequency and breadth and internalizing problems and intrapersonal strengths among SOC youth. Findings revealed that, on average, higher frequency of youth participation was associated with higher intrapersonal strengths and lower internalizing problems. Increases in participation frequency were also associated with increased strengths and decreased internalizing problems. These findings suggest that efforts to implement supports for increasing extracurricular participation of SOC youth could improve their psychosocial outcomes beyond the benefits yielded via formal services. Taken together, these results provide support for advocacy efforts to integrate youth with mental health challenges into existing extracurriculars and to create new extracurricular opportunities.


Assuntos
Deficiência Intelectual/psicologia , Controle Interno-Externo , Atividades de Lazer , Resiliência Psicológica , Participação Social , Apoio Social , Populações Vulneráveis/psicologia , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/reabilitação , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Sudeste dos Estados Unidos , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
Health Educ Behav ; 42(4): 518-29, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25588937

RESUMO

Afterschool programs (ASPs) have become increasingly recognized as a key context to support youth daily physical activity (PA) accrual. The purpose of the present study was to assess the physical and social-motivational climate characteristics of ASPs associated with youth PA, and variations in contextual correlates of PA by youth sex. Systematic observations of 7 ASPs serving underserved youth (minority, low income) was conducted using the System for Observing Play and Leisure Activity in Youth and a social-motivational climate observation tool founded on self-determination theory. For five program days at each site, teams of two coders conducted continuous observations of youth PA (sedentary, moderate, vigorous), five physical features (e.g., equipment availability), eight staff interactions (e.g., encourage PA), and seven motivational climate components (e.g., inclusive). Aligned with previous research, regressions controlling for variations by site indicated that organized PA, provision of portable equipment, and staff PA participation and supervision are key correlates of youth PA. Moreover, as the first study to systematically observe motivational-context characteristics of ASPs, we identified several key modifiable motivational features that are necessary to address in order to increase youth engagement in PA during the out-of-school hours. Among motivational features assessed, "relatedness" components (positive peer relations, inclusive/cooperative activities) were primary correlates of girls' PA. In contrast, all three motivational features specified by self-determination theory (support for autonomy, mastery/competence, and inclusion/relatedness) were correlated with boys' PA. Findings are discussed in terms of policy and practice for understanding strengths and needs of ASPs to effectively engage youth in PA.


Assuntos
Motivação , Atividade Motora , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Docentes/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Serviços de Saúde Escolar/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Sexuais
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