Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 136
Filtrar
1.
Med Decis Making ; 40(8): 1034-1040, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33078673

RESUMO

Microsimulation models are often used to predict long-term outcomes and guide policy decisions regarding cancer screening. The United Kingdom Flexible Sigmoidoscopy Screening (UKFSS) Trial examines a one-time intervention of flexible sigmoidoscopy that was implemented before a colorectal cancer (CRC) screening program was established. Long-term study outcomes, now a full 17 y following randomization, have been published. We use the outcomes from this trial to validate 3 microsimulation models for CRC to long-term study outcomes. We find that 2 of 3 models accurately predict the relative effect of screening (the hazard ratios) on CRC-specific incidence 17 y after screening. We find that all 3 models yield predictions of the relative effect of screening on CRC incidence and mortality (i.e., the hazard ratios) that are reasonably close to the UKFSS results. Two of the 3 models accurately predict the relative reduction in CRC incidence 17 y after screening. One model accurately predicted the absolute incidence and mortality rates in the screened group. The models differ in their estimates related to adenoma detection at screening. Although high-quality screening results help to inform models, trials are expensive, last many years, and can be complicated by ethical issues and technological changes across the duration of the trial. Thus, well-calibrated and validated models are necessary to predict outcomes for which data are not available. The results from this validation demonstrate the utility of models in predicting long-term outcomes and in collaborative modeling to account for uncertainty.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32933928

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Surveillance following colorectal cancer (CRC) resection uses optical colonoscopy (OC) to detect intraluminal disease and CT to detect extracolonic recurrence. CT colonography (CTC) might be an efficient use of resources in this situation because it allows for intraluminal and extraluminal evaluations with one test. DESIGN: We developed a simulation model to compare lifetime costs and benefits for a cohort of patients with resected CRC. Standard of care involved annual CT for 3 years and OC for years 1, 4 and every 5 years thereafter. For the CTC-based strategy, we replace CT+OC at year 1 with CTC. Patients with lesions greater than 6 mm detected by CTC underwent OC. Detection of an adenoma 10 mm or larger was followed by OC at 1 year, then every 3 years thereafter. Test characteristics and costs for CTC were derived from a clinical study. Medicare costs were used for cancer care costs as well as alternative test costs. We discounted costs and effects at 3% per year. RESULTS: For persons with resected stage III CRC, the standard-of-care strategy was more costly (US$293) and effective (2.6 averted CRC cases and 1.1 averted cancer deaths per 1000) than the CTC-based strategy, with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of US$55 500 per quality-adjusted life-year gained. Our analysis was most sensitive to the sensitivity of CTC for detecting polyps 10 mm or larger and assumptions about disease progression. CONCLUSION: In a simulation model, we found that replacing the standard-of-care approach to postdiagnostic surveillance with a CTC-based strategy is not an efficient use of resources in most situations.

4.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2020 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32761199

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening with colonoscopy and the fecal immunochemical test (FIT) is underutilized. Innovative tests could increase screening acceptance. This study determined which of the available alternatives is most promising from a cost-effectiveness perspective. METHODS: The previously-validated MISCAN-Colon model was used to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of screening with capsule endoscopy every 5 or 10 years, computed tomographic colonography (CTC) every 5 years, the multi-target stool DNA (mtSDNA) test every 1 or 3 years, and the methylated SEPT9 DNA plasma assay (mSEPT9) every 1 or 2 years. We also compared these strategies to annual FIT screening and colonoscopy screening every 10 years. Quality-adjusted life-years gained (QALYG), number of colonoscopies, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) were projected. We assumed a willingness-to-pay threshold of $100,000 per QALYG. RESULTS: Among the alternative tests, CTC every 5 years, annual mSEPT9 and annual mtSDNA screening had ICERs of $1,092, $63,253 and $214,974 per QALYG, respectively. Other screening strategies were more costly and less effective than (a combination of) these three. Under the assumption of perfect adherence, annual mSEPT9 screening resulted in more QALYG, CRC cases averted and CRC deaths averted than annual FIT screening, but led to a high rate of colonoscopy referral (51% after 3 years, 69% after 5 years). The alternative tests were not cost-effective compared to FIT and colonoscopy. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that for individuals not willing to participate in FIT or colonoscopy screening, mSEPT9 is the test of choice if the high colonoscopy referral rate is acceptable to them.

5.
J Med Screen ; : 969141320921427, 2020 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32438892

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine whether receiving a fecal occult blood test after a negative sigmoidoscopy reduced mortality from colorectal cancer. METHODS: We used a nested case-control design with incidence-density matching in historical cohorts of 1,877,740 50-90-year-old persons during 2006-2012, in an integrated health-system setting. We selected 1758 average risk patients who died from colorectal cancer and 3503 matched colorectal cancer-free persons. Colorectal cancer-specific death was ascertained from cancer and mortality registries. Screening histories were determined from electronic and chart-audit clinical data in the 5- to 10-year period prior to the reference date. We evaluated receipt of subsequent fecal occult blood test within five years of the reference date among patients with negative sigmoidoscopy two to six years before the reference date. RESULTS: Of the 5261 patients, 831 patients (204 colorectal cancer deaths/627 controls) had either negative sigmoidoscopy only (n = 592) or negative sigmoidoscopy with subsequent screening fecal occult blood test (n = 239). Fifty-six (27.5%) of the 204 patients dying of colorectal cancer and 183 (29.2%) of the 627 colorectal cancer-free patients received fecal occult blood test following a negative sigmoidoscopy. Conditional regressions found no significant association between fecal occult blood test receipt and colorectal cancer death risk, overall (adjusted odds ratio = 0.93, confidence interval: 0.65-1.33), or for right (odds ratio = 1.02, confidence interval: 0.65-1.60) or left-colon/rectum (odds ratio = 0.77, confidence interval: 0.39-1.52) cancers. Similar results were obtained in sensitivity analyses with alternative exposure ascertainment windows or timing of fecal occult blood test. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that receipt of at least one fecal occult blood test during the several years after a negative sigmoidoscopy did not substantially reduce mortality from colorectal cancer.

7.
JNCI Cancer Spectr ; 4(1): pkz086, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32025627

RESUMO

Background: Although uniform colonoscopy screening reduces colorectal cancer (CRC) mortality, risk-based screening may be more efficient. We investigated whether CRC screening based on polygenic risk is a cost-effective alternative to current uniform screening, and if not, under what conditions it would be. Methods: The MISCAN-Colon model was used to simulate a hypothetical cohort of US 40-year-olds. Uniform screening was modeled as colonoscopy screening at ages 50, 60, and 70 years. For risk-stratified screening, individuals underwent polygenic testing with current and potential future discriminatory performance (area under the receiver-operating curve [AUC] of 0.60 and 0.65-0.80, respectively). Polygenic testing results were used to create risk groups, for which colonoscopy screening was optimized by varying the start age (40-60 years), end age (70-85 years), and interval (1-20 years). Results: With current discriminatory performance, optimal screening ranged from once-only colonoscopy at age 60 years for the lowest-risk group to six colonoscopies at ages 40-80 years for the highest-risk group. While maintaining the same health benefits, risk-stratified screening increased costs by $59 per person. Risk-stratified screening could become cost-effective if the AUC value would increase beyond 0.65, the price per polygenic test would drop to less than $141, or risk-stratified screening would lead to a 5% increase in screening participation. Conclusions: Currently, CRC screening based on polygenic risk is unlikely to be cost-effective compared with uniform screening. This is expected to change with a greater than 0.05 increase in AUC value, a greater than 30% reduction in polygenic testing costs, or a greater than 5% increase in adherence with screening.

8.
Gastroenterology ; 158(4): 884-894.e5, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31589872

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: The long-term risks of colorectal cancer (CRC) and CRC-related death following adenoma removal are uncertain. Data are needed to inform evidence-based surveillance guidelines, which vary in follow-up recommendations for some polyp types. Using data from a large, community-based integrated health care setting, we examined the risks of CRC and related death by baseline colonoscopy adenoma findings. METHODS: Participants at 21 medical centers underwent baseline colonoscopies from 2004 through 2010; findings were categorized as no-adenoma, low-risk adenoma, or high-risk adenoma. Participants were followed until the earliest of CRC diagnosis, death, health plan disenrollment, or December 31, 2017. Risks of CRC and related deaths among the high- and low-risk adenoma groups were compared with the no-adenoma group using Cox regression adjusting for confounders. RESULTS: Among 186,046 patients, 64,422 met eligibility criteria (54.3% female; mean age, 61.6 ± 7.1 years; median follow-up time, 8.1 years from the baseline colonoscopy). Compared with the no-adenoma group (45,881 patients), the high-risk adenoma group (7563 patients) had a higher risk of CRC (hazard ratio [HR] 2.61; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.87-3.63) and related death (HR 3.94; 95% CI 1.90-6.56), whereas the low-risk adenoma group (10,978 patients) did not have a significant increase in risk of CRC (HR 1.29; 95% CI 0.89-1.88) or related death (HR 0.65; 95% CI 0.19-2.18). CONCLUSIONS: With up to 14 years of follow-up, high-risk adenomas were associated with an increased risk of CRC and related death, supporting early colonoscopy surveillance. Low-risk adenomas were not associated with a significantly increased risk of CRC or related deaths. These results can inform current surveillance guidelines for high- and low-risk adenomas.


Assuntos
Adenoma/cirurgia , Colonoscopia/normas , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/normas , Medicina Baseada em Evidências/normas , Adenoma/patologia , Idoso , California/epidemiologia , Colonoscopia/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/prevenção & controle , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Medicina Baseada em Evidências/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Anamnese , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
9.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 112(3): 238-246, 2020 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31292633

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cancer screening is a complex process encompassing risk assessment, the initial screening examination, diagnostic evaluation, and treatment of cancer precursors or early cancers. Metrics that enable comparisons across different screening targets are needed. We present population-based screening metrics for breast, cervical, and colorectal cancers for nine sites participating in the Population-based Research Optimizing Screening through Personalized Regimens consortium. METHODS: We describe how selected metrics map to a trans-organ conceptual model of the screening process. For each cancer type, we calculated calendar year 2013 metrics for the screen-eligible target population (breast: ages 40-74 years; cervical: ages 21-64 years; colorectal: ages 50-75 years). Metrics for screening participation, timely diagnostic evaluation, and diagnosed cancers in the screened and total populations are presented for the total eligible population and stratified by age group and cancer type. RESULTS: The overall screening-eligible populations in 2013 were 305 568 participants for breast, 3 160 128 for cervical, and 2 363 922 for colorectal cancer screening. Being up-to-date for testing was common for all three cancer types: breast (63.5%), cervical (84.6%), and colorectal (77.5%). The percentage of abnormal screens ranged from 10.7% for breast, 4.4% for cervical, and 4.5% for colorectal cancer screening. Abnormal breast screens were followed up diagnostically in almost all (96.8%) cases, and cervical and colorectal were similar (76.2% and 76.3%, respectively). Cancer rates per 1000 screens were 5.66, 0.17, and 1.46 for breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Comprehensive assessment of metrics by the Population-based Research Optimizing Screening through Personalized Regimens consortium enabled systematic identification of screening process steps in need of improvement. We encourage widespread use of common metrics to allow interventions to be tested across cancer types and health-care settings.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
Cancer ; 126(4): 782-791, 2020 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31742670

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Screening colonoscopy (SC) for colorectal cancer (CRC) is underused by Latino individuals. The current randomized clinical trial examined the impact of 3 interventions: 1) patient navigation; 2) patient navigation plus standard Centers for Disease Control and Prevention print materials; and 3) patient navigation plus culturally targeted print materials for Latinos referred for SC. Demographic, personal and health history, and psychometric factors associated with SC also were examined. METHODS: A total of 344 urban Latino individuals aged 50 to 85 years with no personal and/or immediate family history of CRC diagnosed before age 60 years, no personal history of a gastrointestinal disorder, no colonoscopy within the past 5 years, with insurance coverage, and with a referral for SC were consented. Participants were randomized to patient navigation (20%), patient navigation plus standard Centers for Disease Control and Prevention print materials (40%), and patient navigation plus culturally targeted print materials (40%). The completion of SC was assessed at 12 months. RESULTS: The interventions had an overall SC rate of 82%. Counterintuitively, patients with an average income of <$10,000 were found to have higher SC rates (87%) than those with a greater income (75%). CONCLUSIONS: The addition of standard or culturally targeted print materials did not appear to increase SC rates above those for patient navigation. Indeed, after controlling for other variables, culturally targeted print materials were found to be associated with lower SC rates among Puerto Rican individuals.


Assuntos
Colonoscopia/métodos , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias Colorretais/etnologia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cooperação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Navegação de Pacientes/estatística & dados numéricos
11.
Gastroenterology ; 158(5): 1274-1286.e12, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31866242

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Early-onset colorectal cancer (CRC, in persons younger than 50 years old) is increasing in incidence; yet, in the absence of a family history of CRC, this population lacks harmonized recommendations for prevention. We aimed to determine whether a polygenic risk score (PRS) developed from 95 CRC-associated common genetic risk variants was associated with risk for early-onset CRC. METHODS: We studied risk for CRC associated with a weighted PRS in 12,197 participants younger than 50 years old vs 95,865 participants 50 years or older. PRS was calculated based on single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with CRC in a large-scale genome-wide association study as of January 2019. Participants were pooled from 3 large consortia that provided clinical and genotyping data: the Colon Cancer Family Registry, the Colorectal Transdisciplinary Study, and the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium and were all of genetically defined European descent. Findings were replicated in an independent cohort of 72,573 participants. RESULTS: Overall associations with CRC per standard deviation of PRS were significant for early-onset cancer, and were stronger compared with late-onset cancer (P for interaction = .01); when we compared the highest PRS quartile with the lowest, risk increased 3.7-fold for early-onset CRC (95% CI 3.28-4.24) vs 2.9-fold for late-onset CRC (95% CI 2.80-3.04). This association was strongest for participants without a first-degree family history of CRC (P for interaction = 5.61 × 10-5). When we compared the highest with the lowest quartiles in this group, risk increased 4.3-fold for early-onset CRC (95% CI 3.61-5.01) vs 2.9-fold for late-onset CRC (95% CI 2.70-3.00). Sensitivity analyses were consistent with these findings. CONCLUSIONS: In an analysis of associations with CRC per standard deviation of PRS, we found the cumulative burden of CRC-associated common genetic variants to associate with early-onset cancer, and to be more strongly associated with early-onset than late-onset cancer, particularly in the absence of CRC family history. Analyses of PRS, along with environmental and lifestyle risk factors, might identify younger individuals who would benefit from preventive measures.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Idade de Início , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Anamnese , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Taxa de Mutação , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
12.
Ann Intern Med ; 171(9): 612-622, 2019 11 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31546257

RESUMO

Background: Surveillance of patients with colorectal adenomas has limited long-term evidence to support current practice. Objective: To compare the lifetime benefits and costs of high- versus low-intensity surveillance. Design: Microsimulation model. Data Sources: U.S. cancer registry, cost data, and published literature. Target Population: U.S. patients aged 50, 60, or 70 years with low-risk adenomas (LRAs) (1 to 2 small adenomas) or high-risk adenomas (HRAs) (3 to 10 small adenomas or ≥1 large adenoma) removed after screening with colonoscopy or fecal immunochemical testing (FIT). Time Horizon: Lifetime. Perspective: Societal. Intervention: No further screening or surveillance, routine screening after 10 years, low-intensity surveillance (10 years after LRA removal and 5 years after HRA removal), and high-intensity surveillance (5 years after LRA removal and 3 years after HRA removal). Outcome Measures: Colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and incremental cost-effectiveness. Results of Base-Case Analysis: Without surveillance or screening, lifetime CRC incidence for patients aged 50 years was 10.9% after LRA removal and 17.2% after HRA removal at screening colonoscopy. Subsequent colonoscopic screening, low-intensity surveillance, or high-intensity surveillance decreased incidence by 39%, 46% to 48%, and 55% to 56%, respectively. Incidence of CRC and surveillance benefits were higher for adenomas detected at FIT screening and lower for older patients. High-intensity surveillance cost less than $30 000 per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained compared with low-intensity surveillance. Results of Sensitivity Analysis: High-intensity surveillance cost less than $100 000 per QALY gained in most alternative scenarios for adenoma recurrence, CRC incidence, longevity, quality of life, screening ages, surveillance ages, test performance, disutilities, and cost. Limitation: Few surveillance outcome data exist. Conclusion: The model suggests that high-intensity surveillance as recommended in the United States provides modest but clinically relevant benefits over low-intensity surveillance at acceptable cost. Primary Funding Source: National Cancer Institute.


Assuntos
Adenoma/diagnóstico , Colonoscopia/métodos , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Adenoma/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Colonoscopia/economia , Colonoscopia/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias Colorretais/prevenção & controle , Análise Custo-Benefício , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/economia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Estatísticos , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/diagnóstico , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/prevenção & controle , Fatores de Tempo
13.
PLoS One ; 14(9): e0220234, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31483796

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In 2014, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) began covering a multitarget stool DNA (mtSDNA) test for colorectal cancer (CRC) screening of Medicare beneficiaries. In this study, we evaluated whether mtSDNA testing is a cost-effective alternative to other CRC screening strategies reimbursed by CMS, and if not, under what conditions it could be. METHODS: We use three independently-developed microsimulation models to simulate a cohort of previously unscreened US 65-year-olds who are screened with triennial mtSDNA testing, or one of six other reimbursed screening strategies. Main outcome measures are discounted life-years gained (LYG) and lifetime costs (CMS perspective), threshold reimbursement rates, and threshold adherence rates. Outcomes are expressed as the median and range across models. RESULTS: Compared to no screening, triennial mtSDNA screening resulted in 82 (range: 79-88) LYG per 1,000 simulated individuals. This was more than for five-yearly sigmoidoscopy (80 (range: 71-89) LYG), but fewer than for every other simulated strategy. At its 2017 reimbursement rate of $512, mtSDNA was the most costly strategy, and even if adherence were 30% higher than with other strategies, it would not be a cost-effective alternative. At a substantially reduced reimbursement rate ($6-18), two models found that triennial mtSDNA testing was an efficient and potentially cost-effective screening option. CONCLUSIONS: Compared to no screening, triennial mtSDNA screening reduces CRC incidence and mortality at acceptable costs. However, compared to nearly all other CRC screening strategies reimbursed by CMS it is less effective and considerably more costly, making it an inefficient screening option.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais , DNA Tumoral Circulante , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , DNA de Neoplasias , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Fezes , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/economia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Fezes/química , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/economia , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Medicare , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
15.
Gastrointest Endosc ; 89(1): 168-176.e3, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30144415

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Postcolonoscopy colorectal cancers (PCCRCs) are defined as those detected ≤10 years after an index colonoscopy negative for cancer, but modifiable risk factors are not well established in large, community-based populations. METHODS: We evaluated risk factors from the index colonoscopy for PCCRCs diagnosed 1 to 10 years after an index colonoscopy using a case-control design. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were adjusted for potential confounders. RESULTS: A proximal polyp ≥10 mm (OR, 8.18; 95% CI, 4.59-14.60), distal polyp ≥10 mm (OR, 3.30; 95% CI, 1.65-6.58), adenoma with (OR, 3.23; 95% CI, 1.83-5.68) and without advanced histology (OR, 1.87; 95% CI, 1.37-2.55), and an incomplete colonoscopy (OR, 5.52; 95% CI, 2.98-10.21) were associated with PCCRC. Risk factors for early versus late cancers (12-36 months vs >36 months to 10 years after examination) included incomplete polyp excision in the colonic segment of the subsequent cancer (OR, 4.76; 95% CI, 2.35-9.65); failure to examine the segment (OR, 2.42; 95% CI, 1.27-4.60); and a polyp ≥10 mm in the segment (OR, 2.38; 95% CI, 1.53-3.70). A total of 559 of 1206 patients with PCCRC (46.4%) had 1 or more risk factors that were significant for PCCRC (incomplete examination, large polyp, or any adenoma). CONCLUSIONS: In a large community-based study with comprehensive capture of PCCRCs, almost half of PCCRCs had potentially modifiable factors related to polyp surveillance or removal and examination completeness. These represent potential high-yield targets to further increase the effectiveness of colorectal cancer screening.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/epidemiologia , Adenoma/epidemiologia , Pólipos do Colo/epidemiologia , Colonoscopia , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Adenoma/patologia , Adenoma/cirurgia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Pólipos do Colo/patologia , Pólipos do Colo/cirurgia , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/cirurgia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Razão de Chances , Fatores de Risco , Carga Tumoral
16.
JAMA Oncol ; 5(1): 37-44, 2019 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30326010

RESUMO

Importance: Colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and mortality among individuals younger than 50 years (early-onset CRC) are increasing. The reasons for such increases are largely unknown, although the increasing prevalence of obesity may be partially responsible. Objective: To investigate prospectively the association between obesity and weight gain since early adulthood with the risk of early-onset CRC. Design, Setting, and Participants: The Nurses' Health Study II is a prospective, ongoing cohort study of US female nurses aged 25 to 42 years at study enrollment (1989). A total of 85 256 women free of cancer and inflammatory bowel disease at enrollment were included in this analysis, with follow-up through December 31, 2011. Validated anthropomorphic measures and lifestyle information were self-reported biennially. Statistical analysis was performed from June 12, 2017, to June 28, 2018. Exposures: Current body mass index (BMI) (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared), BMI at 18 years of age, and weight gain since 18 years of age. Main Outcomes and Measures: Relative risk (RR) for incident early-onset CRC. Results: Among the 85 256 women studied, 114 cases of early-onset CRC were documented (median age at diagnosis, 45 years; interquartile range, 41-47 years) during 1 196 452 person-years of follow-up. Compared with women with a BMI of 18.5 to 22.9, the multivariable RR was 1.37 (95% CI, 0.81-2.30) for overweight women (BMI, 25.0-29.9) and 1.93 (95% CI, 1.15-3.25) for obese women (BMI, ≥30.0). The RR for each 5-unit increment in BMI was 1.20 (95% CI, 1.05-1.38; P = .01 for trend). Similar associations were observed among women without a family history of CRC and without lower endoscopy within the past 10 years. Both BMI at 18 years of age and weight gain since 18 years of age contributed to this observation. Compared with women with a BMI of 18.5 to 20.9 at 18 years of age, the RR of early-onset CRC was 1.32 (95% CI, 0.80-2.16) for women with a BMI of 21.0 to 22.9 and 1.63 (95% CI, 1.01-2.61) for women with a BMI of 23.0 or greater at 18 years of age (P = .66 for trend). Compared with women who had gained less than 5.0 kg or had lost weight, the RR of early-onset CRC was 1.65 (95% CI, 0.96-2.81) for women gaining 20.0 to 39.9 kg and 2.15 (95% CI, 1.01-4.55) for women gaining 40.0 kg or more (P = .007 for trend). Conclusions and Relevance: Obesity was associated with an increased risk of early-onset CRC among women. Further investigations among men and to elucidate the underlying biological mechanisms are warranted.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Ganho de Peso , Adulto , Idade de Início , Índice de Massa Corporal , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
17.
Gastroenterology ; 156(1): 63-74.e6, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30268788

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Colorectal cancer (CRC) deaths occur when patients do not receive screening or have inadequate follow-up of abnormal results or when the screening test fails. We have few data on the contribution of each to CRC-associated deaths or factors associated with these events. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study of patients in the Kaiser Permanente Northern and Southern California systems (55-90 years old) who died of CRC from 2006 through 2012 and had ≥5 years of enrollment before diagnosis. We compared data from patients with those from a matched cohort of cancer-free patients in the same system. Receipt, results, indications, and follow-up of CRC tests in the 10-year period before diagnosis were obtained from electronic databases and chart audits. RESULTS: Of 1750 CRC deaths, 75.9% (n = 1328) occurred in patients who were not up to date in screening and 24.1% (n = 422) occurred in patients who were up to date. Failure to screen was associated with fewer visits to primary care physicians. Of 3486 cancer-free patients, 44.6% were up to date in their screening. Patients who were up to date in their screening had a lower risk of CRC death (odds ratio, 0.38; 95% confidence interval, 0.33-0.44). Failure to screen, or failure to screen at appropriate intervals, occurred in a 67.8% of patients who died of CRC vs 53.2% of cancer-free patients; failure to follow-up on abnormal results occurred in 8.1% of patients who died of CRC vs 2.2% of cancer-free patients. CRC death was associated with higher odds of failure to screen or failure to screen at appropriate intervals (odds ratio, 2.40; 95% confidence interval, 2.07-2.77) and failure to follow-up on abnormal results (odds ratio, 7.26; 95% confidence interval, 5.26-10.03). CONCLUSIONS: Being up to date on screening substantially decreases the risk of CRC death. In 2 health care systems with high rates of screening, most people who died of CRC had failures in the screening process that could be rectified, such as failure to follow-up on abnormal findings; these significantly increased the risk for CRC death.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/diagnóstico , Adenocarcinoma/mortalidade , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/mortalidade , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/mortalidade , Adenocarcinoma/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , California/epidemiologia , Causas de Morte , Neoplasias Colorretais/prevenção & controle , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Fatores de Proteção , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
18.
JAMA Intern Med ; 179(2): 153-160, 2019 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30556824

RESUMO

Importance: Guidelines recommend a 10-year rescreening interval after a colonoscopy with normal findings (negative colonoscopy results), but evidence supporting this recommendation is limited. Objective: To examine the long-term risks of colorectal cancer and colorectal cancer deaths after a negative colonoscopy result, in comparison with individuals unscreened, in a large, community-based setting. Design, Setting, and Participants: A retrospective cohort study was conducted in an integrated health care delivery organization serving more than 4 million members across Northern California. A total of 1 251 318 average-risk screening-eligible patients (age 50-75 years) between January 1, 1998, and December 31, 2015, were included. The study was concluded on December 31, 2016. Exposures: Screening was examined as a time-varying exposure; all participants contributed person-time unscreened until they were either screened or censored. If the screening received was a negative colonoscopy result, the participants contributed person-time in the negative colonoscopy results group until they were censored. Main Outcomes and Measures: Using Cox proportional hazards regression models, the hazard ratios (HRs) for colorectal cancer and related deaths were calculated according to time since negative colonoscopy result (or since cohort entry for those unscreened). Hazard ratios were adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, Charlson comorbidity score, and body mass index. Results: Of the 1 251 318 patients, 613 692 were men (49.0%); mean age was 55.6 (7.0) years. Compared with the unscreened participants, those with a negative colonoscopy result had a reduced risk of colorectal cancer and related deaths throughout the more than 12-year follow-up period, and although reductions in risk were attenuated with increasing years of follow-up, there was a 46% lower risk of colorectal cancer (hazard ratio, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.31-0.94) and 88% lower risk of related deaths (hazard ratio, 0.12; 95% CI, 0.02-0.82) at the current guideline-recommended 10-year rescreening interval. Conclusions and Relevance: A negative colonoscopy result in average-risk patients was associated with a lower risk of colorectal cancer and related deaths for more than 12 years after examination, compared with unscreened patients. Our study findings may be able to inform guidelines for rescreening after a negative colonoscopy result and future studies to evaluate the costs and benefits of earlier vs later rescreening intervals.


Assuntos
Colonoscopia/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias Colorretais/mortalidade , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , California , Estudos de Coortes , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
19.
J Clin Gastroenterol ; 53(1): e25-e30, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28906424

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to test the ability of a commercially available natural language processing (NLP) tool to accurately extract examination quality-related and large polyp information from colonoscopy reports with varying report formats. BACKGROUND: Colonoscopy quality reporting often requires manual data abstraction. NLP is another option for extracting information; however, limited data exist on its ability to accurately extract examination quality and polyp findings from unstructured text in colonoscopy reports with different reporting formats. STUDY DESIGN: NLP strategies were developed using 500 colonoscopy reports from Kaiser Permanente Northern California and then tested using 300 separate colonoscopy reports that underwent manual chart review. Using findings from manual review as the reference standard, we evaluated the NLP tool's sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and accuracy for identifying colonoscopy examination indication, cecal intubation, bowel preparation adequacy, and polyps ≥10 mm. RESULTS: The NLP tool was highly accurate in identifying examination quality-related variables from colonoscopy reports. Compared with manual review, sensitivity for screening indication was 100% (95% confidence interval: 95.3%-100%), PPV was 90.6% (82.3%-95.8%), and accuracy was 98.2% (97.0%-99.4%). For cecal intubation, sensitivity was 99.6% (98.0%-100%), PPV was 100% (98.5%-100%), and accuracy was 99.8% (99.5%-100%). For bowel preparation adequacy, sensitivity was 100% (98.5%-100%), PPV was 100% (98.5%-100%), and accuracy was 100% (100%-100%). For polyp(s) ≥10 mm, sensitivity was 90.5% (69.6%-98.8%), PPV was 100% (82.4%-100%), and accuracy was 95.2% (88.8%-100%). CONCLUSION: NLP yielded a high degree of accuracy for identifying examination quality-related and large polyp information from diverse types of colonoscopy reports.


Assuntos
Pólipos do Colo/diagnóstico , Colonoscopia/métodos , Processamento de Linguagem Natural , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , California , Colonoscopia/normas , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
20.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 28(1): 91-98, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30459208

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To reduce colorectal cancer incidence and mortality, experts recommend surveillance colonoscopy 3 years after advanced adenoma removal. Little is known about adherence to that interval. METHODS: We describe patterns of and factors associated with subsequent colonoscopy among persons with ≥3 adenomas and/or ≥1 adenoma with villous/tubulovillous histology in four U.S. integrated healthcare delivery systems. We report Kaplan-Meier estimators of the cumulative percentage of patients undergoing colonoscopy 6 months to 3.5 years after an index colonoscopy with high-risk findings. Combining data from three healthcare systems, we used multivariable logistic regression with inverse probability of censoring weights to estimate ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for associations between patient characteristics and receipt of subsequent colonoscopy. RESULTS: Among 6,909 persons with advanced adenomas, the percent receiving a subsequent colonoscopy 6 months to 3.5 years later ranged from 18.3% (95% CI: 11.7%-27.8%) to 59.5% (95% CI: 53.8%-65.2%) across healthcare systems. Differences remained significant in the multivariable model. Patients with ≥3 adenomas were more likely than those with 1 to 2 villous/tubulovillous adenomas to undergo subsequent colonoscopy. Subsequent colonoscopy was also more common for patients ages 60-74 and less common for patients ages 80 to 89 compared with those ages 50 to 54 years at their index colonoscopy. Sex, race/ethnicity, and comorbidity index score were generally not associated with subsequent colonoscopy receipt. CONCLUSIONS: Colonoscopy within the recommended interval following advanced adenoma was underutilized and varied by healthcare system, age, and number of adenomas. IMPACT: Strategies to improve adherence to surveillance colonoscopy following advanced adenomas are needed.


Assuntos
Adenoma/diagnóstico , Colonoscopia/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde/normas , Padrões de Prática Médica/normas , Adenoma/epidemiologia , Adenoma/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Colonoscopia/normas , Colonoscopia/tendências , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Padrões de Prática Médica/tendências , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA