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1.
PeerJ ; 7: e6744, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31065455

RESUMO

Introgression, the transmission of genetic material of one taxon into another through hybridization, can have various evolutionary outcomes. Previous studies have detected signs of introgression between western populations of the Mexican endemic and threatened spiny-tailed iguana, Ctenosaura pectinata. However, the extent of this phenomenon along the geographic distribution of the species is unknown. Here, we use multilocus data together with detailed geographic sampling to (1) define genotypic clusters within C. pectinata; (2) evaluate geographic concordance between maternally and biparentally inherited markers; (3) examine levels of introgression between genotypic clusters, and (4) suggest taxonomic modifications in light of this information. Applying clustering methods to genotypes of 341 individuals from 49 localities of C. pectinata and the closely related C. acanthura, we inferred the existence of five genotypic clusters. Contact zones between genotypic clusters with signatures of interbreeding were detected, showing different levels of geographic discordance with mtDNA lineages. In northern localities, mtDNA and microsatellites exhibit concordant distributions, supporting the resurrection of C. brachylopha. Similar concordance is observed along the distribution of C. acanthura, confirming its unique taxonomic identity. Genetic and geographic concordance is also observed for populations within southwestern Mexico, where the recognition of a new species awaits in depth taxonomic revision. In contrast, in western localities a striking pattern of discordance was detected where up to six mtDNA lineages co-occur with only two genotypic clusters. Given that the type specimen originated from this area, we suggest that individuals from western Mexico keep the name C. pectinata. Our results have profound implications for conservation, management, and forensics of Mexican iguanas.

2.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 136: 29-34, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30930236

RESUMO

Natural history collections are increasingly valued as genomic resources. Their specimens reflect the combined efforts of collectors and curators over hundreds of years. For many rare or endangered species, specimens are the only readily available source of DNA. We leveraged specimens from a historical collection to study the evolutionary history of wood-partridges in the genus Dendrortyx. The three Dendrortyx species are found in the highlands of central Mexico and Central America south to Costa Rica. One of these species is endangered, and in general, Dendrortyx are secretive and poorly represented in tissue collections. We extracted DNA from historical museum specimens and sequenced ultraconserved elements (UCEs) and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) to assess their phylogeny and divergence times. Phylogenies built from hundreds to thousands of nuclear markers were well resolved and largely congruent with an mtDNA phylogeny. The divergence times revealed an unusually old avian divergence across the Isthmus of Tehuantepec in the Pliocene around 3.6 million years ago. Combined with other recent studies, our results challenge the general pattern that highland bird divergences in Mesoamerica are relatively young and influenced by the Pleistocene glacial cycles compared to the older divergences of reptiles and plants, which are thought to overlap more with periods of mountain formation. We also found evidence for monophyletic genetic lineages in mountain ranges within the widespread D. macroura, which should be investigated further with integrative taxonomic methods. Our study demonstrates the power of museum genomics to provide insight into the evolutionary histories of groups where modern samples are lacking.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Galliformes/genética , Especiação Genética , Genômica , Museus , Madeira , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Biodiversidade , América Central , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Florestas , México , Filogenia , Filogeografia
3.
PeerJ ; 6: e6045, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30581665

RESUMO

Molecular studies have uncovered significant diversity in the Mexican Highlands, leading to the description of many new endemic species. DNA approaches to this kind of species discovery have included both mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequencing and multilocus genomic methods. While these marker types have often been pitted against one another, there are benefits to deploying them together, as linked mtDNA data can provide the bridge between uncovering lineages through rigorous multilocus genomic analysis and identifying lineages through comparison to existing mtDNA databases. Here, we apply one class of multilocus genomic marker, ultraconserved elements (UCEs), and linked mtDNA data to a species complex of frogs (Sarcohyla bistincta, Hylidae) found in the Mexican Highlands. We generated data from 1,891 UCEs, which contained 1,742 informative SNPs for S. bistincta and closely related species and captured mitochondrial genomes for most samples. Genetic analyses based on both whole loci and SNPs agree there are six to seven distinct lineages within what is currently described as S. bistincta. Phylogenies from UCEs and mtDNA mostly agreed in their topologies, and the few differences suggested a more complex evolutionary history of the mtDNA marker. Our study demonstrates that the Mexican Highlands still hold substantial undescribed diversity, making their conservation a particularly urgent goal. The Trans-Mexican Volcanic Range stands out as a significant geographic feature in Sarcohyla and may have acted as a dispersal corridor for S. bistincta to spread to the north. Combining multilocus genomic data with linked mtDNA data is a useful approach for identifying potential new species and associating them with already described taxa, which will be especially important in groups with undescribed subadult phenotypes and cryptic species.

