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1.
Molecules ; 27(9)2022 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35565974

RESUMO

The goal of this work is to evaluate the hop stems, a byproduct of hop cones production, as a potential source of cellulose. Hop stems contain up to 29% of cellulose. The cellulose isolation was conducted through the thermochemical treatment. After high-speed blending, the cellulose was characterized by 67% of crystallinity degree obtained from X-ray diffraction and median diameter of 6.7 nm obtained from atomic force microscopy imaging. The high-intensity ultrasonication (HIUS) was applied to reach further disintegration of cellulose fibers. The longer HIUS treatment resulted in decrease in crystallinity degree even up to 60% and decrease in the fiber diameter up to 4 nm. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectra showed that HIUS treatment led to changes in intermolecular hydrogen bonds. The stability of cellulose dispersions versus length of HIUS treatment was monitored over 14 days with back dynamic light scattering and laser Doppler electrophoresis methods. Obtained results are evidence that the hop stems are a potential source of cellulose and that it is possible to obtain stable dispersions after HIUS treatment. This was the first time that the properties of hop cellulose have been described so extensively and in detail after the use of HIUS treatment.

2.
J Sci Food Agric ; 2022 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35445406

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Okra pods contain heat-sensitive substances, such as phenolic compounds and other phytochemicals that can be degraded when okra pods are subjected to heat treatment. The understanding of the impact of high humidity hot air impingement blanching (HHAIB) on the changes in physicochemical properties of polysaccharides and phytochemicals of okra pods is of great importance because over-blanching may result in cell membrane disruption and changes in biologically active compounds under prolonged exposure to the thermal treatment. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the effect of HHAIB on the changes in physicochemical properties of pectins and phytochemicals extracted from okra pods. RESULTS: Both the HHAIB time and method of extraction influenced their physicochemical characteristics and biological activity. Pectin fractions subjected to HHAIB were composed of polygalacturonic acid, rhamnogalacturonan, glucomannan, galactan, mannose, arabinose, rhamnose, calcium pectate and arabinogalactan. The contents of total phenolics, total flavonoids and antioxidant activity of extracts mostly increased during HHAIB (i.e. up to 19.0%, 13.2% and 35.3%, respectively). However, HHAIB reduced the chlorophyll-a (up to 55.7%) and lycopene (up to 52.6%) contents of okra pods. CONCLUSION: The acquired knowledge may be useful for better understanding and optimization of technologies based on HHAIB treatment. The HHAIB treated okra can be a promising natural alternative in different applications, including its use as a replacement of some ingredients in food or non-food systems as a result of richness in polysaccharides and polyphenols, as well as high antioxidant properties. © 2022 Society of Chemical Industry.

3.
Carbohydr Polym ; 278: 118909, 2022 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34973730

RESUMO

Rhamnogalacturonan I (RG-I) belongs to the pectin family and is found in many plant cell wall types at different growth stages. It plays a significant role in cell wall and plant biomechanics and shows a gelling ability in solution. However, it has a significantly more complicated structure than smooth homogalacturonan (HG) and its variability due to plant source and physiological state contributes to the fact that RG-I's structure and function is still not so well known. Since functionality is a product of structure, we present a comprehensive review concerning the chemical structure and conformation of RG-I, its functions in plants and properties in solutions.


Assuntos
Parede Celular/química , Pectinas/metabolismo , Plantas/química , Configuração de Carboidratos , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Pectinas/química , Plantas/metabolismo , Soluções
4.
Molecules ; 27(2)2022 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35056815

RESUMO

The storage of plant samples as well as sample preparation for extraction have a significant impact on the profile of metabolites, however, these factors are often overlooked during experiments on vegetables or fruit. It was hypothesized that parameters such as sample storage (freezing) and sample pre-treatment methods, including the comminution technique or applied enzyme inhibition methods, could significantly influence the extracted volatile metabolome. Significant changes were observed in the volatile profile of broccoli florets frozen in liquid nitrogen at -20 °C. Those differences were mostly related to the concentration of nitriles and aldehydes. Confocal microscopy indicated some tissue deterioration in the case of slow freezing (-20 °C), whereas the structure of tissue, frozen in liquid nitrogen, was practically intact. Myrosinase activity assay proved that the enzyme remains active after freezing. No pH deviation was noted after sample storage - this parameter did not influence the activity of enzymes. Tissue fragmentation and enzyme-inhibition techniques applied prior to the extraction influenced both the qualitative and quantitative composition of the volatile metabolome of broccoli.


Assuntos
Brassica/metabolismo , Flores/metabolismo , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Congelamento , Glicosídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Metaboloma , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Brassica/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/metabolismo
5.
Food Chem ; 381: 132151, 2022 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35065837

RESUMO

Strawberry is very perishable fruit with rapid postharvest loss of quality and high susceptibility to microbial infections. In this work we study pectin modifications and microbiota and mycobiota composition in strawberry in conventional and organic cultivation systems. The enzymatic activity during postharvest storage of both types of strawberry was divided at the fifth day of storage into two phases: postharvest changes and rotting. Pectin molecules extracted from organic strawberries were longer and more branched compared to the conventional strawberries; however a more noticeable reorganization of molecular structure occurred. The sequential action of the pectinolytic enzymes had a direct effect on the molecular structure of pectin fractions. The observed changes in pectin structure relate to the synergistic activity of pectinolytic enzymes and some microorganisms. The organic system was characterized by a greater number and variety of bacteria and fungi during storage as compared to the conventional system.


Assuntos
Fragaria , Microbiota , Fragaria/química , Frutas/química , Fungos/genética , Pectinas/química
6.
Food Chem ; 373(Pt B): 131487, 2022 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34741970

RESUMO

Polyphenols include flavonoids, phenolic acids, tannins and lignans which are known to have antioxidant, UV protection and antimicrobial properties. Among them the most commonly investigated are flavonoids and phenolic acids, which, due to their plant origin, may interact with the plant cell wall (PCW) components, specifically with its polysaccharides. Knowledge concerning the nature of the interactions between these components may be used in the production of functional food or in the development of food packaging materials with additional properties. The content of polyphenols in such products is responsible for their colour and taste, and may also act as a natural preservative. On the other hand, the PCW components may have protective role of polyphenols which has impact on their release in the human digestive system. Therefore, this review is an attempt to summarize the current state of knowledge that emerged after 2017 concerning the interaction of PCW components with polyphenols, with a particular focus on hemicellulose and pectin.


Assuntos
Polifenóis , Polissacarídeos , Adsorção , Antioxidantes , Parede Celular , Flavonoides , Humanos
7.
Front Plant Sci ; 12: 780099, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34917112

RESUMO

As the market indicates a growing interest in organically grown fruit, there is a need for biostimulants to counter the adverse effects of pathogenic fungi and fungal-like-pathogens. Four microbial pathogens (Botrytis cinerea, Verticillium sp., Phytophthora sp., and Colletotrichum sp.) which are the most often causes of strawberry diseases were selected. Five kinds of biostimulants (C1, C2, C3, C4, and C5) containing bacterial consortia were developed to combat the pathogens. The antagonistic effect of selected microorganisms against strawberry pathogens was observed. The effectiveness of various beneficial bacteria in combating fungal pathogens of cv. Honeoye strawberries was compared and the impact of their activity on fruit quality was assessed. The most significant effect on the strawberry firmness was found for the C2 consortium, which provided the strawberries infected with the pathogens group (MIX: B. cinerea, Verticillium sp., Phytophthora sp., and Colletotrichum sp.) with a 140% increase in maximum load in a puncture test compared to the positive control (C0). Strawberries contaminated with Phytophthora sp. after the application of Consortium C4 (C4) showed the largest increase (127%) in soluble solid content (SSC) when compared to the C0. Fruit contaminated with Colletotrichum sp. and B. cinerea after the application of C2 and Consortium 5 (C5), respectively, had the highest levels of anthocyanins and total phenolic content, when compared to C0. The largest increase, which reached as high as 25%, in D-galacturonic acid content was observed for the group of pathogens after Consortium 1 (C1) application. The extraction of strawberry pectin allowed for the study of the rheological properties of pectin solutions; on this basis, strawberry pectin from the control (NC) was distinguished as it showed the highest viscosity (0.137-0.415 Pas). Taking into account the individual effects of bacteria on strawberry pathogenic fungi and fungal-like-pathogens, it is possible to reduce the adverse effects of fungal disease and to improve the properties of strawberries by selecting the appropriate bacterial consortium. Interactions between microorganisms are often complex and not fully understood, which suggests the need for further research in this direction.

8.
Carbohydr Polym ; 273: 118598, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34560998

RESUMO

The self-assembly and gelation of low-methoxyl diluted alkali-soluble pectin (LM DASP) from pear fruit (Pyrus communis L. cv. Conference) was studied in water and salt solutions (NaCl and CaCl2, constant ionic strength) without pH adjustment at 20 °C. The samples at different LM DASP concentrations were characterized using rheological tests, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, dual-angle dynamic light scattering and atomic force microscopy. LM DASP from pear fruit (Pyrus communis L.) showed gelling ability. The indices (aggregation index and shape factor) based on light scattering may be useful for the characterization of structural changes in polysaccharide suspension, particularly for the determination of a gel point. The results obtained may be important for the food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries where pectin is used as a texturizer, an encapsulating agent, a carrier of bioactive substances or a gelling agent.


Assuntos
Géis/química , Pectinas/química , Pyrus/química , Cloreto de Cálcio/química , Reologia , Cloreto de Sódio/química , Soluções/química , Água/química
9.
Front Plant Sci ; 12: 711838, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34394168

RESUMO

Gall formation on the belowground parts of plants infected with Plasmodiophora brassicae is the result of extensive host cellular reprogramming. The development of these structures is a consequence of increased cell proliferation followed by massive enlargement of cells colonized with the pathogen. Drastic changes in cellular growth patterns create local deformities in the roots and hypocotyl giving rise to mechanical tensions within the tissue of these organs. Host cell wall extensibility and recomposition accompany the growth of the gall and influence pathogen spread and also pathogen life cycle progression. Demethylation of pectin within the extracellular matrix may play an important role in P. brassicae-driven hypertrophy of host underground organs. Through proteomic analysis of the cell wall, we identified proteins accumulating in the galls developing on the underground parts of Arabidopsis thaliana plants infected with P. brassicae. One of the key proteins identified was the pectin methylesterase (PME18); we further characterized its expression and conducted functional and anatomic studies in the knockout mutant and used Raman spectroscopy to study the status of pectin in P. brassicae-infected galls. We found that late stages of gall formation are accompanied with increased levels of PME18. We have also shown that the massive enlargement of cells colonized with P. brassicae coincides with decreases in pectin methylation. In pme18-2 knockout mutants, P. brassicae could still induce demethylation; however, the galls in this line were smaller and cellular expansion was less pronounced. Alteration in pectin demethylation in the host resulted in changes in pathogen distribution and slowed down disease progression. To conclude, P. brassicae-driven host organ hypertrophy observed during clubroot disease is accompanied by pectin demethylation in the extracellular matrix. The pathogen hijacks endogenous host mechanisms involved in cell wall loosening to create an optimal cellular environment for completion of its life cycle and eventual release of resting spores facilitated by degradation of demethylated pectin polymers.

10.
Cells ; 10(8)2021 07 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34440649

RESUMO

Arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) are a class of heavily glycosylated proteins occurring as a structural element of the cell wall-plasma membrane continuum. The features of AGPs described earlier suggest that the proteins may be implicated in plant adaptation to stress conditions in important developmental phases during the plant reproduction process. In this paper, the microscopic and immunocytochemical studies conducted using specific antibodies (JIM13, JIM15, MAC207) recognizing the carbohydrate chains of AGPs showed significant changes in the AGP distribution in female and male reproductive structures during the first stages of Bellis perennis development. In typical conditions, AGPs are characterized by a specific persistent spatio-temporal pattern of distribution. AGP epitopes are visible in the cell walls of somatic cells and in the megasporocyte walls, megaspores, and embryo sac at every stage of formation. During development in stress conditions, the AGP localization is altered, and AGPs entirely disappear in the embryo sac wall. In the case of male development, AGPs are present in the tapetum, microsporocytes, and microspores in normal conditions. In response to development at lower temperature, AGPs are localized in the common wall of microspores and in mature pollen grains. Additionally, they are accumulated in remnants of tapetum cells.


Assuntos
Asteraceae/metabolismo , Temperatura Baixa , Galactanos/metabolismo , Gametogênese Vegetal , Mucoproteínas/metabolismo , Óvulo Vegetal/metabolismo , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional , Asteraceae/embriologia , Asteraceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Glicosilação , Imuno-Histoquímica , Microscopia Confocal , Óvulo Vegetal/embriologia , Óvulo Vegetal/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo
11.
Carbohydr Polym ; 256: 117566, 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33483067

RESUMO

This study presents a novel model of homogalacturonan (HG) based on the dissipative particle dynamics (DPD). The model was applied to investigate the mechanism of self-aggregation of low-methoxylated homogalacturonan in aqueous solutions in the absence of cations. The coarse-grained model provided new insights into the structural features of HG aggregates and networks in aqueous solutions. Depending on the properties and concentration of polysaccharides, two major patterns of self-assembly were observed for HG - ellipsoidal aggregates and a continuous three-dimensional network. Simulations showed that a decrease in the degree of dissociation of HG results in a higher rate of self-aggregation, as well as facilitating the formation of larger assemblies or thicker nanofilaments depending on the type of final self-assembly. Simulations of polysaccharides of different chain lengths suggested the existence of a structural threshold for the formation of a spatial network for HG consisting of less than 35 GalA units.


Assuntos
Ácidos Hexurônicos/química , Pectinas/química , Polissacarídeos/química , Calibragem , Ácidos Carboxílicos/química , Cátions , Ligação de Hidrogênio , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Estrutura Molecular , Tamanho da Partícula , Água/química
12.
Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf ; 20(1): 1101-1117, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33331080

RESUMO

Pectin is a heteropolysaccharide abundant in the cell wall of plants and is obtained mainly from fruit (citrus and apple), thus its properties are particularly prone to changes occurring during ripening process. Properties of pectin depend on the string-like structure (conformation, stiffness) of the molecules that determines their mutual interaction and with the surrounding environment. Therefore, in this review the primary, secondary, and structures of higher levels of pectin chains are discussed in relation to external factors including crosslinking mechanisms. The review shows that the primary structure of pectin is relatively well known, however, we still know little about the conformation and properties of the more realistic systems of higher orders involving side chains, functional groups, and complexes of pectin domains. In particular, there is lack of knowledge on the influence of postharvest changes and extraction method on the primary and secondary structure of pectin that would affect conformation in a given environment and assembly to higher structural levels. Exploring the above-mentioned issues will allow to improve our understanding of pectin functionality and will help to tailor new functionalities for the food industry based on natural but often biologically variable source. The review also demonstrates that atomic force microscopy is a very convenient and adequate tool for the evaluation of pectin conformation since it allows for the relatively straightforward stretching of the pectin molecule in order to measure the force-extension curve which is directly related to its stiffness or flexibility.


Assuntos
Citrus , Malus , Frutas , Pectinas , Polissacarídeos
13.
Hortic Res ; 7(1): 176, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33328442

RESUMO

Arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) are proteoglycans challenging researchers for decades. However, despite the extremely interesting polydispersity of their structure and essential application potential, studies of AGPs in fruit are limited, and only a few groups deal with this scientific subject. Here, we summarise the results of pioneering studies on AGPs in fruit tissue with their structure, specific localization pattern, stress factors influencing their presence, and a focus on recent advances. We discuss the properties of AGPs, i.e., binding calcium ions, ability to aggregate, adhesive nature, and crosslinking with other cell wall components that may also be implicated in fruit metabolism. The aim of this review is an attempt to associate well-known features and properties of AGPs with their putative roles in fruit ripening. The putative physiological significance of AGPs might provide additional targets of regulation for fruit developmental programme. A comprehensive understanding of the AGP expression, structure, and untypical features may give new information for agronomic, horticulture, and renewable biomaterial applications.

14.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 20621, 2020 11 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33244134

RESUMO

Arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) are ubiquitous cell wall and plasma membrane components and are characterised by extensive glycosylation and heterogeneity of their carbohydrate and protein units. The aim of the study was to evaluate the structural features of AGPs present in apple fruits at different stages of the ripening process. AGPs were extracted using the Yariv reagent and examined using SDS-PAGE, immunoblotting, FT-IR, and AFM. In situ analysis, immunofluorescence (CLSM) and immunogold-labelling (TEM), were performed. We demonstrated that AGPs were indeed present in apple fruits at the different stages of the ripening process. The changes in the amount (1.52-2.08 mg g-1), diameter (152.73-75.05 nm), molecular mass (50-250 kDa), and distribution in the cell of AGPs demonstrate their variable presence and changeable structure during the ripening process. We propose specific wavenumbers, i.e. 1265 cm-1, 1117 cm-1, and 960 cm-1, which could be assigned to AGPs. The immunofluorescence and immunogold-labelling results indicate that the JIM13 antibody is the most characteristic for AGPs in apple fruits. This study quantitatively demonstrated for the first time that AGP accumulation occurs in ripe fruits, which is supported by the highest AGPs content, the highest molecular mass, and the appearance of a specific distribution pattern at the cellular level.


Assuntos
Frutas/metabolismo , Mucoproteínas/metabolismo , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Glucosídeos/metabolismo , Malus/metabolismo , Floroglucinol/análogos & derivados , Floroglucinol/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier/métodos
15.
Molecules ; 25(18)2020 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32967223

RESUMO

The high quality and long shelf life of strawberry fruit are largely dependent on the cultivation method. The goal of this experiment was to study the effect of different cultivation methods on molecular structure and rheological properties of pectin extracted from strawberry quality parameters during cold storage. Three methods of cultivation of strawberry cv. Honeoye were tested: organic cultivation on raised beds, organic cultivation with the flat-planted method and conventional cultivation with the flat-planted method. The nanostructure of pectin (AFM), its chemical structure (FT-IR) and rheological properties were studied. The fruits were also tested by size, dry matter, firmness, acidity and the content of soluble solids, anthocyanin, phenolics, vitamin C and galacturonic acid. Pectin isolated from organic strawberries was more rapidly degraded than conventional strawberry pectin, which limits the possibilities for their processing and use as gelling or stabilizing agents at 20 °C. The differences in fruit quality were particularly noticeable with respect to the anthocyanin content, which was significantly higher for organic strawberry. The organic fruit also had better sensory properties because of its lower acidity and higher soluble solid content (SSC). These and other results from this experiment showed that strawberries produced by organic farming methods had better biochemical properties compared to conventional fruit; however, pectin transformation undergone faster limits their further technological applications.


Assuntos
Temperatura Baixa , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Fragaria/química , Fragaria/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pectinas/química , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Fenômenos Mecânicos
16.
Biology (Basel) ; 9(8)2020 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32823888

RESUMO

Arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) are constituents of the cell wall-plasma membrane continuum in fruit tissue. The aim of the study was to characterise AGPs contained in fruit by determination of their chemical structure and morphological properties. The results were obtained from in and ex situ investigations and a comparative analysis of AGPs present in Malus × domestica fruit at different stages of ripening from green fruit through the mature stage to over-ripening during fruit storage. The HPLC and colorimetric methods were used for analyses of the composition of monosaccharides and proteins in AGPs extracted from fruit. We have found that AGPs from fruit mainly consists of carbohydrate chains composed predominantly of arabinose, galactose, glucose, galacturonic acid, and xylose. The protein moiety accounts for 3.15-4.58%, which depends on the various phases of ripening. Taken together, our results show that the structural and morphological properties of AGPs and calcium concentration in AGPs are related to the progress of ripening, which is correlated with proper fruit cell wall assembly. In line with the existing knowledge, our data confirmed the typical carbohydrate composition of AGPs and may be the basis for studies regarding their presumed properties of binding calcium ions.

17.
Carbohydr Polym ; 245: 116513, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32718623

RESUMO

The silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) can exhibit different optical properties depending on their size and shape as a result of synthesis method and the stabilizer used. In this research the synthesis of AgNPs in the presence of nanocellulose obtained from carrot pomace was investigated. The influence of silver nitrate concentration, temperature and mechanical agitation on size and shape of AgNPs was studied. The mixing of reagents during synthesis, regardless temperature, led to obtain AgNPs of various sizes and shapes. It was confirmed by different colors of samples with absorbance maximum from 334 to 779 nm, the transmission electron microscopy images and dynamic light scattering results. In unmixed samples only spherical nanoparticles with absorbance maximum at 408 nm were observed. Obtained results have demonstrated that mechanical agitation and an appropriate silver nitrate concentration combined with stabilizing effect of nanocellulose allow to obtain AgNPs in different shapes and sizes.


Assuntos
Celulose/química , Daucus carota/química , Excipientes/química , Química Verde/métodos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Nitrato de Prata/química , Técnicas de Química Sintética/métodos , Difusão Dinâmica da Luz , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Tamanho da Partícula , Temperatura
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(11)2020 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32517129

RESUMO

The enzyme driven changes in plant cell wall structure during fruit ripening result in debranching, depolymerization and solubilization of pectin polysaccharides, which has an effect in terms of the postharvest quality losses in fruit. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) has revealed that diluted alkali soluble pectins (DASP) from fruit and vegetables have an interesting tendency to self-assemble into regular structures. However, the mechanism is not yet fully understood. The current study is aimed at investigating the role of neutral sugars, namely galactose, rhamnose and arabinose in the formation of the branched structure of DASP. ß-galactosidase, α-L-rhamnosidase and α-L-arabinofuranosidase enzymes were used for the treatment of DASP extracted from Golden Delicious apple flesh (Malus domestica cv. Golden Delicious). The effects of the selective degradation of pectic polysaccharides after 15, 30, 60, 90 and 120 min of incubation were observed using AFM. The α-L-rhamnosidase enzyme activity on pectin extracted with Na2CO3 did not cause any visible or measurable degradation of the molecular structure. The moderate effects of ß-galactosidase enzymatic treatment suggested the possible role of galactose in the branching of DASP molecules deposited on mica. Data obtained for α-L-arabinofuranosidase indicated the crucial role of arabinose in the formation and preservation of the highly branched structure of the DASP fraction.


Assuntos
Frutas/química , Glicosídeo Hidrolases/química , Malus/química , Pectinas/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , beta-Galactosidase/química , Carbonatos/química , Hidrólise , Microscopia de Força Atômica
19.
Polymers (Basel) ; 12(4)2020 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32260337

RESUMO

In this research, it was proposed to use carrot cellulose nanofibrils (CCNF) isolated from carrot pomace modified with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) as a filler of polylactic acid (PLA) composites matrix. The new procedure was based on two steps: first, the preparation of nanocellulose modified with metal nanoparticles, and then the combination with PLA. Two concentrations-0.25 mM and 2 mM-of AgNO3 were used to modify CCNF. Then, PLA was mixed with the filler (CCNF/AgNPs) in two proportions 99:1 and 96:4. The influence of CCNF/AgNPs on mechanical, hydrophilic, thermal, and antibacterial properties of obtained nanocomposites was evaluated. The greatest improvement of mechanical properties was observed for composite containing CCNF with 2 mM of AgNPs, which obtained the lowest Young modulus and highest strain at break. The degradation temperature was lower for PLA with CCNF/AgNPs, but crystallization temperature wasn't influenced. The addition of CCNF/AgNPs also increased hydrophilicity. The transmission rates of oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide also increased after the addition of CCNF/AgNPs to PLA. The antibacterial function against Escherichia coli and Bacillus cereus was obtained after the addition of AgNPs but only at the contact surface with the material made, suggesting the lack of migration of nanoparticles from the composite.

20.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 17428, 2019 11 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31758032

RESUMO

Arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) are cell components implicated in plant-microbe interactions. Despite the significance of AGPs in response to stress factors, their distribution during development of fungal disease in fruit is unknown. In our work, in situ analysis of AGP arrangement in fruit inoculated with Penicillium spinulosum during the consecutive days of infection development was carried out. For immunolocalization of AGPs, samples were incubated with JIM13, MAC207, LM2, and LM14 antibodies recognizing the AGP carbohydrate moieties. To analyse cell walls without proper action of AGP, an experiment with ß-glucosyl Yariv reagent specifically binding AGPs was performed. The results showed an increase of signal fluorescence in the fruit after 16 days of fungal disease. Higher amounts of the examined epitopes were observed in the infection-altered sites of the fruit, in close vicinity to a surface filled by fungal spores. The results indicate that the Yariv reagent treatment induced progress of the fungal disease. Changes in the AGP presence during the fungal disease confirmed their involvement in defence against pathogen attack in fruit.


Assuntos
Frutas/metabolismo , Frutas/microbiologia , Imuno-Histoquímica , Malus/metabolismo , Malus/microbiologia , Mucoproteínas/metabolismo , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Imuno-Histoquímica/métodos , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo
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