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1.
Trials ; 22(1): 82, 2021 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33482894

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prevention of neurodevelopmental impairment due to preterm birth is a major health challenge. Despite advanced obstetric and neonatal care, to date there are few neuroprotective molecules available. Melatonin has been shown to have anti-oxidant/anti-inflammatory effects and to reduce brain damage, mainly after hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy. The planned study will be the first aiming to evaluate the capacity of melatonin to mitigate brain impairment due to premature birth. METHOD: In our planned prospective, multicenter, double-blind, randomized vs placebo study, we will recruit, within 96 h of birth, 60 preterm newborns with a gestational age ≤ 29 weeks + 6 days; these infants will be randomly allocated to oral melatonin, 3 mg/kg/day, or placebo for 15 days. After the administration period, we will measure plasma levels of malondialdehyde, a lipid peroxidation product considered an early biological marker of melatonin treatment efficacy (primary outcome). At term-equivalent age, we will evaluate neurological status (through cerebral ultrasound, cerebral magnetic resonance imaging, vision and hearing evaluations, clinical neurological assessment, and screening for retinopathy of prematurity) as well as the incidence of bronchodysplasia and sepsis. We will also monitor neurodevelopmental outcome during the first 24 months of corrected age (using the modified Fagan Test of Infant Intelligence at 4-6 months and standardized neurological and developmental assessments at 24 months). DISCUSSION: Preterm birth survivors often present long-term neurodevelopmental sequelae, such as motor, learning, social-behavioral, and communication problems. We aim to assess the role of melatonin as a neuroprotectant during the first weeks of extrauterine life, when preterm infants are unable to produce it spontaneously. This approach is based on the supposition that its anti-oxidant mechanism could be useful in preventing neurodevelopmental impairment. Considering the short- and long-term morbidities related to preterm birth, and the financial and social costs of the care of preterm infants, both at birth and over time, we suggest that melatonin administration could lead to considerable saving of resources. This would be the first study addressing the role of melatonin in very low birth weight preterm newborns, and it could provide a basis for further studies on melatonin as a neuroprotection strategy in this vulnerable population. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04235673 . Prospectively registered on 22 January 2020.

2.
Ann Neurol ; 2021 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33459417

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy (PML) is still burdened by high mortality in a subset of patients, such as those affected by hematological malignancies. The aim of this study was to analyze the safety and evaluate preliminary efficacy of polyomavirus JC (JCPyV)-specific T cell therapy in a cohort of hematological patients with PML. METHODS: Between 2014 and 2019, nine patients with a diagnosis of "definite PML" according to the 2013 consensus showing progressive clinical deterioration received JCPyV-specific T cells (JCPyV-LTC). Cell lines were expanded from autologous or allogenic peripheral blood mononuclear cells by stimulation with JCPyV antigen-derived peptides. RESULTS: None of the patients experienced treatment-related adverse events. In the evaluable patients, an increase in the frequency of circulating JCPyV-specific lymphocytes was observed, with a decrease or clearance of JCPyV viral load in cerebrospinal fluid. In responsive patients, transient appearance of punctate areas of contrast enhancement within, or close to, PML lesions was observed, that was interpreted as a sign of immune control and that regressed spontaneously without the need for steroid treatment. Six out of nine patients achieved PML control, with five alive and in good clinical conditions at their last follow-up. INTERPRETATION: Among other novel treatments, T cell therapy is emerging as a viable treatment option in patients with PML, particularly for those not amenable to restoration of specific immunity. Neurologists should be encouraged to refer PML patients to specialized centers to allow access to this treatment strategy. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

3.
Transplantation ; 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33273315

RESUMO

Variation in clinical practice affects veno-occlusive disease (VOD) management, mainly in patients who undergo allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Disputes about diagnostic criteria, treatment and prophylaxis, due to the lack of high-quality data, are at the base of this variability. With the aim of limiting inconsistency in clinical care, thus improving both patient outcomes and data collection reliability, the Italian Society of Stem cell transplant (GITMO) launched a collaborative effort to formulate recommendations based on integration of available evidence and expert's consensus. A systematic method, according to US National Institute of Health (NIH) guidelines and Italian National System for Guidelines, was used. Twenty-nine recommendations were approved with a strong (20) or weak (9) level of agreement, while 26 were rejected. In particular, the Panel pointed out the need to achieve an early diagnosis, encouraging the adoption of EBMT criteria and the prompt use of ultrasonography. Moreover, our experts strongly recommended in favour of prophylactic use of ursodeoxicolic acid (UDCA). As soon as a VOD diagnosis is established, treatment with defibrotide should be started for at least 21d. A number of areas of uncertainty, particularly concerning risk stratification and use of diagnostic tools such as elastography has been identified and discussed.

4.
Front Immunol ; 11: 567531, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33178192

RESUMO

Dramatic progress in the outcome of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) from alternative sources in pediatric patients has been registered over the past decade, providing a chance to cure children and adolescents in need of a transplant. Despite these advances, transplant-related mortality due to infectious complications remains a major problem, principally reflecting the inability of the depressed host immune system to limit infection replication and dissemination. In addition, development of multiple infections, a common occurrence after high-risk allo-HSCT, has important implications for overall survival. Prophylactic and preemptive pharmacotherapy is limited by toxicity and, to some extent, by lack of efficacy in breakthrough infections. T-cell reconstitution is a key requirement for effective infection control after HSCT. Consequently, T-cell immunotherapeutic strategies to boost pathogen-specific immunity may complement or represent an alternative to drug treatments. Pioneering proof of principle studies demonstrated that the administration of donor-derived T cells directed to human herpesviruses, on the basis of viral DNA monitoring, could effectively restore specific immunity and confer protection against viral infections. Since then, the field has evolved with implementation of techniques able to hasten production, allow for selection of specific cell subsets, and target multiple pathogens. This review provides a brief overview of current cellular therapeutic strategies to prevent or treat pathogen-related complications after HSCT, research carried out to increase efficacy and safety, including T-cell production for treatment of infections in patients with virus-naïve donors, results from clinical trials, and future developments to widen adoptive T-cell therapy access in the HSCT setting.

5.
Cancer Genet ; 2020 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33183999

RESUMO

We traced the neoplastic history (from 5 to 11 years of age) of a child with concomitant Fanconi anemia and Li-Fraumeni syndrome. Interestingly, the patient developed a highly malignant T-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), which does not represent the typical tumor type in the two aforementioned syndromes, presumably due to the underlying genomic instability. By using a combination of molecular and immunohistochemical approaches, we characterized the accumulation of multiple genetic alterations in a single patient, with both germline (parentally inherited biallelic FANCA variants and a likely de novo nonsense variant in TP53) and somatic (TP53 loss of heterozygosity and 5q interstitial deletion) contributions. Our findings support the interplay of TP53 and FANC genes in DNA damage response pathways and further highlight the genetic heterogeneity of lymphomas as well as the contribution of genomic instability to lymphomagenesis.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33188579

RESUMO

Anti-inflammatory and immune-modulatory therapies have been proposed for the treatment of COVID-19 and its most serious complications. Among others, the use of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) is under investigation given their well-documented anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties. However, some critical issues regarding the possibility that MSCs could be infected by the virus have been raised. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and type II transmembrane serine protease (TMPRSS2) are the main host cell factors for the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) entry but so far it is unclear if human MSCs express or do not these two proteins. To elucidate these important aspects, we evaluated if human MSCs from both fetal and adult tissues constitutively express ACE2 and TMPRSS2 and, most importantly, if they can be infected by SARS-CoV-2. We evaluated human MSCs derived from amnios, cord blood, cord tissue, adipose tissue and bone marrow. ACE2 and TMPRSS2 were expressed by the SARS-CoV-2-permissive human pulmonary Calu-3 cell line but not by all the MSCs tested. MSCs were then exposed to SARS-CoV-2 wild strain without evidence of cytopathic effect. Moreover, we also excluded that the MSCs could be infected without showing lytic effects since their conditioned medium after SARS-CoV-2 exposure did not contain viral particles. Our data, demonstrating that MSCs derived from different human tissues are not permissive to SARS-CoV-2 infection, support the safety of MSCs as potential therapy for COVID-19. © AlphaMed Press 2020 SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: Human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) are currently under investigation for the treatment of COVID-19. However, the potential safety profile of hMSCs in this context has never been defined since none has described if they express ACE2 and TMPRSS2, the main host cell factors for SARS-CoV-2 entry, and if they can be infected by SARS-CoV-2. We provide the first evidence that ACE2 and TMPRSS2 are not expressed in hMSCs derived from both adult and fetal human tissues and, most importantly, that hMSCs are not permissive to SARS-CoV-2 infection. These results support the safety of MSCs as potential therapy for COVID-19.

7.
Front Immunol ; 11: 567020, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33042147

RESUMO

Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLDs) are life-threatening complications of iatrogenic immune impairment after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). In the pediatric setting, the majority of PTLDs are related to the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection, and present as B-cell lymphoproliferations. Although considered rare events, PTLDs have been increasingly observed with the widening application of HSCT from alternative sources, including cord blood and HLA-haploidentical stem cell grafts, and the use of novel agents for the prevention and treatment of rejection and graft-vs.-host disease. The higher frequency initially paralleled a poor outcome, due to limited therapeutic options, and scarcity of controlled trials in a rare disease context. In the last 2 decades, insight into the relationship between EBV and the immune system, and advances in early diagnosis, monitoring and treatment have changed the approach to the management of PTLDs after HSCT, and significantly ameliorated the prognosis. In this review, we summarize literature on the impact of combined viro-immunologic assessment on PTLD management, describe the various strategies for PTLD prevention and preemptive/curative treatment, and discuss the potential of novel immune-based therapies in the containment of this malignant complication.

8.
Ital J Pediatr ; 46(1): 142, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33008445

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is currently rare in children and they seem to have a milder disease course and better prognosis than adults. However, SARS-Cov-2 pandemic has indirectly caused problems in pediatric medical assistance. In view of this we wanted to draw a picture of what happened during health emergency and analyze future prospects for restarting. METHODS: We involved the Italian pediatric scientific societies institutionally collected in the Italian Federation of Associations and Scientific Societies of the Pediatric Area (FIARPED); We sent a questionnaire to all scientific societies about the pediatric care activity during the COVID-19 emergency and future perspectives for the phase of post-containment. RESULTS: The analysis of the questionnaires showed significant decrease of:admission, outpatient visits and specialist consultancy activities during the COVID-19 emergency, primarily linked to the fear of infection. Instead it was increased the serious degree of diseases admitted. Most of scientific societies maintained the relationship with chronic patients through some form of telemedicine, reporting a strong positive opinion about this modality. Finally showed the need to give life a new approach for hospitalizations and outpatient visits through a greater use of telemedicine, educational programs on families and a more decisive role of family pediatricians. CONCLUSIONS: Our study highlighted many aspects that can be improved in pediatric care. We think that It will be necessary a new shared strategy to improve the management and continuity of care for pediatric patients, primarily developing a network of collaboration between families, family pediatrician and hospitals and by enhancing the use of new methods of telecommunications.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Controle de Infecções/organização & administração , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Quarentena/organização & administração , Inquéritos e Questionários , Telemedicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Assistência Ambulatorial/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Planejamento de Assistência ao Paciente/organização & administração , Pediatria/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Sociedades Médicas
9.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 67(11): e28649, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32893953

RESUMO

The study reports the treatment feasibility, and secondly efficacy, of a novel chemotherapy regimen, which adds vinorelbine to the ifosfamide-vincristine-actinomycin-D combination (VIVA regimen), used in four patients with high-risk rhabdomyosarcoma. All patients received nine cycles of the VIVA regimen followed by maintenance chemotherapy with vinorelbine and cyclophosphamide. All patients experienced significant hematological toxicity, but no other major complications (in particular neurotoxicity) or required treatment dose modifications. We observed a major response after three cycles in all patients, and they remained alive after a median follow up of 11 months from diagnosis.

10.
J Clin Immunol ; 40(7): 1026-1037, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32803625

RESUMO

Primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) are heterogeneous disorders, characterized by variable clinical and immunological features. National PID registries offer useful insights on the epidemiology, diagnosis, and natural history of these disorders. In 1999, the Italian network for primary immunodeficiencies (IPINet) was established. We report on data collected from the IPINet registry after 20 years of activity. A total of 3352 pediatric and adult patients affected with PIDs are registered in the database. In Italy, a regional distribution trend of PID diagnosis was observed. Based on the updated IUIS classification of 2019, PID distribution in Italy showed that predominantly antibody deficiencies account for the majority of cases (63%), followed by combined immunodeficiencies with associated or syndromic features (22.5%). The overall age at diagnosis was younger for male patients. The minimal prevalence of PIDs in Italy resulted in 5.1 per 100.000 habitants. Mortality was similar to other European registries (4.2%). Immunoglobulin replacement treatment was prescribed to less than one third of the patient cohort. Collectively, this is the first comprehensive description of the PID epidemiology in Italy.

11.
J Pediatr Genet ; 9(3): 186-192, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32714620

RESUMO

Complete interferon-γ receptor 1 deficiency is a monogenic primary immunodeficiency caused by IFNGR1 germline defects, with autosomal dominant or recessive inheritance, which results in invasive mycobacterial diseases with varying degrees of severity. Most of the autosomal recessive IFNGR1 mutations are homozygous loss-of-function single-nucleotide variants, whereas large genomic deletions and compound heterozygosity have been very rarely reported. Herein we describe the clinical presentation, diagnosis, and successful treatment with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation of a child with disseminated Mycobacterium avium infection due to compound heterozygosity for a subpolymorphic copy number variation and a novel splice-site variant.

12.
Blood ; 136(10): 1201-1211, 2020 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32614953

RESUMO

Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a primary immunodeficiency resulting in life-threatening infections and inflammatory complications. Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) can cure the disease, but the indication to transplant remains controversial. We performed a retrospective multicenter study of 712 patients with CGD who underwent allo-HCT transplantation from March 1993 through December 2018. We studied 635 children (aged <18 years) and 77 adults. Median follow-up was 45 months. Median age at transplantation was 7 years (range, 0.1-48.6). Kaplan-Meier estimates of overall survival (OS) and event-free survival (EFS) at 3 years were 85.7% and 75.8%, respectively. In multivariate analysis, older age was associated with reduced survival and increased chronic graft-versus-host disease. Nevertheless, OS and EFS at 3 years for patients ≥18 years were 76% and 69%, respectively. Use of 1-antigen-mismatched donors was associated with reduced OS and EFS . No significant difference was found in OS, but a significantly reduced EFS was noted in the small group of patients who received a transplant from a donor with a >1 antigen mismatch. Choice of conditioning regimen did not influence OS or EFS. In summary, we report an excellent outcome after allo-HCT in CGD, with low incidence of graft failure and mortality in all ages. Older patients and recipients of 1-antigen-mismatched grafts had a less favorable outcome. Transplantation should be strongly considered at a younger age and particularly in the presence of a well-matched donor.

13.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(6)2020 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32570974

RESUMO

Adolescents and young adults (AYAs) represent a distinct group of patients. The objectives of this study were: To compare adolescent prognosis to that of younger children; to compare the results achieved with the two consecutive protocols in both age groups; to analyze clinical characteristics of children and adolescents. Between 1996 and 2017, 1759 patients aged <18 years were evaluable for the study. Five hundred and sixty patients were treated with the MH'96 protocol and 1199 with the LH2004 protocol. Four hundred and eighty-two were adolescents aged ≥15 years. Patients in both age groups showed very favorable prognoses. In particular, OS improved with the LH2004 protocol, especially in the adolescent group and in the low risk group, where radiation therapy was spared. Adolescent characteristics differed significantly from the children's according to sex, histology, and the presence of symptoms. Remarkable is the decrease both in mixed cellularity in the children and in low stages in both age groups in the LH2004 protocol with respect to MH'96 protocol. Based on our experience, adopting pediatric protocols for AYA does not compromise patient outcomes.

14.
Chemistry ; 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32357276

RESUMO

The current state of the art of the use of cross-linked organic polymers, both insoluble (resins or gels) and soluble (micro- and nanogels), as aids for the low-temperature preparation of stable metal oxide nanoparticles or nanostructured metal oxides is reviewed herein. Synthetic strategies for inorganic oxide nanomaterials of this kind can greatly benefit from the use of cross-linked polymers, which may act as scaffolds/exotemplates during inorganic nanoparticle synthesis, or as stabilizers following post-synthetic modification of the nanoparticles. Furthermore, the peculiar properties of the organic cross-linked polymers add to those of the inorganic oxide nanoparticles, producing materials with combined properties. The potential applications of such highly promising composite nanomaterials will be also briefly sketched.

16.
Am J Hematol ; 95(7): 809-816, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32267023

RESUMO

Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) is curative for bone marrow failure in patients with Fanconi anemia (FA), but the presence of a malignant transformation is associated with a poor prognosis and the management of these patients is still challenging. We analyzed outcome of 74 FA patients with a diagnosis of myelodysplastic syndrome (n = 35), acute leukemia (n = 35) or with cytogenetic abnormalities (n = 4), who underwent allo-HSCT from 1999 to 2016 in EBMT network. Type of diagnosis, pre-HSCT cytoreductive therapies and related toxicities, disease status pre-HSCT, donor type, and conditioning regimen were considered as main variables potentially influencing outcome. The 5-year OS and EFS were 42% (30-53%) and 39% (27-51%), respectively. Patients transplanted in CR showed better OS compared with those transplanted in presence of an active malignant disease (OS:71%[48-95] vs 37% [24-50],P = .04), while none of the other variables considered had an impact. Twenty-two patients received pre-HSCT cytoreduction and 9/22 showed a grade 3-4 toxicity, without any lethal event or negative influence on survival after HSCT(OS:toxicity pre-HSCT 48% [20-75%] vs no-toxicity 51% [25-78%],P = .98). The cumulative incidence of day-100 grade II-IV a-GvHD and of 5-year c-GvHD were 38% (26-50%) and 40% (28-52%). Non-relapse-related mortality and incidence of relapse at 5-years were 40% (29-52%) and 21% (11-30%) respectively, without any significant impact of the tested variables. Causes of death were transplant-related events in most patients (34 out of the 42 deaths, 81%). This analysis confirms the poor outcome of transformed FA patients and identifies the importance of achieving CR pre-HSCT, suggesting that, in a newly diagnosed transformed FA patient, a cytoreductive approach pre-HSCT should be considered if a donor have been secured.


Assuntos
Anemia de Fanconi , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Leucemia , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas , Doença Aguda , Aloenxertos , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Anemia de Fanconi/complicações , Anemia de Fanconi/mortalidade , Anemia de Fanconi/terapia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Leucemia/etiologia , Leucemia/mortalidade , Leucemia/terapia , Masculino , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/etiologia , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/mortalidade , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
17.
Polymers (Basel) ; 12(3)2020 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32155744

RESUMO

The chemical structure and morphology of a set of sulfonic gel-type poly(styrene-divinylbenzene) resins (2 mol% DVB) prepared with different synthetic approaches were investigated by solid state NMR, Inverse Size Exclusion Chromatography (ISEC), FT-IR and elemental analysis to compare their swollen state structure. FT-IR and solid state NMR clearly show that the sulfonation mainly occurs in the para- position with respect the main polymer chain. Sensible proportions of sulfone bridges were found in the materials obtained with oleum and chlorosulfonic acid. With oleum, the presence of the sulfone bridges is clearly associated to a reduced ability to swell in the water medium relative to the proton exchange capacity. This highlights the cross-linking action of the sulfone bridges according to ISEC results, showing a high proportion of a dense polymer fraction in the swollen material. An even higher degree of sulfone-bridging, lower swelling ability, and a high proportion of a dense polymer fraction in the swollen material are found in the resin obtained with chlorosulfonic acid. As a matter of fact, Cross Polarization Magic Angle Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (CP-MAS 13C-NMR), elemental analysis, and ion exchange capacity, show that oleum and chlorosulfonic acid produced resins with remarkably smaller pores and lower swollen gel volume in polar solvents, with respect to concentrated sulfuric acid.

18.
Bone Marrow Transplant ; 55(10): 1946-1954, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32157246

RESUMO

We report the results of an analysis of unrelated allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantations (HSCT) in 71 patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) transplanted in EBMT centers between 2005 and 2017. Median age was 9.3 years; graft type was bone marrow in 79% and peripheral blood in 21%. Recipient-donor HLA match at high resolution typing was 10/10 in 31, 9/10 in 20, and 8/10 in 4 patients; the other patients had intermediate resolution typing. The most frequent conditioning regimens were fludarabine-thiotepa-treosulfan (64%) or busulfan-cyclophosphamide (12%). Cumulative incidence of neutrophil engraftment was 92%; platelet engraftment was 90%. Eleven patients (15%) experienced graft failure. Grade II-IV acute graft-vs.-host disease (GvHD) was 23%; 3-year chronic GvHD was 23%. Three-year overall survival (OS) was 88 ± 4%. GRFS was 62 ± 6%. HLA matching was the most significant risk factor for OS: 3-year OS was 96 ± 4% in 10/10 group vs. 75 ± 10% in 9-8/10 (p = 0.042); GRFS was 69 ± 9% vs. 50 ± 12% (p = 0.114), respectively. In conclusion, unrelated donor HSCT is a valid option for SCD patients who lack an HLA-identical sibling donor, preferably in the context of clinical trials. Using a 10/10 HLA-matched unrelated donor yields better survival indicating that HLA matching is an important donor selection factor in this nonmalignant disease.

19.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 146(2): 429-437, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32169379

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) is the prototype of primary humoral immunodeficiencies. Long-term follow-up studies regarding disease-related complications and outcome are scarce. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to describe the natural history of XLA. METHODS: A nationwide multicenter study based on the Italian Primary Immunodeficiency Network registry was established in 2000 in Italy. Affected patients were enrolled by documenting centers, and the patients' laboratory, clinical, and imaging data were recorded on an annual base. RESULTS: Data on the patients (N = 168) were derived from a cumulative follow-up of 1370 patient-years, with a mean follow-up of 8.35 years per patient. The mean age at diagnosis decreased after establishment of the Italian Primary Immunodeficiency Network registry (84 months before vs 23 months after). Respiratory, skin, and gastrointestinal manifestations were the most frequent clinical symptoms at diagnosis and during long-term follow-up. Regular immunoglobulin replacement treatment reduced the incidence of invasive infections. Affected patients developed chronic lung disease over time (47% after 40 years of follow-up) in the presence of chronic sinusitis (84%). Malignancies were documented in a minority of cases (3.7%). Overall survival for affected patients was significantly reduced when compared with that for the healthy male Italian population, and it further deteriorated in the presence of chronic lung disease. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first detailed long-term follow-up study for patients with XLA, revealing that although immunoglobulin replacement treatment reduces the incidence of invasive infections, it does not appear to influence the development of chronic lung disease. The overall survival of affected patients is reduced. Further studies are warranted to improve patients' clinical management and increase awareness among physicians.

20.
Support Care Cancer ; 28(11): 5125-5137, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32056012

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS) is one of the most serious complications post haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). The diagnosis of SOS is clinical, but nurses should be involved in the pre-transplant risk assessment period and play a crucial role in the early detection of signs and symptoms during and after hospitalization. The aim of this work is to achieve a consensus on nurses' behaviour in caring for SOS. METHODS: On behalf of the Italian Group for Bone and Marrow Transplantation (GITMO), a promoter committee was established to put in place a consensus conference approach. A multidisciplinary group of GITMO together with four nurses, three haematology physicians and one patient representative acted as jury, who reviewed the reports and wrote recommendations and suggestions. Recommendations gaining 100% of consensus were considered 'Golden Points of Care'; if a consensus was achieved by ≥ 75% of the jury's members, those recommendations were defined as 'Good Practices'. RESULTS: Eighteen papers written by nurses as first authors have been identified. Golden Points of Care and Good Practices were worked out for the following topics: nurses' role in general, nurses' role in pre-transplant assessment, pre-transplant risk assessment and risk stratification, baseline monitoring, suspected mild or moderate SOS, suspected severe or very severe SOS and late-onset cases. CONCLUSION: SOS is relatively rare; therefore, a holistic approach to the patients' needs considering nursing role as essential may result in better care outcomes.


Assuntos
Hepatopatia Veno-Oclusiva/enfermagem , Adulto , Transplante de Medula Óssea/efeitos adversos , Criança , Consenso , Feminino , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Hepatopatia Veno-Oclusiva/diagnóstico , Hepatopatia Veno-Oclusiva/terapia , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Papel do Profissional de Enfermagem , Medição de Risco
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