5.
Genome Announc ; 6(17)2018 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29700165

RESUMO

We assembled the complete genome sequences of Bacillus pumilus strains 145 and 150a from Cuatrociénegas, Mexico. We detected genes codifying for proteins potentially involved in antagonism (bacteriocins) and defense mechanisms (abortive infection bacteriophage proteins and 4-azaleucine resistance). Both strains harbored prophage sequences. Our results provide insights into understanding the establishment of microbial interactions.

6.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 125: 78-84, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29555294

RESUMO

Mountain formation in Mexico has played an important role in the diversification of many Mexican taxa. The Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt in particular has served as both a cradle of diversification and conduit for dispersal. We investigated the evolutionary history of the Isthmura bellii group of salamanders, a widespread amphibian across the Mexican highlands, using sequence capture of ultraconserved elements. Results suggest that the I. bellii group probably originated in southeastern Mexico in the late Miocene and later dispersed across the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt and into the Sierra Madre Occidental. Pre-Pleistocene uplift of the Trans-Volcanic Belt likely promoted early diversification by serving as a mesic land-bridge across central Mexico. These findings highlight the importance of the Trans-Volcanic Belt in generating Mexico's rich biodiversity.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Filogenia , Urodelos/classificação , Urodelos/genética , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Calibragem , México , Filogeografia , Fatores de Tempo
7.
Genome Announc ; 5(30)2017 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28751383

RESUMO

We sequenced the Bacillus horikoshii 20a genome, isolated from sediment collected in Cuatro Cienegas, Mexico. We identified genes involved in establishing antagonistic interactions in microbial communities (antibiotic resistance and bacteriocins) and genes related to the metabolism of cyanophycin, a reserve compound and spore matrix material potentially relevant for survival in an oligotrophic environment.

8.
Mol Ecol ; 25(20): 5144-5157, 2016 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27543758

RESUMO

Genomic studies are revealing that divergence and speciation are marked by gene flow, but it is not clear whether gene flow has played a prominent role during the generation of biodiversity in species-rich regions of the world where vicariance is assumed to be the principal mode by which new species form. We revisit a well-studied organismal system in the Mexican Highlands, Aphelocoma jays, to test for gene flow among Mexican sierras. Prior results from mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) largely conformed to the standard model of allopatric divergence, although there was also evidence for more obscure histories of gene flow in a small sample of nuclear markers. We tested for these 'hidden histories' using genomic markers known as ultraconserved elements (UCEs) in concert with phylogenies, clustering algorithms and newer introgression tests specifically designed to detect ancient gene flow (e.g. ABBA/BABA tests). Results based on 4303 UCE loci and 2500 informative SNPs are consistent with varying degrees of gene flow among highland areas. In some cases, gene flow has been extensive and recent (although perhaps not ongoing today), whereas in other cases there is only a trace signature of ancient gene flow among species that diverged as long as 5 million years ago. These results show how a species complex thought to be a model for vicariance can reveal a more reticulate history when a broader portion of the genome is queried. As more organisms are studied with genomic data, we predict that speciation-with-bouts-of-gene-flow will turn out to be a common mode of speciation.


Assuntos
Fluxo Gênico , Especiação Genética , Genética Populacional , Passeriformes/genética , Animais , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Genômica , México , Modelos Genéticos , Filogenia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Análise de Sequência de DNA
9.
BMC Evol Biol ; 13: 18, 2013 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23343473

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Current biodiversity patterns are considered largely the result of past climatic and tectonic changes. In an integrative approach, we combine taxonomic and phylogenetic hypotheses to analyze temporal and geographic diversification of epigean (Carychium) and subterranean (Zospeum) evolutionary lineages in Carychiidae (Eupulmonata, Ellobioidea). We explicitly test three hypotheses: 1) morphospecies encompass unrecognized evolutionary lineages, 2) limited dispersal results in a close genetic relationship of geographical proximally distributed taxa and 3) major climatic and tectonic events had an impact on lineage diversification within Carychiidae. RESULTS: Initial morphospecies assignments were investigated by different molecular delimitation approaches (threshold, ABGD, GMYC and SP). Despite a conservative delimitation strategy, carychiid morphospecies comprise a great number of unrecognized evolutionary lineages. We attribute this phenomenon to historic underestimation of morphological stasis and phenotypic variability amongst lineages. The first molecular phylogenetic hypothesis for the Carychiidae (based on COI, 16S and H3) reveals Carychium and Zospeum to be reciprocally monophyletic. Geographical proximally distributed lineages are often closely related. The temporal diversification of Carychiidae is best described by a constant rate model of diversification. The evolution of Carychiidae is characterized by relatively few (long distance) colonization events. We find support for an Asian origin of Carychium. Zospeum may have arrived in Europe before extant members of Carychium. Distantly related Carychium clades inhabit a wide spectrum of the available bioclimatic niche and demonstrate considerable niche overlap. CONCLUSIONS: Carychiid taxonomy is in dire need of revision. An inferred wide distribution and variable phenotype suggest underestimated diversity in Zospeum. Several Carychium morphospecies are results of past taxonomic lumping. By collecting populations at their type locality, molecular investigations are able to link historic morphospecies assignments to their respective evolutionary lineage. We propose that rare founder populations initially colonized a continent or cave system. Subsequent passive dispersal into adjacent areas led to in situ pan-continental or mountain range diversifications. Major environmental changes did not influence carychiid diversification. However, certain molecular delimitation methods indicated a recent decrease in diversification rate. We attribute this decrease to protracted speciation.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Gastrópodes/classificação , Filogenia , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico , Ecossistema , Gastrópodes/genética , Funções Verossimilhança , Modelos Genéticos , Filogeografia
10.
Mol Ecol Resour ; 9(1): 117-9, 2009 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21564576

RESUMO

We isolated and characterized 10 polymorphic microsatellite loci from the Mexican black iguana (Ctenosaura pectinata) and assessed levels of polymorphism in sampling sites located in the northern areas of the species' distribution range. Two to 19 alleles per locus and observed heterozygosity ranging from 0.15 to 0.96 were detected. These markers will be useful to describe population genetic structure, the extent of gene flow in contact zones, to study the mating system of the species and to address conservation genetics issues. Additionally, we evaluated the potential utility of these markers for studies of other species within the genus Ctenosaura (i.e. C. hemilopha, C. similis and C. oaxacana).

11.
Mol Ecol ; 17(14): 3259-75, 2008 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18564087

RESUMO

While Quaternary climatic changes are considered by some to have been a major factor promoting speciation within the neotropics, others suggest that much of the neotropical species diversity originated before the Pleistocene. Using mitochondrial and nuclear sequence data, we evaluate the relative importance of Pleistocene and pre-Pleistocene events within the evolutionary history of the Mexican iguana Ctenosaura pectinata, and related species. Results support the existence of cryptic lineages with strong mitochondrial divergence (> 4%) among them. Some of these lineages form zones of secondary contact, with one of them hybridizing with C. hemilopha. Evolutionary network analyses reveal the oldest populations of C. pectinata to be those of the northern and southern Mexican coastal regions. Inland and mid-latitudinal coastal populations are younger in age as a consequence of a history of local extinction within these regions followed by re-colonization. Estimated divergence times suggest that C. pectinata originated during the Pliocene, whereas geographically distinct mitochondrial DNA lineages first started to diverge during the Pliocene, with subsequent divergence continuing through the Pleistocene. Our results highlight the influence of both Pliocene and Pleistocene events in shaping the geographical distribution of genetic variation within neotropical lowland organisms. Areas of high genetic diversity in southern Mexico were detected, this finding plus the high levels of genetic diversity within C. pectinata, have implications for the conservation of this threatened species.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Iguanas/genética , Filogenia , Animais , Núcleo Celular/genética , DNA/química , DNA/genética , DNA Mitocondrial/química , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Evolução Molecular , Geografia , Iguanas/classificação , México , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Oceano Pacífico , Análise de Sequência de DNA
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