Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 11 de 11
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Tipo de estudo
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Environ Int ; 137: 105555, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32059142

RESUMO

The detrimental effects of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) on several physiological systems have been reported, but the association of PFASs with eye, one of the most sensitive and exposed organ, has never been explored. To investigate the association between eye diseases including visual impairment (VI) and PFASs isomers, a cross-sectional stratified study was conducted in 1202 Chinese population, aged 22-96 years, from Shenyang, China. A standard protocol including Snellen vision chart, slit-lamp microscopy and direct ophthalmoscopy was used to examine eye diseases/conditions relating to anterior and posterior segment of eyes. In addition, we measured the blood concentrations of 19 linear and branched PFASs at one-time point. Results indicated that blood levels of PFASs were significantly higher in eye disease group than normal group. PFASs exposure were positively associated with both combined eye diseases and individual eye diseases. Among other PFASs, linear perfluorooctane sulfonate (n-PFOS; odds ratio [OR] = 3.37, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.50, 4.56), branched perfluorooctane sulfonate (Br-PFOS; OR = 2.25, 95% CI: 1.72, 2.93) and linear perfluorooctanoic acid (n-PFOA; OR = 1.79, 95% CI: 1.36, 2.37) significantly increases the odds of VI. Vitreous disorder was adversely associated with long-chain PFASs exposure. For example, perfluorotridecanoic acid (PFTrDA; OR = 1.86, 95% CI: 1.51, 2.29) and perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA; OR = 1.79, 95% CI: 1.36, 2.36) showed the most significant association. In conclusion, this study suggests higher serum PFASs levels were associated with increase odds of VI and vitreous disorder in Chinese adults.

2.
Environ Res ; 183: 109197, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32058142

RESUMO

There is a large body of evidence linking Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) exposure with impaired lung function. However, it is not known whether exposure to pets modifies this relationship. To investigate if pet ownership changes the association between ETS exposure and lung function, a population-based sample of 7326 children, 7-14 years old, were randomly recruited from 24 districts in northeast China. Lung function including forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), peak expiratory flow (PEF), and maximal mid-expiratory flow (MMEF) was measured by spirometry, while pet ownership time periods and ETS exposure were collected by questionnaire. Two-level regression analysis was done, with covariates controlled for. The results showed pet exposure in certain early lifetime windows modified the associations of ETS exposure on decreased lung function in children. Among children exposed to current ETS, those exposed to pets in utero had greater reductions in lung function (for instance: OR for reduced FVC (<85% predicted) = 10.86; 95% CI: 3.80-30.97) than those not exposed to pets in utero (OR = 2.32; 95% CI: 1.76-3.05) (pinteraction = 0.005). While, children exposed to current pet ownership reduced the lung function impairment induced by ETS exposure during the first 2 years of life and/or ETS exposure during pregnancy, especially for FVC impairment. For instance, OR (95%CI) for reduced FVC (<85% predicted) was 0.81 (0.56, 1.18) and 1.42 (1.15, 1.74), respectively, for children with or without current pet ownership exposed to ETS during the first 2 years of life (pinteraction = 0.010). Furthermore, pet type or number of pets did not significantly modify associations between ETS exposure and lung function. In conclusion, the timing of pet ownership modified associations between ETS exposure and lung function, pet ownership in utero and during the first 2 years of life significantly worsened the adverse impacts of passive smoking on lung function.

3.
Hypertension ; 75(2): 347-355, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31838909

RESUMO

Evidence on the associations between airborne particulates of diameter ≤1 µm (PM1) and airborne particulates of diameter ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5) and childhood blood pressure (BP) is scarce. To help to address this literature gap, we conducted a study to explore the associations in Chinese children. Between 2012 and 2013, we recruited 9354 children, aged 5 to 17 years, from 62 schools in 7 northeastern Chinese cities. We measured their BP with a mercury sphygmomanometer. We used a spatiotemporal model to estimate daily ambient PM1 and PM2.5 exposures, which we assigned to participants' home addresses. Associations between particulate matter exposure and BP were evaluated with generalized linear mixed regression models. The findings indicated that exposure to each 10 mg/m3 greater PM1 was significantly associated with 2.56 mm Hg (95% CI, 1.47-3.65) higher systolic BP and 61% greater odds for hypertension (odds ratio=1.61 [95% CI, 1.18-2.18]). PM1 appears to play an important role in associations reported between PM2.5 exposure and BP, and we found that the ambient PM1/PM2.5 ratio (range, 0.80-0.96) was associated with BP and with hypertension. Age and body weight modified associations between air pollutants and BP (P<0.01), with stronger associations among younger (aged ≤11 years) and overweight/obese children. This study provides the first evidence that long-term exposure to PM1 is associated with hypertension in children, and that PM1 might be a leading contributor to the hypertensive effect of PM2.5. Researchers and policy makers should pay closer attention to the potential health impacts of PM1.

4.
Environ Pollut ; 256: 113422, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31672364

RESUMO

Evidence suggests that residential greenness may be protective of high blood pressure, but there is scarcity of evidence on the associations between greenness around schools and blood pressure among children. We aimed to investigate this association in China. Our study included 9354 children from 62 schools in the Seven Northeastern Cities Study. Greenness around each child's school was measured by NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) and SAVI (Soil-Adjusted Vegetation Index). Particulate matter ≤ 1 µm (PM1) concentrations were estimated by spatiotemporal models and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations were collected from air monitoring stations. Associations between greenness and blood pressure were determined by generalized linear and logistic mixed-effect models. Mediation by air pollution was assessed using mediation analysis. Higher greenness was consistently associated with lower blood pressure. An increase of 0.1 in NDVI corresponded to a reduction in SBP of 1.39 mmHg (95% CI: 1.86, -0.93) and lower odds of hypertension (OR = 0.76, 95% CI: 0.69, 0.82). Stronger associations were observed in children with higher BMI. Ambient PM1 and NO2 mediated 33.0% and 10.9% of the association between greenness and SBP, respectively. In summary, greater greenness near schools had a beneficial effect on blood pressure, particularly in overweight or obese children in China. The associations might be partially mediated by air pollution. These results might have implications for policy makers to incorporate more green space for both aesthetic and health benefits.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Poluição do Ar/análise , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Pressão Sanguínea , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Cidades , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Obesidade , Material Particulado/análise , Risco , Instituições Acadêmicas
5.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 69(9): 1383-1384, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31511731

RESUMO

Aggregatibacter aphrophilus and Beta haemolytic Streptococci Lancefield group F are part of the normal oral flora and are known to cause endocarditis, sinusitis, empyema, meningitis and septic arthritis. They are now emerging as a cause of brain abscess particularly in patients with congenital heart diseases. We report a case of a 10-year-old boy with Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF), who presented with fever, headache and drowsiness. Culture yielded the growth of Aggregatibacter aphrophilus and Beta hemolytic streptococci Lancefield group F. He became clinically stable after treatment with ceftriaxone.


Assuntos
Abscesso Encefálico/complicações , Coinfecção/complicações , Infecções por Pasteurellaceae/complicações , Infecções Estreptocócicas/complicações , Tetralogia de Fallot/complicações , Aggregatibacter aphrophilus , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Abscesso Encefálico/microbiologia , Abscesso Encefálico/terapia , Ceftriaxona/uso terapêutico , Criança , Coinfecção/microbiologia , Coinfecção/terapia , Craniotomia , Técnicas de Cultura , Humanos , Masculino , Infecções por Pasteurellaceae/microbiologia , Infecções por Pasteurellaceae/terapia , Infecções Estreptocócicas/microbiologia , Infecções Estreptocócicas/terapia , Streptococcus milleri (Grupo) , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
6.
Indoor Air ; 29(3): 477-486, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30710375

RESUMO

We conducted a cross-sectional study to investigate the associations between recent home renovation exposure and lung function in children. We randomly recruited 7326 school children residing in 24 districts from seven cities in northeastern China. We collected information about home renovations from parents using a questionnaire and lung function measurements from children using spirometer recordings gathered by trained professionals and expressed as the forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), maximal mid-expiratory flow (MMEF), and peak expiratory flow (PEF). We identified higher odds of diminished lung function among these with home renovation in the previous 2 years compared to those without home renovation in the previous 2 years, for FVC (odds ratios [ORs] = 1.84 [95%CI: 1.58, 2.15]; FEV1: ORs = 2.82 [95%CI: 2.36, 3.36]; PEF: ORs = 1.51 [95%CI: 1.24, 1.83]; and MMEF: ORs = 1.90 [95%CI: 1.60, 2.24]). The associations were stronger among children exposed to new polyvinyl chloride (PVC) flooring compared to children exposed to other surface materials. Our results were consistent throughout the analysis of each type of renovation materials. In conclusion, recent home renovation exposure was associated with poor lung function among children. Strategies to protect home owners and their families from respiratory hazards during and after renovation are required.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/efeitos adversos , Materiais de Construção/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Criança , China , Cidades , Materiais de Construção/análise , Estudos Transversais , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Feminino , Pisos e Cobertura de Pisos , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Habitação , Humanos , Masculino , Pico do Fluxo Expiratório , Cloreto de Polivinila/efeitos adversos , Cloreto de Polivinila/análise , Testes de Função Respiratória , Espirometria , Capacidade Vital
7.
Environ Res ; 172: 81-88, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30776734

RESUMO

Exposure to chemicals may affect liver enzyme to increase the risk of liver diseases. Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are one kind of persistent organic pollutants with hepatotoxic effect in organism. However, data is scarce to characterize the hepatotoxic effects of specific structural PFAA isomers in general population. To address this data gap, we evaluated the association between serum PFAAs concentration and liver function biomarkers in the Isomers of C8 Health Project in China. High performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) was used to measure 18 serum PFAAs, except for linear and branched isomers of PFOA/PFOS, nine perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs) and two perfluorinated sulfonic acids (PFSAs) were also included, in 1605 adult residents of Shenyang, China. Values for nine serum liver function biomarkers were determined by full-automatic blood biochemical analyzer. Linear regression was used to evaluate associations between PFAAs and continuous liver function biomarkers and logistic regression to assess markers dichotomized per clinical reference intervals. Results indicated that serum PFAAs concentrations were associated with liver biomarker levels suggestive of hepatotoxicity, especially for liver cell injury. For example, a 1 ln-unit increase in total- perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) exposure was associated with a 7.4% [95% confidence interval (CI): 3.9%, 11.0%] higher alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level in serum. Interestingly, we observed association between branched PFAA isomers and liver biomarkers. For example, one ln-unit increase in branched perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) isomers exposure was associated with a 4.3% increase in ALT level (95% CI: 1.2%, 7.4%) and a 33.0% increased odds of having abnormal ALT (95% CI: 5.0%, 67.0%). Also, we found that PFNA had positive association with ALT [(6.2%, 95% CI: 3.1%, 9.4%) and AST levels (2.5%, 95% CI: 0.5%, 4.5%)]. Logistic regression results showed that PFPeA, PFHxA, PFNA, PFDoDA, PFTrDA and PFTeDA had statistically association with abnormal prealbumin. Conclusively, our results support previous studies showing association between PFAAs exposure and liver function biomarkers. We found new evidence that branched PFAAs isomer exposure is associated with the risk of clinically relevant hepatocellular dysfunction.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos , Biomarcadores , Exposição Ambiental , Fluorcarbonetos , Hepatopatias , Adulto , Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/toxicidade , Biomarcadores/sangue , Caprilatos , China , Fluorcarbonetos/toxicidade , Humanos , Hepatopatias/sangue , Hepatopatias/etiologia , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
8.
Environ Pollut ; 224: 54-69, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28222982

