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1.
Chem Mater ; 33(4): 1363-1372, 2021 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33840892

RESUMO

The quest for efficient and economically accessible cleaner methods to develop sustainable carbon-free energy sources induced a keen interest in the production of hydrogen fuel. This can be achieved via the water-splitting process and by exploiting solar energy. However, the use of adequate photocatalysts is required to reach this goal. Covalent triazine-based frameworks (CTFs) are potential target photocatalysts for water splitting. Both electronic and structural characteristics of CTFs, particularly energy levels, optical band gaps, and porosities are directly relevant to water splitting and can be engineered through chemical design. Porosity can, in principle, be beneficial to water splitting by providing a larger surface area for the catalytic reactions to take place. However, porosity can also affect both charge transport within the photocatalyst and mass transfer of both reactants and products, thus impacting the overall kinetics of the reaction. Here, we focus on the link between chemical design and water (reactant) mass transfer, which plays a key role in the water uptake process and the subsequent hydrogen generation in practice. We use neutron spectroscopy to study the mass transfer of water in two porous CTFs, CTF-CN and CTF-2, that differ in the polarity of their struts. Quasi-elastic neutron scattering is used to quantify the amount of bound water and the translational diffusion of water. Inelastic neutron scattering measurements complement the quasi-elastic neutron scattering study and provide insights into the softness of the CTF structures and the changes in librational degrees of freedom of water in the porous CTFs. We show that two different types of interaction between water and CTFs take place in CTF-CN and CTF-2. CTF-CN exhibits a smaller surface area and lower water uptake due to its softer structure than CTF-2. However, the polar cyano group interacts locally with water leading to a large amount of bound water and a strong rearrangement of the water hydration monolayer, while water diffusion in CTF-2 is principally impacted by microporosity. The current study leads to new insights into the structure-dynamics-property relationship of CTF photocatalysts that pave the road for a better understanding of the guest-host interaction on the basis of water-splitting applications.

2.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 23(12): 7462-7471, 2021 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33876106

RESUMO

The processability and optoelectronic properties of organic semiconductors can be tuned and manipulated via chemical design. The substitution of the popular alkyl side chains by oligoethers has recently been successful for applications such as bioelectronic sensors and photocatalytic hydrogen evolution. Beyond the differences in polarity, the carbon-oxygen bond in oligoethers is likely to render the system softer and more prone to dynamical disorder that can be detrimental to charge transport for example. In this context, we use neutron spectroscopy as a master method of probe, in addition to characterisation techniques such as X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry and polarized optical microscopy to study the effect of the substitution of n-hexyl (Hex) chains by triethylene glycol (TEG) chains on the structural dynamics of two organic semiconducting materials: a phenylene-bithiophene-phenylene (PTTP) small molecule and a fluorene-co-dibenzothiophene (FS) polymer. Counterintuitively, inelastic neutron scattering (INS) reveals a general softening of the modes of PTTP and FS materials with Hex chains, pointing towards an increased dynamical disorder in the Hex-based systems. However, temperature-dependent X-ray and neutron diffraction as well as INS and differential scanning calorimetry evidence an extra reversible transition close to room temperature for PTTP with TEG chains. The observed extra structural transition, which is not accompanied by a change in birefringence, can also be observed by quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QENS). A fastening of the TEG chains dynamics is observed in the case of PTTP and not FS. We therefore assign this transition to the melt of the TEG chains. Overall the TEG chains are promoting dynamical order at room temperature, but if crystallising, may introduce an extra reversible structural transition above room temperature leading to thermal instabilities. Ultimately, a deeper understanding of chain polarity and structural dynamics can help guide new materials design and navigate the intricate balance between electronic charge transport and aqueous swelling that is being sought for a number of emerging organic electronic and bioelectronic applications.

3.
ACS Appl Polym Mater ; 3(2): 765-776, 2021 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33615231

RESUMO

Hydrogen fuel can contribute as a masterpiece in conceiving a robust carbon-free economic puzzle if cleaner methods to produce hydrogen become technically efficient and economically viable. Organic photocatalytic materials such as conjugated microporous materials (CMPs) are potential attractive candidates for water splitting as their energy levels and optical band gap as well as porosity are tunable through chemical synthesis. The performances of CMPs depend also on the mass transfer of reactants, intermediates, and products. Here, we study the mass transfer of water (H2O and D2O) and of triethylamine, which is used as a hole scavenger for hydrogen evolution, by means of neutron spectroscopy. We find that the stiffness of the nodes of the CMPs is correlated with an increase in trapped water, reflected by motions too slow to be quantified by quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QENS). Our study highlights that the addition of the polar sulfone group results in additional interactions between water and the CMP, as evidenced by inelastic neutron scattering (INS), leading to changes in the translational diffusion of water, as determined from the QENS measurements. No changes in triethylamine motions could be observed within the CMPs from the present investigations.

4.
Adv Mater ; 33(13): e2007870, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33629772

RESUMO

Charge transport in organic semiconductors is notoriously extremely sensitive to the presence of disorder, both internal and external (i.e., related to interactions with the dielectric layer), especially for n-type materials. Internal dynamic disorder stems from large thermal fluctuations both in intermolecular transfer integrals and (molecular) site energies in weakly interacting van der Waals solids and sources transient localization of the charge carriers. The molecular vibrations that drive transient localization typically operate at low-frequency (

5.
Chem Mater ; 33(14): 5652-5667, 2021 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34483480

RESUMO

Solid electrolytes are crucial for next-generation solid-state batteries, and Na3PS4 is one of the most promising Na+ conductors for such applications, despite outstanding questions regarding its structural polymorphs. In this contribution, we present a detailed investigation of the evolution in structure and dynamics of Na3PS4 over a wide temperature range 30 < T < 600 °C through combined experimental-computational analysis. Although Bragg diffraction experiments indicate a second-order phase transition from the tetragonal ground state (α, P4̅21 c) to the cubic polymorph (ß, I4̅3m) above ∼250 °C, pair distribution function analysis in real space and Raman spectroscopy indicate remnants of a tetragonal character in the range 250 < T < 500 °C, which we attribute to dynamic local tetragonal distortions. The first-order phase transition to the mesophasic high-temperature polymorph (γ, Fddd) is associated with a sharp volume increase and the onset of liquid-like dynamics for sodium-cations (translational) and thiophosphate-polyanions (rotational) evident by inelastic neutron and Raman spectroscopies, as well as pair-distribution function and molecular dynamics analyses. These results shed light on the rich polymorphism of Na3PS4 and are relevant for a range host of high-performance materials deriving from the Na3PS4 structural archetype.

6.
J Am Chem Soc ; 142(43): 18422-18436, 2020 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33054192

RESUMO

Fast-ion conductors are critical to the development of solid-state batteries. The effects of mechanochemical synthesis that lead to increased ionic conductivity in an archetypical sodium-ion conductor Na3PS4 are not fully understood. We present here a comprehensive analysis based on diffraction (Bragg and pair distribution function), spectroscopy (impedance, Raman, NMR and INS), and ab initio simulations aimed at elucidating the synthesis-property relationships in Na3PS4. We consolidate previously reported interpretations regarding the local structure of ball-milled samples, underlining the sodium disorder and showing that a local tetragonal framework more accurately describes the structure than the originally proposed cubic one. Through variable-pressure impedance spectroscopy measurements, we report for the first time the activation volume for Na+ migration in Na3PS4, which is ∼30% higher for the ball-milled samples. Moreover, we show that the effect of ball-milling on increasing the ionic conductivity of Na3PS4 to ∼10-4 S/cm can be reproduced by applying external pressure on a sample from conventional high-temperature ceramic synthesis. We conclude that the key effects of mechanochemical synthesis on the properties of solid electrolytes can be analyzed and understood in terms of pressure, strain, and activation volume.

7.
Inorg Chem ; 59(16): 11704-11714, 2020 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32799476

RESUMO

Mixed-metal cyanides (Cu1/2Au1/2)CN, (Ag1/2Au1/2)CN, and (Cu1/3Ag1/3Au1/3)CN adopt an AuCN-type structure in which metal-cyanide chains pack on a hexagonal lattice with metal atoms arranged in sheets. The interactions between and within the metal-cyanide chains are investigated using density functional theory (DFT) calculations, 13C solid-state NMR (SSNMR), and X-ray pair distribution function (PDF) measurements. Long-range metal and cyanide order is found within the chains: (-Cu-NC-Au-CN-)∞, (-Ag-NC-Au-CN-)∞, and (-Cu-NC-Ag-NC-Au-CN-)∞. Although Bragg diffraction studies establish that there is no long-range order between chains, X-ray PDF results show that there is local order between chains. In (Cu1/2Au1/2)CN and (Ag1/2Au1/2)CN, there is a preference for unlike metal atoms occurring as nearest neighbors within the metal sheets. A general mathematical proof shows that the maximum average number of heterometallic nearest-neighbor interactions on a hexagonal lattice with two types of metal atoms is four. Calculated energies of periodic structural models show that those with four unlike nearest neighbors are most favorable. Of these, models in space group Immm give the best fits to the X-ray PDF data out to 8 Å, providing good descriptions of the short- and medium-range structures. This result shows that interactions beyond those of nearest neighbors must be considered when determining the structures of these materials. Such interactions are also important in (Cu1/3Ag1/3Au1/3)CN, leading to the adoption of a structure in Pmm2 containing mixed Cu-Au and Ag-only sheets arranged to maximize the numbers of Cu···Au nearest- and next-nearest-neighbor interactions.

8.
Front Chem ; 6: 544, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30483494

RESUMO

We have performed temperature dependent inelastic neutron scattering measurements to study the anharmonicity of phonon spectra of AgC4N3. The analysis and interpretation of the experimental spectra is done using ab-initio lattice dynamics calculations. The calculated phonon spectrum over the entire Brillouin zone is used to derive linear thermal expansion coefficients. The effect of van der Waals interaction on structure stability has been investigated using advanced density functional methods. The calculated isothermal equation of states implies a negative linear compressibility along the c-axis of the crystal, which also leads to a negative thermal expansion along this direction. The role of elastic properties inducing the observed anomalous lattice behavior is discussed.

9.
J Phys Chem B ; 121(38): 9073-9080, 2017 09 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28834430

RESUMO

The optoelectronic properties of blends of conjugated polymers and small molecules are likely to be affected by the molecular dynamics of the active layer components. We study the dynamics of regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT):phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) blends using molecular dynamics (MD) simulation on time scales up to 50 ns and in a temperature range of 250-360 K. First, we compare the MD results with quasi-elastic neutron-scattering (QENS) measurements. Experiment and simulation give evidence of the vitrification of P3HT upon blending and the plasticization of PCBM by P3HT. Second, we reconstruct the QENS signal based on the independent simulations of the three phases constituting the complex microstructure of such blends. Finally, we found that P3HT chains tend to wrap around PCBM molecules in the amorphous mixture of P3HT and PCBM; this molecular interaction between P3HT and PCBM is likely to be responsible for the observed frustration of P3HT, the plasticization of PCBM, and the partial miscibility of P3HT and PCBM.

10.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 19(23): 15512-15520, 2017 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28581550

RESUMO

ß-Eucryptite (LiAlSiO4) is known to show super-ionic conductivity above 700 K. We performed inelastic neutron scattering measurements in ß-eucryptite over 300-900 K and calculated the phonon spectrum using classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The MD simulations were used to interpret the inelastic neutron spectra at high temperatures. The calculated diffusion coefficient for Li showed superionic conduction above 1200 K in the perfect crystal. The presence of defects was found to enhance diffusion and lower the temperature for Li diffusion. The calculated trajectory of Li atoms at higher temperatures shows that preferential movement of the Li atom is along the hexagonal c-axis, which is further confirmed by the ab initio calculated activation energy profile for cooperative lithium ion displacements. The inter- and intra-channel correlated motion of Li along the hexagonal c-axis gives the minimum energy pathway for Li ion conduction in LiAlSiO4.

11.
Inorg Chem ; 55(11): 5649-54, 2016 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27187072

RESUMO

The hexagonal perovskites Ba3BiIr2O9, Ba3BiRu2O9, and Ba4BiIr3O12 all undergo pressure-induced 1% volume collapses above 5 GPa. These first-order transitions have been ascribed to internal transfer of valence electrons between bismuth and iridium/ruthenium, which is driven by external applied pressure because the reduction in volume achieved by emptying the 6s shell of bismuth upon oxidation to Bi(5+) is greater in magnitude than the increase in volume by reducing iridium or ruthenium. Here, we report direct observation of these valence transfers for the first time, using high-pressure X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) measurements. Our data also support the highly unusual "4+" nominal oxidation state of bismuth in these compounds, although the possibility of local disproportionation into Bi(3+)/Bi(5+) cannot be definitively ruled out. Ab initio calculations reproduce the transition, support its interpretation as a valence electron transfer from Bi to Ir/Ru, and suggest that the high-pressure phase may show metallic behavior (in contrast to the insulating ambient-pressure phase).

12.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 7(12): 2252-7, 2016 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27192930

RESUMO

The molecular dynamics of organic semiconductor blend layers are likely to affect the optoelectronic properties and the performance of devices such as solar cells. We study the dynamics (5-50 ps) of the poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT): phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) blend by time-of-flight quasi-elastic neutron scattering, at temperatures in the range 250-360 K, thus spanning the glass transition temperature region of the polymer and the operation temperature of an OPV device. The behavior of the QENS signal provides evidence for the vitrification of P3HT upon blending, especially above the glass transition temperature, and the plasticization of PCBM by P3HT, both dynamics occurring on the picosecond time scale.

13.
J Phys Condens Matter ; 28(4): 045402, 2016 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26751175

RESUMO

Nickel cyanide is a layered material showing markedly anisotropic behaviour. High-pressure neutron diffraction measurements show that at pressures up to 20.1 kbar, compressibility is much higher in the direction perpendicular to the layers, c, than in the plane of the strongly chemically bonded metal-cyanide sheets. Detailed examination of the behaviour of the tetragonal lattice parameters, a and c, as a function of pressure reveal regions in which large changes in slope occur, for example, in c(P) at 1 kbar. The experimental pressure dependence of the volume data is fitted to a bulk modulus, B0, of 1050 (20) kbar over the pressure range 0-1 kbar, and to 124 (2) kbar over the range 1-20.1 kbar. Raman spectroscopy measurements yield additional information on how the structure and bonding in the Ni(CN)2 layers change with pressure and show that a phase change occurs at about 1 kbar. The new high-pressure phase, (Phase PII), has ordered cyanide groups with sheets of D4h symmetry containing Ni(CN)4 and Ni(NC)4 groups. The Raman spectrum of phase PII closely resembles that of the related layered compound, Cu1/2Ni1/2(CN)2, which has previously been shown to contain ordered C≡N groups. The phase change, PI to PII, is also observed in inelastic neutron scattering studies which show significant changes occurring in the phonon spectra as the pressure is raised from 0.3 to 1.5 kbar. These changes reflect the large reduction in the interlayer spacing which occurs as Phase PI transforms to Phase PII and the consequent increase in difficulty for out-of-plane atomic motions. Unlike other cyanide materials e.g. Zn(CN)2 and Ag3Co(CN)6, which show an amorphization and/or a decomposition at much lower pressures (~100 kbar), Ni(CN)2 can be recovered after pressurising to 200 kbar, albeit in a more ordered form.

14.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 53(13): 3414-7, 2014 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24616087

RESUMO

Pressure-induced charge transfer from Bi to Ir/Ru is observed in the hexagonal perovskites Ba(3+n)BiM(2+n)O(9+3n) (n=0,1; M=Ir,Ru). These compounds show first-order, circa 1% volume contractions at room temperature above 5 GPa, which are due to the large reduction in the effective ionic radius of Bi when the 6s shell is emptied on oxidation, compared to the relatively negligible effect of reduction on the radii of Ir or Ru. They are the first such transitions involving 4d and 5d compounds, and they double the total number of cases known. Ab initio calculations suggest that magnetic interactions through very short (ca. 2.6 Å) M-M bonds contribute to the finely balanced nature of their electronic states.

15.
J Chem Phys ; 140(1): 014903, 2014 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24410238

RESUMO

Discotic liquid crystalline (DLC) charge transfer (CT) complexes combine visible light absorption and rapid charge transfer characteristics, being favorable properties for photovoltaic (PV) applications. We present a detailed study of the electronic and vibrational properties of the prototypic 1:1 mixture of discotic 2,3,6,7,10,11-hexakishexyloxytriphenylene (HAT6) and 2,4,7-trinitro-9-fluorenone (TNF). It is shown that intermolecular charge transfer occurs in the ground state of the complex: a charge delocalization of about 10(-2) electron from the HAT6 core to TNF is deduced from both Raman and our previous NMR measurements [L. A. Haverkate, M. Zbiri, M. R. Johnson, B. Deme, H. J. M. de Groot, F. Lefeber, A. Kotlewski, S. J. Picken, F. M. Mulder, and G. J. Kearley, J. Phys. Chem. B 116, 13098 (2012)], implying the presence of permanent dipoles at the donor-acceptor interface. A combined analysis of density functional theory calculations, resonant Raman and UV-VIS absorption measurements indicate that fast relaxation occurs in the UV region due to intramolecular vibronic coupling of HAT6 quinoidal modes with lower lying electronic states. Relatively slower relaxation in the visible region the excited CT-band of the complex is also indicated, which likely involves motions of the TNF nitro groups. The fast quinoidal relaxation process in the hot UV band of HAT6 relates to pseudo-Jahn-Teller interactions in a single benzene unit, suggesting that the underlying vibronic coupling mechanism can be generic for polyaromatic hydrocarbons. Both the presence of ground state CT dipoles and relatively slow relaxation processes in the excited CT band can be relevant concerning the design of DLC based organic PV systems.

16.
J Phys Chem B ; 116(43): 13098-105, 2012 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23033895

RESUMO

Discotic liquid crystalline (DLC) charge transfer (CT) complexes, which combine visible light absorption with rapid charge transfer characteristics within the CT complex, can have a great potential for photovoltaic applications when they can be made to self-assemble in a bulk heterojunction arrangement with separate channels for electron and hole conduction. However, the morphology of some liquid crystalline CT complexes has been under debate for many years. In particular, the liquid crystalline CT complex built from the electron acceptor 2,4,7-trinitro-9-fluorenone (TNF) and discotic molecules has been reported to have the TNF "sandwiched" either between the discotic molecules within the same column or between the columns within the aliphatic tails of the discotic molecules. We present a detailed structural study of the prototypic 1:1 mixture of the discotic 2,3,6,7,10,11-hexakis(hexyloxy)triphenylene (HAT6) and TNF. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) line widths and cross-polarization rates are consistent with the picosecond time scale anisotropic thermal motions of the HAT6 and TNF molecules previously observed. By computational integration of Rietveld refinement analyses of neutron diffraction patterns with density experiments and short-range structural constraints from heteronuclear 2D NMR, we determine that the TNF molecules are vertically oriented between HAT6 columns. The data provide the insight that a morphology of separate hole conducting channels of HAT6 molecules can be realized in the liquid crystalline CT complex.


Assuntos
Cristais Líquidos/química , Absorção , Crisenos/química , Transporte de Elétrons , Fluorenos/química , Luz , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação Molecular
17.
J Phys Chem B ; 115(47): 13809-16, 2011 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21977967

RESUMO

Future applications of discotic liquid crystals (DLCs) in electronic devices depend on a marked improvement of their conductivity properties. We present a study of 2,3,6,7,10,11-hexakishexyloxytriphenylene (HAT6) and show how local conformation, structural defects, and thermal motions on the picosecond time scale strongly affect the efficient charge transport in DLCs. A direct and successful comparison of classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations with both neutron powder diffraction and quasielastic neutron scattering (QENS) give a full insight into the structural and dynamical properties of HAT6. The local conformation of HAT6 molecules is characterized by a mutual rotation (twist) angle of about 37° and typically a mutual aromatic-core distance of 3.4 Å instead of the average distance of 3.65 Å usually quoted. We show that a considerable number of structural traps is present in HAT6, which persist at the picosecond time scale. We find that the high disorder in the mutual positions of the aromatic cores is an important factor contributing to the limited conductivity of HAT6 compared to larger DLCs.

18.
J Am Chem Soc ; 133(8): 2691-705, 2011 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21302927

RESUMO

The antiferromagnetic structures of the layered oxychalcogenides (Sr(1-x)Ba(x))(2)CoO(2)Cu(2)S(2) (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) have been determined by powder neutron diffraction. In these compounds Co(2+) is coordinated by four oxide ions in a square plane and two sulfide ions at the apexes of an extremely tetragonally elongated octahedron; the polyhedra share oxide vertexes. The magnetic reflections present in the diffraction patterns can in all cases be indexed using a √2a × âˆš2a × c expansion of the nuclear cell, and nearest-neighbor Co(2+) moments couple antiferromagnetically within the CoO(2) planes. The ordered magnetic moment of Co(2+) in Sr(2)CoO(2)Cu(2)S(2) (x = 0) is 3.8(1) µ(B) at 5 K, consistent with high-spin Co(2+) ions carrying three unpaired electrons and with an additional significant unquenched orbital component. Exposure of this compound to moist air is shown to result in copper deficiency and a decrease in the size of the ordered moment to about 2.5 µ(B); there is a strong correlation between the size of the long-range ordered moment and the occupancy of the Cu site. Both the tetragonal elongation of the CoO(4)S(2) polyhedron and the ordered moment in (Sr(1-x)Ba(x))(2)CoO(2)Cu(2)S(2) increase with increasing Ba content, and in Ba(2)CoO(2)Cu(2)S(2), which has Co(2+) in an environment that is close to purely square planar, the ordered moment of 4.5(1) µ(B) at 5 K is over 0.7 µ(B) larger than that in Sr(2)CoO(2)Cu(2)S(2), so the unquenched orbital component in this case is even larger than that observed in octahedral Co(2+) systems such as CoO. The experimental observations of antiferromagnetic ground states and the changes in properties resulting from replacement of Sr by Ba are supported by ab initio calculations on Sr(2)CoO(2)Cu(2)S(2) and Ba(2)CoO(2)Cu(2)S(2). The large orbital moments in these systems apparently result from spin-orbit mixing of the unequally populated d(xz), d(yz), and d(z(2)) orbitals, which are reckoned to be almost degenerate when the CoO(4)S(2) polyhedron reaches its maximum elongation. The magnitudes of the ordered moments in high-spin Co(2+) oxide, oxychalcogenide, and oxyhalide systems are shown to correlate well with the tetragonal elongation of the coordination environment. The large orbital moments lead to an apparently magnetostrictive distortion of the crystal structures below the Neél temperature, with the symmetry lowered from tetragonal I4/mmm to orthorhombic Immm and the size of the distortion correlating well with the size of the long-range ordered moment for all compositions and for temperature-dependent data gathered on Ba(2)CoO(2)Cu(2)S(2).


Assuntos
Cobalto/química , Magnetismo , Metais Alcalinoterrosos/química , Oxigênio/química , Sulfetos/química , Íons/química , Estrutura Molecular , Soluções , Sulfetos/síntese química
19.
J Phys Condens Matter ; 22(31): 315701, 2010 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21399367

RESUMO

To shed light on the role of magnetism on the superconducting mechanism of the oxygen-free FeAs pnictides, we investigate the effect of magnetic ordering on phonon dynamics in the low-temperature orthorhombic parent compounds, which present a spin density wave. The study covers both the 122 (AFe(2)As(2); A = Ca, Sr, Ba) and 1111 (AFeAsF; A = Ca, Sr) phases. We extend our recent work on the Ca (122 and 1111) and Ba (122) cases by treating, computationally and experimentally, the 122 and 1111 Sr compounds. The effect of magnetic ordering is investigated through detailed non-magnetic and magnetic lattice dynamical calculations. The comparison of the experimental and calculated phonon spectra shows that the magnetic interactions/ordering have to be included in order to reproduce well the measured density of states. This highlights a spin-correlated phonon behavior which is more pronounced than the apparently weak electron-phonon coupling estimated in these materials. Furthermore, there is no noticeable difference between phonon spectra of the 122 Ba and Sr, whereas there are substantial differences when comparing these to CaFe(2)As(2) originating from different aspects of structure and bonding.

20.
J Chem Theory Comput ; 2(4): 1106-11, 2006 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26633069

RESUMO

The ligand-field induced splitting energies of f-levels in lanthanide-containing elpasolites are derived using the first-principles universal orbital-free embedding formalism [Wesolowski and Warshel, J. Phys. Chem. 1993, 97, 8050]. In our previous work concerning chloroelpasolite lattice (Cs2NaLnCl6), embedded orbitals and their energies were obtained using an additional assumption concerning the localization of embedded orbitals on preselected atoms leading to rather good ligand-field parameters. In this work, the validity of the localization assumption is examined by lifting it. In variational calculations, each component of the total electron density (this of the cation and that of the ligands) spreads over the whole system. It is found that the corresponding electron densities remain localized around the cation and the ligands, respectively. The calculated splitting energies of f-orbitals in chloroelpasolites are not affected noticeably in the whole lanthanide series. The same computational procedure is used also for other elpasolite lattices (Cs2NaLnX6, where X=F, Br, and I) [Formula: see text] materials which have not been fabricated or for which the ligand-field splitting parameters are not available.

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