Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 25
Filtrar
1.
Ther Adv Med Oncol ; 14: 17588359221079123, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35281350

RESUMO

Human Epidermal growth factor Receptor 2 (HER2) overexpression or HER2 gene amplification defines a subset of breast cancers (BCs) characterized by higher biological and clinical aggressiveness. The introduction of anti-HER2 drugs has remarkably improved clinical outcomes in patients with both early-stage and advanced HER2+ BC. However, some HER2+ BC patients still have unfavorable outcomes despite optimal anti-HER2 therapies. Retrospective clinical analyses indicate that overweight and obesity can negatively affect the prognosis of patients with early-stage HER2+ BC. This association could be mediated by the interplay between overweight/obesity, alterations in systemic glucose and lipid metabolism, increased systemic inflammatory status, and the stimulation of proliferation pathways resulting in the stimulation of HER2+ BC cell growth and resistance to anti-HER2 therapies. By contrast, in the context of advanced disease, a few high-quality studies, which were included in a meta-analysis, showed an association between high body mass index (BMI) and better clinical outcomes, possibly reflecting the negative prognostic role of malnourishment and cachexia in this setting. Of note, overweight and obesity are modifiable factors. Therefore, uncovering their prognostic role in patients with early-stage or advanced HER2+ BC could have clinical relevance in terms of defining subsets of patients requiring more or less aggressive pharmacological treatments, as well as of designing clinical trials to investigate the therapeutic impact of lifestyle interventions aimed at modifying body weight and composition. In this review, we summarize and discuss the available preclinical evidence supporting the role of adiposity in modulating HER2+ BC aggressiveness and resistance to therapies, as well as clinical studies reporting on the prognostic role of BMI in patients with early-stage or advanced HER2+ BC.

2.
Cancers (Basel) ; 14(2)2022 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35053597

RESUMO

(1) Background: In advanced non-small cell lung cancer (aNSCLC), programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) remains the only biomarker for candidate patients to immunotherapy (IO). This study aimed at using artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning (ML) tools to improve response and efficacy predictions in aNSCLC patients treated with IO. (2) Methods: Real world data and the blood microRNA signature classifier (MSC) were used. Patients were divided into responders (R) and non-responders (NR) to determine if the overall survival of the patients was likely to be shorter or longer than 24 months from baseline IO. (3) Results: One-hundred sixty-four out of 200 patients (i.e., only those ones with PD-L1 data available) were considered in the model, 73 (44.5%) were R and 91 (55.5%) NR. Overall, the best model was the linear regression (RL) and included 5 features. The model predicting R/NR of patients achieved accuracy ACC = 0.756, F1 score F1 = 0.722, and area under the ROC curve AUC = 0.82. LR was also the best-performing model in predicting patients with long survival (24 months OS), achieving ACC = 0.839, F1 = 0.908, and AUC = 0.87. (4) Conclusions: The results suggest that the integration of multifactorial data provided by ML techniques is a useful tool to select NSCLC patients as candidates for IO.

3.
Expert Rev Anticancer Ther ; 22(1): 115-121, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34738499

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cabozantinib improves survival in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) after prior antiangiogenics. The best treatment at disease progression (PD) is unknown. Being also a AXL/MET inhibitor, involved in acquired resistance, we hypothesized a prolonged tumor growth control in patients continuing cabozantinib despite PD. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This retrospective multicenter study enrolled patients receiving cabozantinib after the first line between 2014 and 2020. We compared patients maintaining cabozantinib after first PD due to clinical benefit and good tolerability with those who changed therapy. The postprogression survival (PPS) of both was our primary endpoint. RESULTS: We analyzed 89 patients: 45 received cabozantinib beyond PD and 44 switched therapy. 40.4%, 31.5%, and 28.1% of patients received 1, 2, or >2 prior treatment, respectively. 84.3% were intermediate-poor International Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Database risk. Patients continuing cabozantinib showed a higher response rate to cabozantinib before PD (46.7% vs 25%, p = 0.03) and were more heavily pretreated. Continuing cabozantinib showed a significantly longer PPS compared with switching therapy (median PPS 16.9 vs 13.2 months, HR 0.66, 95%CI 0.48-0.92, p = 0.011). CONCLUSIONS: We observed longer PPS in patients continuing cabozantinib beyond PD, suggesting that this could be an effective option.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Renais , Neoplasias Renais , Anilidas/farmacologia , Anilidas/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma de Células Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Células Renais/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Masculino , Piridinas , Estudos Retrospectivos
4.
Clin Lung Cancer ; 23(1): e17-e28, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34334296

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immune-checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have significantly improved outcome of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (aNSCLC) patients. However, their efficacy remains uncertain in uncommon histologies (UH). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data from ICI treated aNSCLC patients (April,2013-January,2021) in one Institution were retrospectively collected. Univariate and multivariate survival analyses were estimated by Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards regression model, respectively. Objective response rate (ORR) and disease control rate (DCR) were assessed. RESULTS: Of 375 patients, 79 (21.1%) had UH: 19 (24.1%) sarcomatoid carcinoma, 15 (19.0%) mucinous adenocarcinoma, 10 (12.6%) enteric adenocarcinoma, 8 (10.1%) adenocarcinoma not otherwise specified, 7 (8.9%) large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma, 6 (7.6%) mixed histology non-adenosquamous, 5 (6.3%) adenosquamous carcinoma, 9 (11.4%) other UH. In UH group, programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) <1%, 1-49%, ≥50% and unknown expression were reported in 27.8%, 22.8%, 31.7% and 17.7% patients respectively and ICI was the second/further-line in the majority of patients. After a median follow-up of 35.64 months (m), median progression-free survival (mPFS) was 2.5 m in UH [95% CI 2.2-2.9 m] versus (vs.) 2.7 m in CH [95% CI 2.3-3.2 m, P-value = .584]; median overall survival (mOS) was 8.8 m [95% CI 4.9-12.6 m] vs. 9.7 m [95% CI 8.0-11.3 m, P-value = .653]. At multivariate analyses only ECOG PS was a confirmed prognostic factor in UH. ORR and DCR were 25.3% and 40.5% in UH vs. 21.6% and 49.5% in CH [P-value = .493 and .155 respectively]. CONCLUSIONS: No significant differences were detected between UH and CH groups. Prospective trials are needed to understand ICIs role in UH population.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/farmacologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida
5.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 18200, 2021 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34521927

RESUMO

Hospitalized cancer patients are at increased risk for Thromboembolic Events (TEs). As untailored thromboprophylaxis is associated with hemorrhagic complications, the definition of a risk-assessment model (RAM) in this population is needed. INDICATE was a prospective observational study enrolling hospitalized cancer patients, with the primary objective of assessing the Negative Predictive Value (NPV) for TEs during hospitalization and within 45 days from discharge of low-grade Khorana Score (KS = 0). Secondary objectives were to assess KS Positive Predictive Value (PPV), the impact of TEs on survival and the development of a new RAM. Assuming 7% of TEs in KS = 0 patients as unsatisfactory percentage and 3% of as satisfactory, 149 patients were needed to detect the favorable NPV with one-sided α = 0.10 and power = 0.80. Stepwise logistic regression was adopted to identify variables included in a new RAM. Among 535 enrolled patients, 153 (28.6%) had a KS = 0. The primary study objective was met: 29 (5.4%) TEs were diagnosed, with 7 (4.6%) cases in the KS = 0 group (NPV = 95.4%, 95% CI 90.8-98.1%; one-sided p = 0.084). However, the PPV was low (5.7%, 95% CI 1.9-12.8%); a new RAM based on albumin (OR 0.34, p = 0.003), log(LDH) (OR 1.89, p = 0.023) and presence of vascular compression (OR 5.32, p < 0.001) was developed and internally validated. Also, TEs were associated with poorer OS (median, 5.7 vs 24.8 months, p < 0.001). INDICATE showed that the KS has a good NPV but poor PPV for TEs in hospitalized cancer patients. A new RAM was developed, and deserves further assessment in external cohorts.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/complicações , Tromboembolia/epidemiologia , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Pacientes Internados/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/epidemiologia
6.
J Pers Med ; 11(5)2021 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34069851

RESUMO

(1) Background. The onset of a drug-drug interaction (DDI) may affect treatment efficacy and toxicity of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (aNSCLC) patients during epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine-kinase inhibitor (TKI) use. Here we present the use of Drug-PIN® (Personalized Interactions Network) software to detect DDIs in aNSCLC patients undergoing EGFR-TKIs. (2) Methods. We enrolled patients with Stage IV aNSCLC already treated with or candidates to receive EGFR-TKIs, in any line; ECOG PS 0-2; taking at least one concomitant drug. Cancer treatments, concomitant drugs, and clinical and laboratory data were collected and inserted in Drug-PIN®. (3) Results. Ninety-two patients, median age of 68.5 years (range 43-89), were included. In total, 20 clinically relevant DDIs needing medical intervention in a total of 14 patients were identified; the 14 major DDIs were related to a high-grade interaction between TKIs and SSRIs, antipsychotics, antiepileptics, H2-receptor antagonist and calcium antagonists. A negative association between statin intake and PFS was identified (p = 0.02; HR 0.281, 95% CI 0.096-0.825). (4) Conclusions. This is the first retrospective study assessing the prevalence of DDIs, the clinical need for medical intervention and the impact of concomitant drugs on EGFR-TKIs survival in aNSCLC.

7.
Ther Adv Med Oncol ; 13: 17588359211006960, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33948122

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High body mass index (BMI) has been associated with worse clinical outcomes in patients with early-stage breast cancer (BC), and its negative effects could be mediated by hyperglycemia/diabetes. However, the prognostic impact of high BMI in early-stage HER2-positive (HER2+) BC patients remains controversial. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study to investigate the impact of baseline BMI or glycemia on relapse-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) in patients with surgically resected, stage I-III HER2+ BC treated with standard-of-care, trastuzumab-containing adjuvant biochemotherapy. The optimal BMI and glycemia cut-off values for RFS were identified through maximally selected rank statistics. Cox regression models were used to assess the impact of BMI, glycemia and other relevant variables on clinical outcomes. RESULTS: Among 505 patients included in the study, a BMI cut-off of 27.77 kg/m2 was identified as the best threshold to discriminate between patients with low BMI (n = 390; 77.2%) or high BMI (n = 115; 22.8%). At multivariable analysis, higher BMI was associated with significantly worse RFS [hazard ratio 2.26; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.08-4.74, p = 0.031] and worse OS (hazard ratio 2.25, 95% CI 1.03-4.94, p = 0.043) in the whole patient population. The negative impact of high BMI was only observed in patients with hormone receptor (HR)-negative/HER2+ BC (hazard ratio 2.29; 95% CI: 1.01-5.20; p = 0.047), but not in patients with HR-positive (HR+)/HER2+ BC (hazard ratio 1.36; 95% CI: 0.61-3.07, p = 0.452). By contrast, hyperglycemia (⩾109 mg/dl) at baseline was associated with a trend toward significantly worse RFS at multivariable analysis only in patients with HR+/HER2+ BC (hazard ratio 2.52; 95% CI: 0.89-7.1; p = 0.080). CONCLUSIONS: High BMI is associated with worse clinical outcomes in early-stage HR-/HER2+ BC patients treated with trastuzumab-containing adjuvant biochemotherapy, while baseline hyperglycemia could be a predictor of worse RFS in HR+/HER2+ BC patients. Prospective studies are needed to investigate if modifying patient BMI/glycemia during treatment can improve clinical outcomes.

8.
Cancer Lett ; 511: 77-87, 2021 07 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33961924

RESUMO

De novo or acquired resistance of cancer cells to currently available Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 (HER2) inhibitors represents a clinical challenge. Several resistance mechanisms have been identified in recent years, with lipid metabolism reprogramming, a well-established hallmark of cancer, representing the last frontier of preclinical and clinical research in this field. Fatty Acid Synthase (FASN), the key enzyme required for fatty acids (FAs) biosynthesis, is frequently overexpressed/activated in HER2-positive (HER2+) breast cancer (BC), and it crucially sustains HER2+ BC cell growth, proliferation and survival. After the synthesis of new, selective and well tolerated FASN inhibitors, clinical trials have been initiated to test if these compounds are able to re-sensitize cancer cells with acquired resistance to HER2 inhibition. More recently, the upregulation of FA uptake by cancer cells has emerged as a potentially new and targetable mechanism of resistance to anti-HER2 therapies in HER2+ BC, thus opening a new era in the field of targeting metabolic reprogramming in clinical setting. Here, we review the available preclinical and clinical evidence supporting the inhibition of FA biosynthesis and uptake in combination with anti-HER2 therapies in patients with HER2+ BC, and we discuss ongoing clinical trials that are investigating these combination approaches.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Receptor ErbB-2/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia
9.
Tumori ; : 3008916211007940, 2021 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33849307

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To capture and monitor flu-like symptoms in relation to the clinical characteristics and the oncologic treatment of a large head and neck cancer (HNC) patient cohort during the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. METHODS: Patients were monitored through by 2 rounds of interviews. Clinical characteristics of patients with no symptoms (group 0) and of those reporting ⩾1 (group A), ⩾3 (group B), or ⩾5 symptoms (group C) were analyzed. Patients with ⩾1 symptom at both interviews were defined as group A2. RESULTS: Five hundred patients with HNC were analyzed. A higher frequency of patients with the following characteristics was observed in group A vs group 0: active treatment (40% vs 24%, p = 0.0002), gastrostomy (6% vs 2%, p = 0.027), recent active treatment (48% vs 29%, p < 0.0001), and higher number of concomitant medications (p = 0.01). A lower median age was observed in group B vs group no-B (patients with fewer than three symptoms) (59 vs 63.55 years, p = 0.016) and in group A2 vs group no-A2 (patients without at least one symptom at both interviews) (56 vs 63 years, p = 0.021); patients in group B received more recent active treatment than those in group no-B and in group A2 vs those in group no-A2 (p = 0.024 and 0.043, respectively); patients in group B had a lower body mass index than those in group no-B (22.4 vs 23.93 kg/m2, p = 0.0066). CONCLUSIONS: This work is based on patient-reported symptoms and signs independently of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) testing. In the future, these results might serve as a a benchmark for clinicians triaging and managing patients with HNC during infectious outbreaks involving flu-like symptoms.

10.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(8)2021 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33921727

RESUMO

Different peripheral blood parameters have emerged as prognostic biomarkers in breast cancer (BC), but their predictive role in Human Epidermal growth factor Receptor 2 positive (HER2+) advanced BC (aBC) patients receiving dual anti-HER2 blockade remains unclear. We evaluated the impact of the Pan-Immune-Inflammatory Value (PIV), defined as the product of peripheral blood neutrophil, platelet, and monocyte counts divided by lymphocyte counts, on the prognosis of HER2+ aBC patients treated with first line trastuzumab-pertuzumab-based biochemotherapy. We also evaluated the association between the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), the platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), and the monocyte to lymphocyte ratio (MLR) and clinical outcomes. Cox regression models were used to estimate the impact of these variables, as well as of other clinically relevant covariates, on patient survival. We included 57 HER2+ aBC patients treated with taxane-trastuzumab-pertuzumab in our Institution. High baseline MLR, PLR, and PIV were similarly predictive of worse PFS at univariate analysis, but only high PIV was associated with a trend toward worse PFS at multivariable analysis. Regarding OS, both high PIV and MLR were associated with significantly worse patient survival at univariate analysis, but only the PIV was statistically significantly associated with worse overall survival at multivariable analysis (HR 7.96; 95% CI: 2.18-29.09). Our study reveals the PIV as a new and potent predictor of OS in HER2+ aBC patients treated with first line trastuzumab-pertuzumab-containing biochemotherapy. Prospective studies are needed to validate this new prognostic parameter in HER2+ aBC.

11.
Tumori ; 107(6): NP15-NP19, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33297845

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Breast cancer in men is less common than in women and treatment recommendations are often derived from clinical trials exclusively involving women. Data on efficacy of CDK 4/6 inhibitors, which are the mainstay of treatment for hormone receptor-positive/HER2-negative advanced breast cancer, are lacking in male patients. CASE REPORT: We present a clinical case of prolonged benefit from palbociclib in combination with letrozole and LHRH analogue in a man who had previously been treated with six lines of endocrine therapies and chemotherapy regimens but was still in excellent clinical condition. CONCLUSIONS: This clinical case demonstrates that male breast cancer stands out as an endocrine-sensitive disease, which could potentially benefit from CDK 4/6 inhibitors in combination with endocrine agents even in very heavily pretreated settings of disease, underscoring both the importance of an accurate selection of patients for later treatment lines, taking into account disease history and previous treatment responses, and the peculiarity of breast cancer in men, which deserves dedicated clinical trials to tailor future recommendations.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Mama Masculina/tratamento farmacológico , Terapia de Salvação , Adulto , Neoplasias da Mama Masculina/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama Masculina/patologia , Humanos , Letrozol/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Piperazinas/administração & dosagem , Prognóstico , Piridinas/administração & dosagem , Receptor ErbB-2/metabolismo , Receptores de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Receptores de Progesterona/metabolismo
12.
Cells ; 9(12)2020 12 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33316954

RESUMO

Hormone receptor-positive breast cancer (HR+ BC) accounts for approximately 75% of new BC diagnoses. Despite the undisputable progresses obtained in the treatment of HR+ BC in recent years, primary or acquired resistance to endocrine therapies still represents a clinically relevant issue, and is largely responsible for disease recurrence after curative surgery, as well as for disease progression in the metastatic setting. Among the mechanisms causing primary or acquired resistance to endocrine therapies is the loss of estrogen/progesterone receptor expression, which could make BC cells independent of estrogen stimulation and, consequently, resistant to estrogen deprivation or the pharmacological inhibition of estrogen receptors. This review aims at discussing the molecular mechanisms and the clinical implications of HR loss as a result of the therapies used in the neoadjuvant setting or for the treatment of advanced disease in HR+ BC patients.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Receptor ErbB-2/metabolismo , Receptores de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Feminino , Humanos , Terapia Neoadjuvante , Metástase Neoplásica , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Receptor ErbB-2/genética , Receptores de Estrogênio/genética
13.
Ther Adv Med Oncol ; 12: 1758835920970081, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33335565

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neoadjuvant anthracycline-taxane-based chemotherapy (ChT) is a standard of care treatment option for stage II-III breast cancer (BC) patients. However, the optimal duration of neoadjuvant ChT has been poorly investigated so far. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We retrospectively retrieved clinical data of patients with stage II-III human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative (HER2-) BC who were treated between October 2007 and January 2018 with neoadjuvant AT (doxorubicin-paclitaxel) for three cycles followed by CMF (cyclophosphamide-methotrexate-5-fluorouracil) for three cycles (cohort A) or with four AT cycles followed by four CMF cycles (cohort B). The aim of our study was to investigate the impact of neoadjuvant ChT duration (cohort A versus cohort B) on pathological complete response (pCR) rates, disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). RESULTS: Of 209 HER2- BC patients included, 62 had triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) and 147 had hormone receptor-positive (HR+) BC. Median age was 48 years (range 30-74 years). A total of 111 patients belonged to cohort A and 98 patients belonged to cohort B. pCR was detected in 29 (13.9%) patients, 25 (40.3%) of whom had TNBC and four (2.7%) had HR+ HER2- BC. Patients achieving pCR had significantly longer DFS and OS, with statistical significance reached only in patients with TNBC. We found no differences between cohort A and cohort B in terms of pCR rates (15.3% versus 12.2%; p = 0.55), DFS (p = 0.49) or OS (p = 0.94). The incidence of grade 3/4 adverse events was similar in cohort A versus cohort B as well (22.5% versus 19.4%; p = 0.54). CONCLUSION: Shorter duration of neoadjuvant anthracycline-taxane ChT was not associated with worse clinical outcomes in patients with stage II-III BC. Prospective studies are needed to evaluate whether the duration of neoadjuvant anthracycline-taxane-based ChT can be reduced in specific patient subgroups without negatively affecting clinical outcomes.

14.
Am J Clin Oncol ; 43(9): 621-627, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32889831

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Despite the initial clinical benefit, resistance to antiangiogenic therapies develops through the activation of alternative pathways. We measured plasma levels of circulating angiogenic factors to explore their predictive role in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) patients treated with pazopanib. MATERIALS AND METHODS: mRCC patients receiving first-line pazopanib were prospectively enrolled. The levels of circulating interleuchine (IL)-6, IL-8, stromal derived factor-1, vascular endothelial growth factor-A, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), osteopontin, and E-selectin were quantified at baseline and every 4 weeks until disease progression (PD). Patients were dichotomized into "low" and "high" subgroups by a cutoff point defined by the respective median circulating angiogenic factor (CAF) value at baseline. Then, association with the objective response was determined. Changes in CAF levels between baseline and PD were also compared. RESULTS: Among 25 patients included in the final data set, 6 patients were still on treatment. As best response, 12 patients presented a partial response (48%), 9 showed stable disease, and 4 showed PD. The median follow-up was 31.9 months. The median progression-free survival was 14.8 months. Low baseline levels of IL-6, IL-8, HGF, and osteopontin were found to be significantly associated with objective response. In addition, patients with low baseline levels of HGF showed longer progression-free survival and overall survival, whereas patients with low baseline levels of IL-8 showed longer overall survival. Among patients experiencing PD, the median plasma levels of stromal derived factor-1 and vascular endothelial growth factor-A were significantly higher compared with the baseline (P=0.01; P=0.011). Conversely, the median levels of E-selectin were significantly lower compared with the baseline (P=0.017). CONCLUSION: Changes in levels of selected CAFs were associated with response/resistance to pazopanib in mRCC patients.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma de Células Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Neoplasias Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Pirimidinas/uso terapêutico , Sulfonamidas/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Inibidores da Angiogênese/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma de Células Renais/sangue , Carcinoma de Células Renais/secundário , Quimiocina CXCL12/sangue , Progressão da Doença , Selectina E/sangue , Feminino , Fator de Crescimento de Hepatócito/sangue , Humanos , Indazóis , Interleucina-6/sangue , Interleucina-8/sangue , Neoplasias Renais/sangue , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteopontina/sangue , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Estudos Prospectivos , Critérios de Avaliação de Resposta em Tumores Sólidos , Taxa de Sobrevida , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/sangue
15.
Front Oncol ; 10: 1644, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32903369

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In the last decades, the therapeutic decision-making approach to metastatic renal cell cancer (mRCC) has dramatically changed thanks to the introduction in the treatment scenario of, first, anti-angiogenic agents and, afterward, immune-checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs). Immunotherapy is now the standard of care in pretreated mRCC patients and has recently entered even the first line setting. Nevertheless, in mRCC as well as in other tumor settings, a durable and clinically meaningful benefit from treatment with ICIs is not obtained for all patients treated. Therefore, the necessity to identify and validate predictive biomarkers of response to immunotherapy has emerged, in order to design the optimal treatment strategy for mRCC patients. DISCUSSION: In this review, we present and discuss the most promising predictive biomarkers of response to ICIs in mRCC with the recent data available. In details, the first marker that was investigated is the immunohistochemical expression of programmed death receptor ligand 1 (PD-L1), showing a negative prognostic role in mRCC, but the debate about its potential predictive value is still open. Additionally, the high heterogeneity in PD-L1 determination methods adds complexity to this issue. Second, the tumor mutational or neoantigen burden is an emerging biomarker of increased response to immunotherapy, hypothesizing that the higher the TMB, the higher is the production of neoantigens, and thus the stimulation of anti-tumor immune response, even though controversial results have been obtained. Third, the tumor microenvironment, namely the different populations of the immune infiltrate, plays a key role in tumor progression and in the response to immunotherapy. Finally, several studies have collected evidence on the potential association of the occurrence of immune-related adverse events (irAEs) with the benefit from ICIs, first in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and melanoma, and recently even in mRCC. CONCLUSION: Several promising biomarkers of response to immunotherapy with ICIs have been identified, though without conclusive results upon their potential predictive value in mRCC. Therefore, the results of the exploratory analyses of the recently presented first-line trials and hopefully of future prospective, biomarker-driven studies could provide useful tools to be applied in the everyday clinical practice.

16.
Expert Rev Anticancer Ther ; 20(8): 715-726, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32758032

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In prostate cancer , there has recently been an emerging interest in mutations in genes belonging to the homologous recombination repair (HRR) pathway and in the inhibition of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) proteins. AREAS COVERED: Mutations in the HRR genes, including BRCA1, BRCA2, and Ataxia-Telangiesctasia mutated (ATM), have been reported in prostate cancer, with different incidence in the localized and advanced settings. The PARP enzyme complex is involved in repair of DNA damage and its inhibition causes the accumulation of DNA mutations in HRR deficient cells. Several PARP inhibitors (PARPi) are under development, such as olaparib, talazoparib, niraparib, rucaparib, and veliparib. In metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC), olaparib has been the most studied and its clinical efficacy has been validated in a phase III clinical trial. Rucaparib and niraparib have also shown promising results in the preliminary analyzes of two phase II trials, while talazoparib is currently under development. EXPERT OPINION: PARPi have become part of the treatment of mCRPC. Early results of combination therapy with PARPi and new hormonal therapy are promising and are supported by a strong biological rationale. Current results need to be validated in randomized phase III-controlled trials in order to translate the use of PARPi into real world practice.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/farmacologia , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Reparo do DNA/genética , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos , Humanos , Masculino , Mutação , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/genética , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/patologia
19.
Cancer Treat Rev ; 88: 102057, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32574991

RESUMO

Despite advances in metastatic prostate cancer therapy, expected survival for patients in the castration-resistant phase of disease is poor. Immune-checkpoints inhibitors significantly prolonged life expectancy in some solid tumors and have been evaluated also in advanced stage prostate cancer. The majority of data available derive from preliminary phase I and II trials evaluating CTLA-4 and PD-1 as monotherapy or in combination with each other, vaccines, radiotherapy or targeted/hormonal therapy, achieving only limited benefits in terms of biochemical and radiologic responses. There are many reasons that may explain why prostate cancer responds poorly to modern immunotherapies, such as its characteristic low tumor mutational burden or immune-suppressive tumor microenvironment. The present review summarizes the results obtained treating advanced prostate cancer patients with immune-checkpoints inhibitors and analyzes potential mechanisms of both resistance and sensitivity, in order to hypothesize possible avenues of special interest for future research.


Assuntos
Imunoterapia/métodos , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/terapia , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Antígeno B7-H1/antagonistas & inibidores , Antígeno B7-H1/imunologia , Antígeno CTLA-4/antagonistas & inibidores , Antígeno CTLA-4/imunologia , Vacinas Anticâncer/administração & dosagem , Ensaios Clínicos Fase II como Assunto , Ensaios Clínicos Fase III como Assunto , Humanos , Masculino , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/imunologia , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/genética , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/imunologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
20.
Breast Cancer Res ; 22(1): 33, 2020 04 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32252811

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The PI3K/AKT/mTORC1 axis is implicated in hormone receptor-positive HER2-negative metastatic breast cancer (HR+ HER2- mBC) resistance to anti-estrogen treatments. Based on results of the BOLERO-2 trial, the mTORC1 inhibitor everolimus in combination with the steroidal aromatase inhibitor (AI) exemestane has become a standard treatment for patients with HR+ HER2- mBC resistant to prior non-steroidal AI therapy. In the recent SOLAR-1 trial, the inhibitor of the PI3K alpha subunit (p110α) alpelisib in combination with fulvestrant prolonged progression-free survival (PFS) when compared to fulvestrant alone in patients with PIK3CA-mutated HR+ HER2- mBC that progressed after/on previous AI treatment. Therefore, two different molecules targeting the PI3K/AKT/mTORC1 axis, namely everolimus and alpelisib, are available for patients progressing on/after previous AI treatment, but it is unclear how to optimize their use in the clinical practice. Here, we reviewed the available clinical evidence deriving from the BOLERO-2 and SOLAR-1 trials to compare efficacy and safety profiles of everolimus and alpelisib in advanced HR+ HER2- BC treatment. Adding either compound to standard endocrine therapy provided similar absolute and relative PFS advantage. In the SOLAR-1 trial, a 76% incidence of grade (G) 3 or 4 (G3/G4) adverse events was reported, while G3/G4 toxicities occurred in 42% of patients in the BOLERO-2 trial. While alpelisib was only effective in patients with PIK3CA-mutated neoplasms, retrospective analyses indicate that everolimus improves exemestane efficacy independently of PIK3CA mutational status. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the available efficacy and safety data, the "new" alpelisib may be burdened by higher incidence of severe adverse events, higher costs, and anticancer efficacy that is limited to PIK3CA-mutated tumors when compared to the "old" everolimus. Therefore, the everolimus-exemestane combination remains an effective and reasonably well-tolerated therapeutic option for HR+ HER2- mBC patients progressing after/on previous AI treatment, independently of PIK3CA mutational status.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Alvo Mecanístico do Complexo 1 de Rapamicina/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Receptor ErbB-2/metabolismo , Androstadienos/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Everolimo/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Metástase Neoplásica , Segurança do Paciente , Estudos Prospectivos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...