RESUMO

The mechanisms underlying cobalt toxicity in aquatic species in general and cnidarians in particular remain poorly understood. Herein we investigated cobalt toxicity in a Hydra model from morphological, histological, developmental, and molecular biological perspectives. Hydra, exposed to cobalt (0-60 mg/L), were altered in morphology, histology, and regeneration. Exposure to standardized sublethal doses of cobalt impaired feeding by affecting nematocytes, which in turn affected reproduction. At the cellular level, excessive ROS generation, as the principal mechanism of action, primarily occurred in the lysosomes, which was accompanied by the upregulation of expression of the antioxidant genes SOD, GST, GPx, and G6PD. The number of Hsp70 and FoxO transcripts also increased. Interestingly, the upregulations were higher in the 24-h than in the 48-h time-point group, indicating that ROS overwhelmed the cellular defense mechanisms at the latter time-point. Comet assay revealed DNA damage. Cell cycle analysis indicated the induction of apoptosis accompanied or not by cell cycle arrest. Immunoblot analyses revealed that cobalt treatment triggered mitochondria-mediated apoptosis as inferred from the modulation of the key proteins Bax, Bcl-2, and caspase-3. From this data, we suggest the use of Hydra as a model organism for the risk assessment of heavy metal pollution in aquatic ecosystems.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cobalto/toxicidade , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Hydra/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Ensaio Cometa , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP70/metabolismo , Lisossomos/efeitos dos fármacos , Lisossomos/metabolismo , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Mitocôndrias , Estresse Oxidativo
9.
Sci Rep ; 6: 29663, 2016 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27417574

RESUMO

Nanotechnology has emerged as a powerful field of applied research. However, the potential toxicity of nano-materials is a cause of concern. A thorough toxicological investigation is required before a nanomaterial is evaluated for application of any kind. In this context, there is concerted effort to find appropriate test systems to assess the toxicity of nanomaterials. Toxicity of a nanomaterial greatly depends on its physicochemical properties and the biological system with which it interacts. The present research was carried out with a view to generate data on eco-toxicological impacts of copper oxide nanorod (CuO NR) in Hydra magnipapillata 105 at organismal, cellular and molecular levels. Exposure of hydra to CuO NR resulted in severe morphological alterations in a concentration- as well as duration-dependent manner. Impairment of feeding, population growth, and regeneration was also observed. In vivo and in vitro analyses revealed induction of oxidative stress, genotoxicity, and molecular machinery of apoptotic cell death, accompanied by disruption of cell cycle progression. Taken together, CuO nanorod is potentially toxic to the biological systems. Also, hydra offers potential to be used as a convenient model organism for aquatic ecotoxicological risk assessment of nanomaterials.


Assuntos
Cobre/toxicidade , Hydra/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais , Nanotubos/química , Animais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Ecotoxicologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Hydra/genética , Hydra/fisiologia , Estresse Oxidativo , Regeneração/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores de Tempo , Testes de Toxicidade
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26945520

RESUMO

Copper, an essential microelement, is known to be toxic to aquatic life at concentrations higher than that could be tolerated. Copper-induced oxidative stress has been documented in vitro, yet the in vivo effects of metal-induced oxidative stress have not been extensively studied in the lower invertebrates. The objective of the present study has been to find the effect of ROS-mediated toxicity of environmentally relevant concentrations of copper at organismal and cellular levels in Hydra magnipapillata. Exposure to copper at sublethal concentrations (0.06 and 0.1mg/L) for 24 or 48h resulted in generation of significant levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). We infer that the free radicals here originate predominantly at the lysosomes but partly at the mitochondria also as visualized by H2-DHCFDA staining. Quantitative real-time PCR of RNA extracted from copper-exposed polyps revealed dose-dependent up-regulation of all antioxidant response genes (CAT, SOD, GPx, GST, GR, G6PD). Concurrent increase of Hsp70 and FoxO genes suggests the ability of polyps to respond to stress, which at 48h was not the same as at 24h. Interestingly, the transcript levels of all genes were down-regulated at 48h as compared to 24h incubation period. Comet assay indicated copper as a powerful genotoxicant, and the DNA damage was dose- as well as duration-dependent. Western blotting of proteins (Bax, Bcl-2 and caspase-3) confirmed ROS-mediated mitochondrial cell death in copper-exposed animals. These changes correlated well with changes in morphology, regeneration and aspects of reproduction. Taken together, the results indicate increased production of intracellular ROS in Hydra on copper exposure.


Assuntos
Sulfato de Cobre/toxicidade , Hydra/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/metabolismo , Western Blotting , Ensaio Cometa , Dano ao DNA , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Hydra/genética , Hydra/metabolismo , Dose Letal Mediana , Lisossomos/efeitos dos fármacos , Lisossomos/metabolismo , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Regeneração/efeitos dos fármacos , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores de Tempo
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA