Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 16 de 16
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(23): 12550-12557, 2020 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32513683

RESUMO

Energy storage is an integral part of modern society. A contemporary example is the lithium (Li)-ion battery, which enabled the launch of the personal electronics revolution in 1991 and the first commercial electric vehicles in 2010. Most recently, Li-ion batteries have expanded into the electricity grid to firm variable renewable generation, increasing the efficiency and effectiveness of transmission and distribution. Important applications continue to emerge including decarbonization of heavy-duty vehicles, rail, maritime shipping, and aviation and the growth of renewable electricity and storage on the grid. This perspective compares energy storage needs and priorities in 2010 with those now and those emerging over the next few decades. The diversity of demands for energy storage requires a diversity of purpose-built batteries designed to meet disparate applications. Advances in the frontier of battery research to achieve transformative performance spanning energy and power density, capacity, charge/discharge times, cost, lifetime, and safety are highlighted, along with strategic research refinements made by the Joint Center for Energy Storage Research (JCESR) and the broader community to accommodate the changing storage needs and priorities. Innovative experimental tools with higher spatial and temporal resolution, in situ and operando characterization, first-principles simulation, high throughput computation, machine learning, and artificial intelligence work collectively to reveal the origins of the electrochemical phenomena that enable new means of energy storage. This knowledge allows a constructionist approach to materials, chemistries, and architectures, where each atom or molecule plays a prescribed role in realizing batteries with unique performance profiles suitable for emergent demands.

2.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 11(6): 2046-2052, 2020 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32079402

RESUMO

Detailed speciation of electrolytes as a function of chemical system and concentration provides the foundation for understanding bulk transport as well as possible decomposition mechanisms. In particular, multivalent electrolytes have shown a strong coupling between anodic stability and solvation structure. Furthermore, solvents that are found to exhibit reasonable stability against alkaline-earth metals generally exhibit low permittivity, which typically increases the complexity of the electrolyte species. To improve our understanding of ionic population and associated transport in these important classes of electrolytes, the speciation of Mg(TFSI)2 in monoglyme and diglyme systems is studied via a multiscale thermodynamic model using first-principles calculations for ion association and molecular dynamics simulations for dielectric properties. The results are then compared to Raman and dielectric relaxation spectroscopies, which independently confirm the modeling insights. We find that the significant presence of free ions in the low-permittivity glymes in the concentration range from 0.02 to 0.6 M is well-explained by the low-permittivity redissociation hypothesis. Here, salt speciation is largely dictated by long-range electrostatics, which includes permittivity increases due to polar contact ion pairs. The present results suggest that other low-permittivity multivalent electrolytes may also reach high conductivities as a result of redissociation.

3.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(37): 34517-34525, 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31430112

RESUMO

Engineered solid-liquid interfaces will play an important role in the development of future energy storage and conversion (ESC) devices. In the present study, defective graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) structures were used as engineered interfaces to tune the selectivity and activity of Pt disk electrodes. GO was deposited on Pt electrodes via the Langmuir-Blodgett technique, which provided compact and uniform GO films, and these films were subsequently converted to rGO by thermal reduction. Electrochemical measurements revealed that both GO and rGO interfaces on Pt electrodes exhibit selectivity toward the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), but they do not have an impact on the activity of the hydrogen oxidation reaction in acidic environments. Scanning transmission electron microscopy at atomic resolution, along with Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), revealed possible diffusion sites for H2 and O2 gas molecules and functional groups relevant to the selectivity and activity of these surfaces. Based on these insights, rGO interfaces are further demonstrated to exhibit enhanced activity for the ORR in nonaqueous environments and demonstrate the power of our ex situ engineering approach for the development of next-generation ESC devices.

4.
Front Chem ; 7: 175, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31024883

RESUMO

Rational design of novel electrolytes with enhanced functionality requires fundamental molecular-level understanding of structure-property relationships. Here we examine the suitability of a range of organic solvents for non-aqueous electrolytes in secondary magnesium batteries using density functional theory (DFT) calculations as well as experimental probes such as cyclic voltammetry and Raman spectroscopy. The solvents considered include ethereal solvents (e.g., glymes) sulfones (e.g., tetramethylene sulfone), and acetonitrile. Computed reduction potentials show that all solvents considered are stable against reduction by Mg metal. Additional computations were carried out to assess the stability of solvents in contact with partially reduced Mg cations (Mg2+ → Mg+) formed during cycling (e.g., deposition) by identifying reaction profiles of decomposition pathways. Most solvents, including some proposed for secondary Mg energy storage applications, exhibit decomposition pathways that are surprisingly exergonic. Interestingly, the stability of these solvents is largely dictated by magnitude of the kinetic barrier to decomposition. This insight should be valuable toward rational design of improved Mg electrolytes.

5.
Nano Lett ; 19(2): 1387-1394, 2019 02 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30673293

RESUMO

To suppress dendrite formation in lithium metal batteries, high cation transference number electrolytes that reduce electrode polarization are highly desirable, but rarely available using conventional liquid electrolytes. Here, we show that liquid electrolytes increase their cation transference numbers (e.g., ∼0.2 to >0.70) when confined to a structurally rigid polymer host whose pores are on a similar length scale (0.5-2 nm) as the Debye screening length in the electrolyte, which results in a diffuse electrolyte double layer at the polymer-electrolyte interface that retains counterions and reject co-ions from the electrolyte due to their larger size. Lithium anodes coated with ∼1 µm thick overlayers of the polymer host exhibit both a low area-specific resistance and clear dendrite-suppressing character, as evident from their performance in Li-Li and Li-Cu cells as well as in post-mortem analysis of the anode's morphology after cycling. High areal capacity Li-S cells (4.9 mg cm-2; 8.2 mAh cm-2) implementing these high transference number polymer-hosted liquid electrolytes were remarkably stable, considering ∼24 µm of lithium was electroreversibly deposited in each cycle at a C-rate of 0.2. We further identified a scalable manufacturing path for these polymer-coated lithium electrodes, which are drop-in components for lithium metal battery manufacturing.

6.
J Am Chem Soc ; 140(35): 11076-11084, 2018 09 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30059211

RESUMO

Future energy applications rely on our ability to tune liquid intermolecular interactions and achieve designer electrolytes with highly optimized properties. In this work, we demonstrate rational, combined experimental-computational design of a new carba- closo-dodecaborate-based salt with enhanced anodic stability for Mg energy storage applications. We first establish, through a careful examination using a range of solvents, the anodic oxidation of a parent anion, the carba- closo-dodecaborate anion at 4.6 V vs Mg0/2+ (2.0 vs Fc0/+), a value lower than that projected for this anion in organic solvent-based electrolytes and lower than weakly associating bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide and tetrafluoroborate anions. Solvents such as acetonitrile, 3-methylsulfolane, and 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoroisopropanol are shown to enable the direct measurement of carba- closo-dodecaborate oxidation, where the resultant neutral radical drives passive film formation on the electrode. Second, we employ computational screening to evaluate the impact of functionalization of the parent anion on its stability and find that replacement of the carbon-vertex proton with a more electronegative fluorine or trifluoromethyl ligand increases the oxidative stability and decreases the contact-ion pair formation energy while maintaining reductive stability. This predicted expansion of the electrochemical window for fluorocarba- closo-dodecaborate is experimentally validated. Future work includes evaluation of the viability of these derivative anions as efficient and stable carriers for energy storage as a function of the ionic transport through the resulting surface films formed on candidate cathodes.

7.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 10(8): 7043-7051, 2018 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29381865

RESUMO

Lithium metal is considered the "holy grail" of next-generation battery anodes. However, severe parasitic reactions at the lithium-electrolyte interface deplete the liquid electrolyte and the uncontrolled formation of high surface area and dendritic lithium during cycling causes rapid capacity fading and battery failure. Engineering a dendrite-free lithium metal anode is therefore critical for the development of long-life batteries using lithium anodes. In this study, we deposit a conformal, organic/inorganic hybrid coating, for the first time, directly on lithium metal using molecular layer deposition (MLD) to alleviate these problems. This hybrid organic/inorganic film with high cross-linking structure can stabilize lithium against dendrite growth and minimize side reactions, as indicated by scanning electron microscopy. We discovered that the alucone coating yielded several times longer cycle life at high current rates compared to the uncoated lithium and achieved a steady Coulombic efficiency of 99.5%, demonstrating that the highly cross-linking structured material with great mechanical properties and good flexibility can effectively suppress dendrite formation. The protected Li was further evaluated in lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries with a high sulfur mass loading of ∼5 mg/cm2. After 140 cycles at a high current rate of ∼1 mA/cm2, alucone-coated Li-S batteries delivered a capacity of 657.7 mAh/g, 39.5% better than that of a bare lithium-sulfur battery. These findings suggest that flexible coating with high cross-linking structure by MLD is effective to enable lithium protection and offers a very promising avenue for improved performance in the real applications of Li-S batteries.

8.
ACS Nano ; 11(11): 11194-11205, 2017 11 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29112807

RESUMO

To understand the mechanism that controls low-aspect-ratio lithium deposition morphologies for Li-metal anodes in batteries, we conducted direct visualization of Li-metal deposition and stripping behavior through nanoscale in situ electrochemical scanning transmission electron microscopy (EC-STEM) and macroscale-cell electrochemistry experiments in a recently developed and promising solvate electrolyte, 4 M lithium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide in 1,2-dimethoxyethane. In contrast to published coin cell studies in the same electrolyte, our experiments revealed low Coulombic efficiencies and inhomogeneous Li morphology during in situ observation. We conclude that this discrepancy in Coulombic efficiency and morphology of the Li deposits was dependent on the presence of a compressed lithium separator interface, as we have confirmed through macroscale (not in the transmission electron microscope) electrochemical experiments. Our data suggests that cell compression changed how the solid-electrolyte interphase formed, which is likely responsible for improved morphology and Coulombic efficiency with compression. Furthermore, during the in situ EC-STEM experiments, we observed direct evidence of nanoscale self-discharge in the solvate electrolyte (in the state of electrical isolation). This self-discharge was duplicated in the macroscale, but it was less severe with electrode compression, likely due to a more passivating and corrosion-resistant solid-electrolyte interphase formed in the presence of compression. By combining the solvate electrolyte with a protective LiAl0.3S coating, we show that the Li nucleation density increased during deposition, leading to improved morphological uniformity. Furthermore, self-discharge was suppressed during rest periods in the cycling profile with coatings present, as evidenced through EC-STEM and confirmed with coin cell data.

9.
ACS Cent Sci ; 3(6): 605-613, 2017 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28691072

RESUMO

The lithium-sulfur battery has long been seen as a potential next generation battery chemistry for electric vehicles owing to the high theoretical specific energy and low cost of sulfur. However, even state-of-the-art lithium-sulfur batteries suffer from short lifetimes due to the migration of highly soluble polysulfide intermediates and exhibit less than desired energy density due to the required excess electrolyte. The use of sparingly solvating electrolytes in lithium-sulfur batteries is a promising approach to decouple electrolyte quantity from reaction mechanism, thus creating a pathway toward high energy density that deviates from the current catholyte approach. Herein, we demonstrate that sparingly solvating electrolytes based on compact, polar molecules with a 2:1 ratio of a functional group to lithium salt can fundamentally redirect the lithium-sulfur reaction pathway by inhibiting the traditional mechanism that is based on fully solvated intermediates. In contrast to the standard catholyte sulfur electrochemistry, sparingly solvating electrolytes promote intermediate- and short-chain polysulfide formation during the first third of discharge, before disproportionation results in crystalline lithium sulfide and a restricted fraction of soluble polysulfides which are further reduced during the remaining discharge. Moreover, operation at intermediate temperatures ca. 50 °C allows for minimal overpotentials and high utilization of sulfur at practical rates. This discovery opens the door to a new wave of scientific inquiry based on modifying the electrolyte local structure to tune and control the reaction pathway of many precipitation-dissolution chemistries, lithium-sulfur and beyond.

10.
ACS Nano ; 10(6): 5670-8, 2016 06 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27243921

RESUMO

Battery cycle life is directly influenced by the microstructural changes occurring in the electrodes during charge and discharge cycles. Here, we image in situ the nanoscale phase evolution in negative electrode materials for Li-ion batteries using a fully enclosed liquid cell in a transmission electron microscope (TEM) to reveal early degradation that is not evident in the charge-discharge curves. To compare the electrochemical phase transformation behavior between three model materials, thin films of amorphous Si, crystalline Al, and crystalline Au were lithiated and delithiated at controlled rates while immersed in a commercial liquid electrolyte. This method allowed for the direct observation of lithiation mechanisms in nanoscale negative electrodes, revealing that a simplistic model of a surface-to-interior lithiation front is insufficient. For the crystalline films, a lithiation front spread laterally from a few initial nucleation points, with continued grain nucleation along the growing interface. The intermediate lithiated phases were identified using electron diffraction, and high-resolution postmortem imaging revealed the details of the final microstructure. Our results show that electrochemically induced solid-solid phase transformations can lead to highly concentrated stresses at the laterally propagating phase boundary which should be considered for future designs of nanostructured electrodes for Li-ion batteries.

11.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 7(33): 18406-14, 2015 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26258957

RESUMO

Although rechargeable magnesium (Mg) batteries show promise for use as a next generation technology for high-density energy storage, little is known about the Mg anode solid electrolyte interphase and its implications for the performance and durability of a Mg-based battery. We explore in this report passivation effects engendered during the electrochemical cycling of a bulk Mg anode, characterizing their influences during metal deposition and dissolution in a simple, nonaqueous, Grignard electrolyte solution (ethylmagnesium bromide, EtMgBr, in tetrahydrofuran). Scanning electron microscopy images of Mg foil working electrodes after electrochemical polarization to dissolution potentials show the formation of corrosion pits. The pit densities so evidenced are markedly potential-dependent. When the Mg working electrode is cycled both potentiostatically and galvanostatically in EtMgBr these pits, formed due to passive layer breakdown, act as the foci for subsequent electrochemical activity. Detailed microscopy, diffraction, and spectroscopic data show that further passivation and corrosion results in the anisotropic stripping of the Mg {0001} plane, leaving thin oxide-comprising passivated side wall structures that demark the {0001} fiber texture of the etched Mg grains. Upon long-term cycling, oxide side walls formed due to the pronounced crystallographic anisotropy of the anodic stripping processes, leading to complex overlay anisotropic, columnar structures, exceeding 50 µm in height. The passive responses mediating the growth of these structures appear to be an intrinsic feature of the electrochemical growth and dissolution of Mg using this electrolyte.

12.
Langmuir ; 31(36): 9825-32, 2015 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26299510

RESUMO

Liquid-phase transfer of graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (RGO) monolayers is investigated from the perspective of the mechanical properties of these films. Monolayers are assembled in a Langmuir-Blodgett trough, and oscillatory barrier measurements are used to characterize the resulting compressive and shear moduli as a function of surface pressure. GO monolayers are shown to develop a significant shear modulus (10-25 mN/m) at relevant surface pressures while RGO monolayers do not. The existence of a shear modulus indicates that GO is acting as a two-dimensional solid driven by strong interaction between the individual GO sheets. The absence of such behavior in RGO is attributed to the decrease in oxygen moieties on the sheet basal plane, permitting RGO sheets to slide across one another with minimum energy dissipation. Knowledge of this two-dimensional solid behavior is exploited to successfully transfer large-area, continuous GO films to hydrophobic Au substrates. The key to successful transfer is the use of shallow-angle dipping designed to minimize tensile stress present during the insertion or extraction of the substrate. A shallow dip angle on hydrophobic Au does not impart a beneficial effect for RGO monolayers, as these monolayers do not behave as two-dimensional solids and do not remain coherent during the transfer process. We hypothesize that this observed correlation between monolayer mechanical properties and continuous film transfer success is more universally applicable across substrate hydrophobicities and could be exploited to control the transfer of films composed of two-dimensional materials.

13.
ACS Nano ; 9(4): 4379-89, 2015 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25785517

RESUMO

Electrodeposited metallic lithium is an ideal negative battery electrode, but nonuniform microstructure evolution during cycling leads to degradation and safety issues. A better understanding of the Li plating and stripping processes is needed to enable practical Li-metal batteries. Here we use a custom microfabricated, sealed liquid cell for in situ scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) to image the first few cycles of lithium electrodeposition/dissolution in liquid aprotic electrolyte at submicron resolution. Cycling at current densities from 1 to 25 mA/cm(2) leads to variations in grain structure, with higher current densities giving a more needle-like, higher surface area deposit. The effect of the electron beam was explored, and it was found that, even with minimal beam exposure, beam-induced surface film formation could alter the Li microstructure. The electrochemical dissolution was seen to initiate from isolated points on grains rather than uniformly across the Li surface, due to the stabilizing solid electrolyte interphase surface film. We discuss the implications for operando STEM liquid-cell imaging and Li-battery applications.

14.
Nano Lett ; 13(3): 866-72, 2013 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23362838

RESUMO

The intercalation pathway of lithium iron phosphate (LFP) in the positive electrode of a lithium-ion battery was probed at the ∼40 nm length scale using oxidation-state-sensitive X-ray microscopy. Combined with morphological observations of the same exact locations using transmission electron microscopy, we quantified the local state-of-charge of approximately 450 individual LFP particles over nearly the entire thickness of the porous electrode. With the electrode charged to 50% state-of-charge in 0.5 h, we observed that the overwhelming majority of particles were either almost completely delithiated or lithiated. Specifically, only ∼2% of individual particles were at an intermediate state-of-charge. From this small fraction of particles that were actively undergoing delithiation, we conclude that the time needed to charge a particle is ∼1/50 the time needed to charge the entire particle ensemble. Surprisingly, we observed a very weak correlation between the sequence of delithiation and the particle size, contrary to the common expectation that smaller particles delithiate before larger ones. Our quantitative results unambiguously confirm the mosaic (particle-by-particle) pathway of intercalation and suggest that the rate-limiting process of charging is initiating the phase transformation by, for example, a nucleation-like event. Therefore, strategies for further enhancing the performance of LFP electrodes should not focus on increasing the phase-boundary velocity but on the rate of phase-transformation initiation.

15.
J Am Chem Soc ; 133(37): 14741-54, 2011 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21797223

RESUMO

Passivating lithium ion (Li) battery electrode surfaces to prevent electrolyte decomposition is critical for battery operations. Recent work on conformal atomic layer deposition (ALD) coating of anodes and cathodes has shown significant technological promise. ALD further provides well-characterized model platforms for understanding electrolyte decomposition initiated by electron tunneling through a passivating layer. First-principles calculations reveal two regimes of electron transfer to adsorbed ethylene carbonate molecules (EC, a main component of commercial electrolyte), depending on whether the electrode is alumina coated. On bare Li metal electrode surfaces, EC accepts electrons and decomposes within picoseconds. In contrast, constrained density functional theory calculations in an ultrahigh vacuum setting show that, with the oxide coating, e(-) tunneling to the adsorbed EC falls within the nonadiabatic regime. Here the molecular reorganization energy, computed in the harmonic approximation, plays a key role in slowing down electron transfer. Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations conducted at liquid EC electrode interfaces are consistent with the view that reactions and electron transfer occur right at the interface. Microgravimetric measurements demonstrate that the ALD coating decreases electrolyte decomposition and corroborates the theoretical predictions.

16.
J Am Chem Soc ; 129(38): 11708-19, 2007 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17727285

RESUMO

We report a two-step synthesis of highly luminescent CdS/ZnSe core/shell nanocrystals (emission quantum yields up to 50%) that can produce efficient spatial separation of electrons and holes between the core and the shell (type-II localization regime). Our synthesis involves fabrication of cubic-singony CdS core particles that are subsequently overcoated with a layer of ZnSe in the presence of surfactant-ligands in a noncoordinating solvent. Studies of different growth regime of the ZnSe shell indicate that one approach to obtaining high emission efficiencies is through alloying the CdS/ZnSe interface with CdSe, which leads to the formation of an intermediate ZnCdSe layer with a graded composition. We perform theoretical modeling of these core/shell nanocrystals using effective mass approximation and applying first-order perturbation theory for treating both direct electron-hole coupling and the core/shell interface-polarization effects. Using this model we determine the range of geometrical parameters of the core/shell structures that result in a type-II localization regime. We further applied this model to evaluate the degree of electron-hole spatial separation (quantified in terms of the electron-hole overlap integral) based on measured emission wavelengths. We also discuss the potential applicability of these nanocrystals in lasing technologies and specifically the possibility of single-exciton optical gain in type-II nanostructures.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA