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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31330378

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the emergence of mutations associated to integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTI) resistance (INSTI-RMs) and the integrase evolution in HIV-1 infected patients treated with this drug class. METHODS: Emergence of INSTI-RMs and integrase evolution (estimated as genetic distance between integrase sequences under-INSTI and before-INSTI treatment) were evaluated in 107 INSTI-naïve patients (19 drug-naïve and 88 drug-experienced) with two plasma genotypic resistance tests available: one before and one under INSTI treatment. A logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate factors associated with the integrase evolution under INSTI treatment. RESULTS: Patients were mainly infected by B subtype (72.0%). 87 patients were treated with raltegravir, 13 with dolutegravir and 7 with elvitegravir. Before INSTI treatment, one patient harboured the major INSTI-RM R263 K, and three patients the accessory INSTI-RMs T97A. Under INSTI treatment, the emergence of ≥1 INSTI-RM was found in 39 (36.4%) patients. The major INSTI-RMs which emerged more frequently were: N155H (17.8%), G140S (8.4%), Y143R (7.5%), Q148H (6.5%), Y143C (4.7%). Concerning integrase evolution, a higher genetic distance was found in patients with ≥1 INSTI-RM compared to those without emergence of resistance (0.024 [0.012-0.036] vs. 0.015 [0.009-0.024], p = 0.018). This higher integrase evolution was significantly associated with a longer duration of HIV-1 infection, a higher number of past regimens and non-B subtypes. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings confirmed that in INSTI-naïve patients, major INSTI-RMs occur very rarely. Under INSTI treatment, selection of drug-resistance follows the typical drug-resistance pathways; a higher evolution characterizes integrase sequences developing drug-resistance compared to those without any resistance.

3.
J Infect ; 78(5): 402-408, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30849438

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Data on the longer-term effectiveness of second line combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are lacking. We sought to assess the probability and determinants of 2nd line ART failure in SSA. METHODS: A retrospective, multi-center study of 2nd line ART initiated between 2005 and 2017 at four ART centers in Ethiopia, Ghana and Uganda. Main outcome measure was virologic failure (VF) defined as VL>1000 copies/ml after >6 months on 2nd line therapy. Predictors of VF and virologic re-suppression on 2nd line were evaluated using Cox Proportional Hazards and multivariable logistic regression models, respectively. RESULTS: 2191 subjects started 2nd line therapy, 61.5% females. Switching from 1st line (56.4% NVP-based, 70.3% including thymidine-analogues) to 2nd line therapy occurred after mean of 4.1 years. 98.9% of patients started boosted PI with NRTI backbone (TDF+3TC/FTC 67.3%, AZT+3TC 18.5%, others 14.2%). There were 267 (12.0%) VF with a 5-year estimated probability of 15.0% (95% CI 13.2-16.9). Key determinants of VF were concomitant rifampicin use (aHR 2.50 [95% CI 1.54-4.05]) and clinical/immunological failure versus virologic failure as reason for switching therapy (aHR, 0.53 [0.33-0.86]). 138 of 267 (51.7%) subsequently achieved virologic re-suppression and predictors included HIV RNA levels at 2nd-line failure: +1 log higher aOR 0.59 [0.43-0.80], experiencing change within 2nd line ART before VF: aOR 0.17 [0.05-0.56], and more recent calendar year of 2nd line initiation: aOR 0.85 [0.75-0.94]. CONCLUSIONS: The effectiveness of current 2nd line ART regimens in SSA is good but challenged by interactions with TB therapy.

4.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 38(4): e72-e74, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30882744

RESUMO

Preexistence and appearance of resistance-associated substitutions limit the efficacy of direct-acting antivirals in treatment of hepatitis C. This is the first case report of an adolescent with chronic hepatitis C virus genotype 4 infection and cirrhosis who failed treatment with ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir and ribavirin. Resistance analysis showed baseline resistance-associated substitutions M28V and Y93C and emergent D168H.

5.
Virus Genes ; 55(3): 290-297, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30796743

RESUMO

Integrase-strand-transfer inhibitors (INSTIs) are known to rapidly reduce HIV-1 plasma viral load, replication cycles, and new viral integrations, thus potentially limiting viral evolution. Here, we assessed the role of INSTIs on HIV-1 V3 evolution in a cohort of 89 HIV-1-infected individuals starting an INSTI- (N = 41, [dolutegravir: N = 1; elvitegravir: N = 3; raltegravir: N = 37]) or a non-INSTI-based (N = 48) combined antiretroviral therapy (cART), with two plasma RNA V3 genotypic tests available (one before [baseline] and one during cART). V3 sequences were analysed for genetic distance (Tajima-Nei model) and positive selection (dN/dS ratio). Individuals were mainly infected by B subtype (71.9%). Median (interquartile-range, IQR) plasma viral load and CD4 + T cell count at baseline were 4.8 (3.5-5.5) log10 copies/mL and 207 (67-441) cells/mm3, respectively. Genetic distance (median, IQR) between the V3 sequences obtained during cART and those obtained at baseline was 0.04 (0.01-0.07). By considering treatment, genetic distance was significantly lower in INSTI-treated than in non-INSTI-treated individuals (median [IQR]: 0.03[0.01-0.04] vs. 0.05[0.02-0.08], p = 0.026). In line with this, a positive selection (defined as dN/dS ≥ 1) was observed in 36.6% of V3 sequences belonging to the INSTI-treated group and in 56.3% of non-INSTI group (p = 0.05). Multivariable logistic regression confirmed the independent correlation of INSTI-based regimens with a lower probability of both V3 evolution (adjusted odds-ratio: 0.35 [confidence interval (CI) 0.13-0.88], p = 0.027) and positive selection (even if with a trend) (adjusted odds-ratio: 0.46 [CI 0.19-1.11], p = 0.083). Overall, this study suggests a role of INSTI-based regimen in limiting HIV-1 V3 evolution over time. Further studies are required to confirm these findings.


Assuntos
Proteína gp120 do Envelope de HIV/genética , Infecções por HIV/genética , Integrase de HIV/genética , HIV-1/genética , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/genética , Farmacorresistência Viral/genética , Evolução Molecular , Genótipo , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/virologia , HIV-1/patogenicidade , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Carga Viral/genética
6.
Int J Antimicrob Agents ; 53(4): 515-519, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30769200

RESUMO

This study investigated the prevalence of doravirine (DOR) resistance mutations in non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-experienced patients. DOR resistance was assessed in samples from NNRTI-experienced patients who underwent genotypic testing for virological failure from the Antiretroviral Response Cohort Analysis (ARCA) database. Intermediate DOR resistance was defined as detection of any of V106A/M, Y188C/H, V108I, and K103N+P225H. High-level DOR resistance was defined as detection of any of Y188L, M230L, G190E, V106A/M+F227L, and V106A/M+L234I. Overall, 6893 patients were included in the study: 64.2% had experienced efavirenz (EFV), 54.4% nevirapine (NVP), 6.8% etravirine (ETR), 7.7% rilpivirine (RPV) and 0.7% delavirdine. Among NNRTI-experienced patients, 12.7% and 6.1% of subjects had intermediate and high-level DOR resistance, respectively. The most common DOR resistance mutation was Y188L. In multivariable analysis, previous EFV use (OR = 1.52, 95% CI 1.15-2.02) and ETR use (OR = 1.91, 95% CI 1.34-2.73) were associated with detection of high-level DOR resistance, whilst RPV use was associated with a lower probability of high-level DOR resistance (OR = 0.39, 95% CI 0.22-0.71). Moreover, EFV use (OR = 1.76, 95% CI 1.19-2.58) and ETR use (OR = 1.72, 95% CI 1.10-2.68) were associated with detection of the Y188L mutation, whereas RPV use was not (OR = 0.16, 95% CI 0.05-0.50). In Italy, DOR resistance is uncommon among NNRTI-experienced patients, confirming a distinguishing resistance pattern within NNRTIs. However, previous EFV and ETR experience poses a higher risk of DOR resistance. These results support the use of DOR in NNRTI-experienced patients.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Farmacorresistência Viral/genética , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Transcriptase Reversa do HIV/antagonistas & inibidores , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , Piridonas/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Transcriptase Reversa/uso terapêutico , Triazóis/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Benzoxazinas/uso terapêutico , Estudos Transversais , Delavirdina/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Transcriptase Reversa do HIV/genética , HIV-1/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Nevirapina/uso terapêutico , Piridazinas/uso terapêutico , Rilpivirina/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
J Clin Virol ; 111: 12-18, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30594700

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Assessment of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) coreceptor usage is required prior to treatment with the CCR5 antagonist maraviroc to exclude the presence of CXCR4-using (X4) strains. Genotype-based interpretation systems are mostly designed on subtype B and have been reported to be less accurate for subtype A/CRF02_AG. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the performance of the widely used Geno2Pheno[coreceptor] (G2P[c]) algorithm for prediction of coreceptor usage with subtype A/CRF02_AG vs. subtype B. STUDY DESIGN: Co-receptor tropism of 24 subtype A/CRF02_AG and 24 subtype B viruses was measured phenotypically by a homebrew single-cycle assay and genotypically by using G2P[c]. Samples with discrepant genotype-phenotype results were analyzed by next generation sequencing (NGS) and interpreted by the NGS Geno2Pheno algorithm (G2P[454]). RESULTS: At 10% false positive rate (FPR), the G2P[c]/phenotype discordance rate was 12.5% (n = 3) for subtype A/CRF02_AG and 8.3% (n = 2) for subtype B. Minority X4 species escaping detection by bulk sequencing but documented by NGS explained the two subtype B and possibly one subtype A/CRF02_AG discordant case. The other two subtype A/CRF02_AG miscalled by G2P[c] could be explained by X4 overcalling at borderline FPR and/or by algorithm failure. DISCUSSION: Our study did not demonstrate relevantly higher G2P[c] inaccuracy with subtype A/CRF02_AG with respect to subtype B. Genotype/phenotype discordances can be due to different reasons, including but not limited to, algorithm inaccuracy. Very large genotype/phenotype correlation panels are required to detect and explain the reason for any consistent difference in genotypic tropism prediction for subtype A/CRF02_AG vs. subtype B.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30462235

RESUMO

Objectives: The HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) natural polymorphism E138A is included among the mutations with a minor impact on response to etravirine. However, the interpretation of E138A on etravirine susceptibility is not consistent across different genotypic resistance algorithms. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of E138A on the genetic barrier to resistance to etravirine in vitro. Methods: A panel of 20 clinically derived recombinant viruses (10 with WT 138E and 10 with 138A, all without any other resistance mutation) were cultured in the presence of increasing etravirine concentrations and analysed for genotypic changes at virus breakthrough. Parallel experiments were conducted with 138E/A/G/K/Q NL4-3-based clones. Results: In the NL4-3 background, codon 138 changes increased etravirine resistance in the following order: Q > K > A > G > E. The 138A viruses were less susceptible to etravirine compared with the 138E viruses [median (IQR) fold change, 1.8 (1.5-2.8) versus 1.3 (0.8-1.8); P = 0.026], overcame etravirine pressure earlier [HR (95% CI) for viral outgrowth with 138A, 5.48 (2.95-28.24); P < 0.001] and grew at higher drug concentrations [median (IQR), 1350 (1350-1350) versus 0 (0-1350) nM; P = 0.005]. A variety of etravirine resistance-related mutations and changes in the RT connection and RNase H domains accumulated without any consistent pattern depending on baseline codon 138. Conclusions: E138A can contribute to reduced response to etravirine through a decreased genetic barrier to resistance. In vitro drug resistance selection is a valuable complement to define the full potential of low-level resistance mutations.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30476106

RESUMO

Background: Doravirine is a novel HIV-1 NNRTI recently shown to be non-inferior to both darunavir/ritonavir and efavirenz in combination therapy with two NRTIs in treatment-naive patients. Doravirine has an in vitro resistance profile that is distinct from other NNRTIs and retains activity against viruses containing the most frequently transmitted NNRTI mutations. Objectives: The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of doravirine resistance-associated mutations in HIV-1-infected treatment-naive patients in Europe. Methods: From 2010 to 2016, 9764 treatment-naive patients were tested for NNRTI antiretroviral drug resistance by bulk sequencing in Greece, Italy and France. We studied the prevalence of doravirine resistance-associated mutations previously identified in vitro: V106A/M, V108I, Y188L, V190S, H221Y, F227C/L/V, M230I/L, L234I, P236L, Y318F and K103N/Y181C. Results: Among 9764 sequences, 53.0% and 47.0% of patients had B and non-B subtypes, respectively. Overall, the presence of at least one doravirine resistance-associated mutation (n = 137; 1.4%) or the K103N/Y181C mutations (n = 5; 0.05%) was very rare. The most prevalent mutations were V108I (n = 62; 0.6%), Y188L (n = 18; 0.2%), H221Y (n = 18; 0.2%) and Y318F (n = 23; 0.2%). The frequency of doravirine resistance-associated mutations was similar between B and non-B subtypes. In comparison, the prevalence of rilpivirine, etravirine, nevirapine and efavirenz resistance was higher whatever algorithm was used (ANRS: 8.5%, 8.1%, 8.3% and 3.9%, respectively; Stanford: 9.9%, 10.0%, 7.5% and 9.4%, respectively). Conclusions: The prevalence of doravirine resistance-associated mutations is very low in antiretroviral-naive patients. These results are very reassuring for doravirine use in naive patients.

10.
AIDS ; 2018 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30325769

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of primary resistance and selected polymorphic amino-acid substitutions in HIV reverse transcriptase (RT) and protease (PR) on the CD4 count and viral load (VL) set point before the start of ART. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. METHODS: 6,180 individuals with a resistance test prior to starting ART accessing care in HIV clinics across Europe who had at least 1 VL and 1 CD4 test available were included in the analysis. The impact of amino-acid substitutions variants on VL and CD4 trends was investigated using linear mixed models. Clusters of mutations were studied using principal component analysis. RESULTS: Overall, the detection of any primary resistance was not associated with either the speed of CD4 decline or the viral load set point. However, transmitted nucleoside RT inhibitor and PR inhibitor resistance appeared to be weakly associated with lower VL set points, as were the polymorphic G16E or Q92K PR mutations. There was some evidence suggesting that these effects varied according to HIV subtype, with the effects of transmitted NRTI and PR resistance being particularly marked among individuals with a subtype B virus. A cluster of five polymorphic PR substitutions at position 20, 13, 36, 69 and 89 was associated with less steep CD4 declines and lower VL set points. CONCLUSIONS: Although we found little evidence for an association between primary resistance and CD4 speed of decline and VL set point, the potential role of polymorphic PR (alone or in clusters) and their interplay with HIV subtype needs to be further evaluated.

11.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 2018 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30204659

RESUMO

Pre-existence and appearance of resistance associated substitutions limit the efficacy of direct acting antivirals in treatment of hepatitis C. This is the first case report of an adolescent with chronic hepatitis C virus genotype 4 infection and cirrhosis who failed treatment with ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir and ribavirin. Resistance analysis showed baseline resistance associated substitutions M28V and Y93C and emergent D168H.

12.
New Microbiol ; 41(4)2018 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30252927

RESUMO

Few studies have documented hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). We developed real-time PCR methods for differential amplification of covalently closed circular (cccDNA) and total HBV DNA (tDNA). The different distribution of cccDNA and tDNA in plasma and PBMCs was evaluated in 37 patients with low or undetectable viremia. Plasma tDNA measured by the Abbott reference system and the in-house assay correlated well (Spearman rho = 0.804; P<0.0001). tDNA was detected in four PBMC samples, all from patients with detectable plasma viremia (range 633-6,406 IU/ml), cccDNA was not detected in any sample. The reasons for apparently discrepant results need further investigation but possibly include the high diversification of HBV status and plasma viremia levels.

13.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 5(6): ofy113, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29977967

RESUMO

Background: Dual therapy (DT) with boosted protease inhibitors (bPIs) plus lamivudine has been shown to be superior to bPI monotherapy in virologically suppressed patients despite previous selection of the lamivudine resistance M184V mutation. We compared the virological efficacy of lamivudine-based DT in patients with and without a history of M184V detection. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed patients with HIV-RNA ≤50 copies/mL switching to DT with at least 1 previous resistance genotype in the ARCA database. Time to virological failure (VF; HIV-RNA ≥200 copies/mL or 2 consecutive HIV-RNA >50 copies/mL) and to treatment discontinuation (TD) was analyzed by survival analysis. Results: Four hundred thirty-six patients switching to lamivudine plus bPIs (70%) or integrase inhibitors (30%) were included. Patients with M184V (n = 87) were older, had lower nadir CD4+ cell count, longer duration of antiretroviral therapy and of virologic suppression, and higher rate of hepatitis C virus infection compared with patients without M184V. The 3-year probability of remaining free from VF was 91.9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 86.6-97.2) without M184V and 87.8% (95% CI, 78.4-97.2) with M184V (P = .323). The time to TD did not differ between groups. Multivariate analysis adjusting for baseline variables differing between groups also did not detect M184V as being associated with VF or TD; however, the 3-year probability of remaining free of viral blips (isolated HIV-RNA 51-199 copies/mL) was 79.8% (95% CI, 67.8%-91.8%) with M184V vs 90.1% (95% CI, 84.0%-96.2%) without M184V (P = .016). Conclusions: Previous selection of M184V did not increase the risk of VF or TD with lamivudine-based DT but was associated with a higher probability of viral blips.

14.
PeerJ ; 6: e4848, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29844989

RESUMO

Genotypic drug resistance testing has been an integral part of the clinical management of HIV patients for almost 20 years, not only assisting treatment choices but also informing drug development. Accurate estimations on the worldwide circulation of drug resistance are difficult to obtain, particularly in low/middle-income countries. In this work, we queried two of the largest public HIV sequence repositories in the world-Los Alamos and Stanford HIVdb-to derive global prevalence, time trends and geodemographic predictors of HIV drug resistance. Different genotypic interpretation systems were used to ascertain resistance to reverse transcriptase and protease inhibitors. Continental, subtype-specific (including circulating recombinant forms) stratification as well as analysis on drug-naïve isolates were performed. Geographic information system analysis correlated country-specific drug resistance to sociodemographic and health indicators obtained from the World Bank. By looking at over 33,000 sequences worldwide between 1996 and 2016, increasing drug resistance trends with non-B subtypes and recombinants were found; transmitted drug resistance appeared to remain stable in the last decade. While an increase in drug resistance is expected with antiretroviral therapy rollout in resource-constrained areas, the plateau effect in areas covered by the most modern drug regimens warns against the downgrading of the resistance issue.

18.
Virus Res ; 244: 64-70, 2018 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29113824

RESUMO

A strong correlation between Zika virus (ZIKV) infection and severe neurological disease in newborns and occasionally adults has emerged in the Brazilian outbreak. Efficient human cell-based assays are required to test candidate inhibitors of ZIKV replication. The aim of this work was to investigate ZIKV propagation and quantification in different cell lines. The human (U87, A549, Huh7), mosquito (C6/36) and monkey (VERO E6) cell lines tested were all permissive to ZIKV infection. When assessed by plaque forming units (PFU) in three different target cell lines, the maximal production of ZIKV was achieved in Huh7 at day 3 post-infection (6.38±0.44 log10PFU/ml). The C6/36 cell line showed a low and slow production of virus when compared with other cell lines. A549 readout cells generated a larger number of plaques compared to Huh7 but not to VERO E6 cells. ZIKV PFU and RNA titers showed the highest correlation when Huh7 and A549 were used as the producer and readout cells, respectively. Also, U87 cells produced ZIKV RNA titers which were highly correlated with PFU independently from the readout cell line. Using the best virus-cell system, sofosbuvir and ribavirin EC50 were 1.2µM and 1.1µM when measured through plaque assay, and 4.2µM and 5.2µM when measured by quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR), respectively. In summary, ZIKV can efficiently infect different human cell lines and rapidly reach peak viral titers. Overall, A549 cells appear to be as efficient as the VERO E6 gold standard for plaque assay allowing the use of human, rather than simian, cells for evaluating candidate anti-ZIKV compounds by the reference assay. The possibility to replace the labor-intensive plaque assay with the more rapid and easy-to-perform qRT-PCR is appealing and warrants further investigation.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , RNA Viral/antagonistas & inibidores , Ribavirina/farmacologia , Sofosbuvir/farmacologia , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Zika virus/efeitos dos fármacos , Células A549 , Animais , Brasil , Linhagem Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Cercopithecus aethiops , Culicidae , Hepatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatócitos/virologia , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Neuroglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Neuroglia/virologia , RNA Viral/biossíntese , RNA Viral/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Células Vero , Carga Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaio de Placa Viral , Zika virus/genética , Zika virus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Zika virus/metabolismo
19.
ACS Chem Biol ; 13(1): 253-266, 2018 01 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29235845

RESUMO

HIV/AIDS is still one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Current drugs that target the canonical steps of the HIV-1 life cycle are efficient in blocking viral replication but are unable to eradicate HIV-1 from infected patients. Moreover, drug resistance (DR) is often associated with the clinical use of these molecules, thus raising the need for novel drug candidates as well as novel putative drug targets. In this respect, pharmacological inhibition of the highly conserved and multifunctional nucleocapsid protein (NC) of HIV-1 is considered a promising alternative to current drugs, particularly to overcome DR. Here, using a multidisciplinary approach combining in silico screening, fluorescence-based molecular assays, and cellular antiviral assays, we identified nordihydroguaiaretic acid (6), as a novel natural product inhibitor of NC. By using NMR, mass spectrometry, fluorescence spectroscopy, and molecular modeling, 6 was found to act through a dual mechanism of action never highlighted before for NC inhibitors (NCIs). First, the molecule recognizes and binds NC noncovalently, which results in the inhibition of the nucleic acid chaperone properties of NC. In a second step, chemical oxidation of 6 induces a potent chemical inactivation of the protein. Overall, 6 inhibits NC and the replication of wild-type and drug-resistant HIV-1 strains in the low micromolar range with moderate cytotoxicity that makes it a profitable tool compound as well as a good starting point for the development of pharmacologically relevant NCIs.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/química , Fármacos Anti-HIV/farmacologia , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos/métodos , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas do Nucleocapsídeo/antagonistas & inibidores , Fármacos Anti-HIV/toxicidade , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Farmacorresistência Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , HIV-1/fisiologia , Humanos , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Leucócitos Mononucleares/efeitos dos fármacos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Moleculares , Proteínas do Nucleocapsídeo/química , Espectrometria de Fluorescência , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
20.
J Clin Lab Anal ; 32(1)2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28303602

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although clinical management of drug resistance is routinely based on genotypic methods, phenotypic assays remain necessary for the characterization of novel HIV-1 inhibitors, particularly against common drug-resistant variants. We describe the development and assessment of the performance of a recombinant virus assay for measuring HIV-1 susceptibility to protease (PR), reverse transcriptase (RT), and integrase (IN) inhibitors. METHODS: The system is based on the creation of replication-competent chimeric viruses through homologous recombination between patient or laboratory virus-derived PCR fragments and the corresponding NL4-3 vector where the whole Gag-PR, RT-RNaseH or IN coding regions has been deleted through inverse PCR. The susceptibility to nucleoside (NRTIs) and non-nucleoside (NNRTIs) RT inhibitors and to IN inhibitors (INIs) is calculated through a single-round infection assay in TZM-bl cells, while protease inhibitor (PI) activity is determined through a first round of infection in MT-2 cells followed by infection of TZM-bl cells with MT-2 supernatants. RESULTS: The assay showed excellent reproducibility and accuracy when testing PI, NRTI, NNRTI, and INI susceptibility of drug-resistant clones previously characterized through the reference pseudoparticle-based Phenosense assay. The coefficient of interassay variation in fold change (FC) resistance was 12.0%-24.3% when assaying seven drug/clones pairs in three runs. FC values calculated by the Phenosense and in-house for 20 drug/clones pairs were in good agreement, with mean±SD ratio of 1.14±0.33 and no cases differing by more than twofold. CONCLUSIONS: The described phenotypic assay can be adopted to evaluate the antiviral activity of licensed and investigational HIV-1 drugs targeting any of the three HIV-1 enzymes.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Viral , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores da Transcriptase Reversa/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular , Infecções por HIV/virologia , HIV-1/classificação , Humanos , Fenótipo , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/metabolismo , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
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