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1.
Cancer Med ; 10(20): 7233-7241, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34559451

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Preoperative autophagy inhibition with hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) in combination with gemcitabine in pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDAC) has been shown to be safe and effective in inducing a serum biomarker response and increase resection rates in a previous phase I/II clinical trial. We aimed to analyze the long-term outcomes of preoperative HCQ with gemcitabine for this cohort. METHODS: A review of patients enrolled between July 2010 and February 2013 in the completed phase I/II single arm (two doses of fixed-dose gemcitabine (1500 mg/m2 ) in combination with oral hydroxychloroquine administered for 31 consecutive days until the day of surgery for high-risk pancreatic cancer) was undertaken. Progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival analysis (OS) using Kaplan-Meier estimates were performed. RESULTS: Of 35 patients initially enrolled, 29 patients underwent surgical resection (median age at diagnosis: 62 years, 45% females). Median duration of follow-up was 7.5 years. There was a median 15% decrease in the serum CA19-9 levels following completion of neoadjuvant therapy and 83% of the cohort underwent a pancreaticoduodenectomy, 7 (24%) patients had a concomitant venous resection. On histopathology, 14 (48%) patients had at least a partial treatment response. The median PFS and OS were 11 months (95% Confidence interval [CI]: 7-28) and 31 months (95% CI: 13-47), respectively, while 9 (31%) patients survived beyond 5 years from diagnosis; a rate that compares very favorably with contemporaneous series. CONCLUSION: Compared to historical data, neoadjuvant autophagy inhibition with HCQ plus gemcitabine is associated with encouraging long-term survival for patients with PDAC.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34562639

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Pancreatitis is characterized by acinar cell death and persistent inflammation. Ferroptosis is a type of lipid peroxidation-dependent necrosis, which is negatively regulated by glutathione peroxidase 4. We studied how trypsin, a serine protease secreted by pancreatic acinar cells, affects the contribution of ferroptosis to triggering pancreatitis. METHODS: In vitro, the mouse pancreatic acinar cell line 266-6 and mouse primary pancreatic acinar cells were used to investigate the effect of exogenous trypsin on ferroptosis sensitivity. Short hairpin RNAs were designed to silence gene expression, whereas a library of 1080 approved drugs was used to identify new ferroptosis inhibitors in 266-6 cells. In vivo, a Cre/LoxP system was used to generate mice with a pancreas-specific knockout of Gpx4 (Pdx1-Cre;Gpx4flox/flox mice). Acute or chronic pancreatitis was induced in these mice (Gpx4flox/flox mice served as controls) by cerulein injections or a Lieber-DeCarli alcoholic liquid diet. Pancreatic tissues, acinar cells, and serum were collected and analyzed by histology, immunoblot, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, or immunohistochemical analyses. RESULTS: Supraphysiological doses of trypsin (500 or 1000 ng/mL) alone did not trigger significant cell death in 266-6 cells and mouse primary pancreatic acinar cells, but did increase the sensitivity of these cells to ferroptosis upon treatment with cerulein, L-arginine, alcohol, erastin, or RSL3. Proteasome 26S subunit, non-adenosine triphosphatase 4-dependent lipid peroxidation caused ferroptosis in pancreatic acinar cells by promoting the proteasomal degradation of glutathione peroxidase 4. The drug screening campaign identified the antipsychotic drug olanzapine as an antioxidant inhibiting ferroptosis in pancreatic acinar cells. Mice lacking pancreatic Gpx4 developed more severe pancreatitis after cerulein infection or ethanol feeding than control mice. Conversely, olanzapine administration protected against pancreatic ferroptotic damage and experimental pancreatitis in Gpx4-deficient mice. CONCLUSIONS: Trypsin-mediated sensitization to ferroptotic damage increases the severity of pancreatitis in mice, and this process can be reversed by olanzapine.

3.
J Surg Res ; 267: 695-704, 2021 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34348185

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A virtual reality (VR) curriculum performed on the da Vinci Simulation System (DVSS) was previously shown to be effective in training fellows. The dV-Trainer is a separate platform with similar features to the da Vinci console, but its efficacy and utility versus the DVSS simulator are not well known. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A mastery-based VR curriculum was completed by surgical fellows on the DVSS (2014-2016) and on the dV-Trainer (2016-2018) at a large academic center. Pre-test/post-test scores were used to evaluate performance between the two groups. Data was collected prospectively. RESULTS: Forty-six fellows enrolled in the curriculum: surgical oncology (n=31), hepatobiliary (n=5), head/neck (n=4), endocrine (n=2), cardiothoracic (n=2), gynecology (n=1) and transplant surgery (n=1). Twenty-four used the DVSS and twenty-two used the dV-Trainer. Compared to the DVSS, the dV-Trainer was associated with lower scores on 2 of 3 VR modules in the pre-test (P=0.027, P<0.001, respectively) and post-test (P=0.021, P<0.001, respectively). Fellows in the dV-Trainer era scored lower on inanimate drills as well. Average VR curriculum score was lower on the dV-Trainer (71.3% vs 83.34%, P<0.001). dV-Trainer users spent more time completing the pre-test and post-test; however, overall simulator time to complete the curriculum was not significantly different (297 vs 231 minutes, P=0.142). Both groups showed improvement in scores after completion of the VR curriculum. CONCLUSIONS: The dV-Trainer simulator allows for more usability outside the operating room to complete VR modules; however, the DVSS simulator group outperformed the dV-Trainer group on the post-test.

4.
Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 18(11): 804-823, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34331036

RESUMO

Pancreatic cancer is a devastating gastrointestinal cancer characterized by late diagnosis, limited treatment success and dismal prognosis. Exocrine tumours account for 95% of pancreatic cancers and the most common pathological type is pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). The occurrence and progression of PDAC involve multiple factors, including internal genetic alterations and external inflammatory stimuli. The biology and therapeutic response of PDAC are further shaped by various forms of regulated cell death, such as apoptosis, necroptosis, ferroptosis, pyroptosis and alkaliptosis. Cell death induced by local or systemic treatments suppresses tumour proliferation, invasion and metastasis. However, unrestricted cell death or tissue damage might result in an inflammation-related immunosuppressive microenvironment, which is conducive to tumour progression or recurrence. The precise extent to which cell death affects PDAC is not yet well described. A growing body of preclinical and clinical studies document significant correlations between mutations (for example, in KRAS and TP53), stress responses (such as hypoxia and autophagy), metabolic reprogramming and chemotherapeutic responses. Here, we describe the molecular machinery of cell death, discuss the complexity and multifaceted nature of lethal signalling in PDAC cells, and highlight the challenges and opportunities for activating cell death pathways through precision oncology treatments.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/metabolismo , Morte Celular/fisiologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Apoptose/fisiologia , Autofagia/fisiologia , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/patologia , Proliferação de Células/fisiologia , Ferroptose/fisiologia , Humanos , Hipóxia/metabolismo , Necroptose/fisiologia , Invasividade Neoplásica , Metástase Neoplásica , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/genética , Piroptose/fisiologia , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética
5.
J Surg Oncol ; 124(7): 1051-1059, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34263460

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The clinical presentation of gastric cancer varies between racial and ethnic groups. While historically studied as a monolithic population, the Hispanic ethnicity is comprised of heterogenous groups with considerable biologic, socioeconomic, and cultural variability; therefore, intragroup differences among Hispanic gastric cancer patients may have been overlooked in past research. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of the National Cancer Database (NCDB) to compare Hispanic patients with gastric adenocarcinoma diagnosed between 2004 and 2015, by NCDB-reported location of patient ancestry. RESULTS: We identified a cohort of 3811 patients. There were higher proportions of females, patients with early disease onset, and stage 4 disease among patients of Mexican and South/Central American ancestry. Additionally, a significantly larger proportion of Mexican (15%) and South/Central American patients (11%) were diagnosed before age 40, in contrast to Cubans (2%), Dominicans (6%), and Puerto Ricans (3%; p < 0.0001). Mexican ancestry was independently associated with an increased rate of all-cause mortality at 5 years (hazard ratio: 1.34; 95% confidence interval: 1.09-1.64). CONCLUSIONS: Significant clinical and epidemiological differences exist among Hispanic gastric cancer patients based on location of ancestry. Future data collection endeavors should strive to capture this granularity inherent to the Hispanic ethnicity.


Assuntos
Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias Gástricas/etnologia , Adenocarcinoma/etnologia , Adenocarcinoma/mortalidade , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Renda , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Distribuição por Sexo , Classe Social , Neoplasias Gástricas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
6.
HPB (Oxford) ; 2021 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34059420

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Minimally invasive distal pancreatectomy is the accepted standard of care. The robotic distal (RDP) learning curve is 20-40 surgeries with operating time (ORT) as the most significant factor. This study evaluates how formal mentorship and a robotic skills curriculum impact the learning curve for subsequent generation surgeons. METHODS: Consecutive RDP from 2008 to 2017 were evaluated. First Generation was two surgeons who started program without training or mentorship. Second Generation was the two surgeons who joined the program with mentorship. Third Generation was fellows who benefited from both formal training and mentorship. Multivariable models (MVA) were performed for ORT, clinically relevant pancreatic fistula (CR-POPF), and major complications (Clavien≥3). RESULTS: A total of 296 RDP were performed of which 187 did not include other procedures: First Generation (n = 71), Second Generation (n = 50), and Third Generation (n = 66). ORT decreased by generation (p < 0.001) without any differences in CR-POPF or Clavien≥3. On MVA, earlier generation (p = 0.019), pre-operative albumin (p = 0.001) and pancreatic adenocarcinoma (p = 0.019) were predictive of ORT. Increased BMI (p = 0.049) and neoadjuvant therapy (p = 0.046) were predictive of CR-POPF. Fellow participation at the console increased over time. CONCLUSION: Formal mentorship and a skills curriculum decreased the learning curve and complications were largely dependent on patient factors.

7.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 28(12): 7759-7769, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34027585

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: A positive microscopic margin (R1) following resection of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) can occur in up to 80% of patients and is associated with reduced survival and increased recurrence. Our aim was to characterize the impact of neoadjuvant therapy (NAT) on survival and recurrence in patients with PDAC following an R1 resection. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of patients with PDAC who underwent pancreatectomy from 2008 to 2017 was performed. Patients were staged according to the American Joint Committee on Cancer 8th edition and stratified based on resection margin (R0 vs. R1) and treatment sequence (NAT vs. surgery first [SF]). Conditional survival analysis was performed using Cox regression and inverse probability weighted estimates. RESULTS: Among 580 patients, 59% received NAT and 41% underwent SF. On final pathology, the NAT cohort had smaller tumors and less lymph node (LN) positivity (p < 0.05). NAT was not associated with an R1 resection (50%, p = 0.653). Compared with the R1 cohort, the R0 cohort had a higher median overall survival (OS; 39.6 vs. 22.8 months; hazard ratio [HR] 1.6, p < 0.001) and disease-free survival (DFS; 19 vs. 13 months; HR 1.35, p = 0.004). After risk adjustment, NAT was not associated with OS, regardless of margin status (R0, 95% confidence interval [CI] (-)7.31-27.07, p = 0.26; or R1, 95% CI (-)36.99-15.25, p = 0.42). However, NAT was associated with improved DFS in the R1 cohort (95% CI 1.79-11.91, p = 0.008) but not in the R0 cohort (95% CI (-)11.22-10.54, p = 0.95). CONCLUSION: An R0 resection remains an important determinant of overall and disease-free survival, even when NAT is administered. For patients with an R1 resection, receipt of NAT may prolong DFS.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático , Neoplasias Pancreáticas , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/cirurgia , Humanos , Terapia Neoadjuvante , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
8.
Clin Transl Sci ; 14(5): 1822-1829, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34002944

RESUMO

SMAD4, a tumor suppressor gene, is lost in up to 60%-90% of pancreatic adenocarcinomas (PDAs). Loss of SMAD4 allows tumor progression by upregulating autophagy, a cell survival mechanism that counteracts apoptosis and allows intracellular recycling of macromolecules. Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) is an autophagy inhibitor. We studied whether HCQ treatment in SMAD4 deficient PDA may prevent therapeutic resistance induced by autophagy upregulation. We retrospectively analyzed the SMAD4 status of patients with PDA enrolled in two prospective clinical trials evaluating pre-operative HCQ. The first dose escalation trial demonstrated the safety of preoperative gemcitabine with HCQ (NCT01128296). More recently, a randomized trial of gemcitabine/nab-paclitaxel +/- HCQ evaluated Evans Grade histopathologic response (NCT01978184). The effect of SMAD4 loss on response to HCQ and chemotherapy was studied for association with clinical outcome. Fisher's exact test and log-rank test were used to assess response and survival. Fifty-two patients receiving HCQ with neoadjuvant chemotherapy were studied. Twenty-five patients had SMAD4 loss (48%). 76% of HCQ-treated patients with SMAD4 loss obtained a histopathologic response greater than or equal to 2A, compared with only 37% with SMAD4 intact (p = 0.006). Although loss of SMAD4 has been associated with worse outcomes, in the current study, loss of SMAD4 was not associated with a detriment in median overall survival in HCQ-treated patients (34.43 months in SMAD4 loss vs. 27.27 months in SMAD4 intact, p = 0.18). The addition of HCQ to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with PDA may improve treatment response in those with SMAD4 loss. Further study of the relationship among SMAD4, autophagy, and treatment outcomes in PDA is warranted.

9.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 28(11): 6273-6282, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33791900

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: To implement a mastery-based robotic surgery curriculum using virtual reality (VR) and inanimate reality (IR) drills at multiple Complex General Surgical Oncology (CGSO) fellowships. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A prospective study of curriculum feasibility and efficacy was conducted at four CGSO fellowship sites. All sites had simulators, and kits were provided to perform 19 biotissue drills. Fellows from three non-UPMC sites (n = 15) in 2016-2018 were compared with fellows from University of Pittsburgh (UPMC; n = 15) where the curriculum was validated in 2014-2018. RESULTS: All fellows completed the pre- and post-test. There was no difference in pre-test scores between UPMC and non-UPMC sites. Only 7 of 15 non-UPMC fellows completed the VR curriculum (47% compliance) compared with all 15 UPMC fellows completing the VR curriculum (100% compliance). UPMC had higher curriculum times (217 versus 93 mins) and % mastery (86% versus 55%). Time spent on curriculum was associated with % mastery (p = 0.01). Both groups showed improvement between pre- and post-test. Post-test VR scores trended higher for UPMC (221 versus 180). Between the non-UPMC sites, there was a difference in compliance (p = 0.03) and % mastery (p = 0.03). Zero non-UPMC fellows performed the biotissue drills, while five contemporary UPMC fellows completed 253 biotissue drills. Approximately 140 UPMC faculty and 300 staff hours were spent on the pilot. CONCLUSIONS: A proficiency curriculum can result in improved robotic console skills. However, multiple barriers to implementation potentially exist, including availability of simulators, availability of a training robot, on-site support staff, and universal buy-in from fellows, faculty, and leadership.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos , Robótica , Oncologia Cirúrgica , Competência Clínica , Currículo , Humanos , Projetos Piloto , Estudos Prospectivos , Oncologia Cirúrgica/educação
12.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 28(9): 4839-4847, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33566249

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Performance of technically complex surgery at high-volume (HV) centers is associated with improved outcomes. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess whether hospital gastrectomy volume is associated with surgical outcomes, and what threshold of case volume meaningfully impacts surgical outcomes. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of adult NCDB patients with gastric adenocarcinoma undergoing gastrectomy between 2004 and 2015. A multivariable Cox proportional hazards model with restricted cubic splines was used to examine the association of annual hospital gastrectomy volume and overall survival. Bootstrap simulation was used to estimate the cut-point corresponding to maximum change in log hazard ratio. Hospitals were divided into HV (≥ 17 cases/year) and low-volume (LV; < 17 cases/year) groups. We examined the relationship between volume groups and adequate nodal examination, R0 resection, unplanned readmission, and 30- and 90-day mortality. RESULTS: Our cohort consisted of 29,559 patients (7.8% treated at an HV center). Treatment at an HV center was associated with an increased likelihood of adequate nodal examination [odds ratio (OR) 2.12, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.94-2.32] and R0 resection among patients with cardia tumors (OR 1.42, 95% CI 1.07-1.88). Patients treated at HV centers had decreased 30- and 90-day postoperative mortality, which was more pronounced in those undergoing total gastrectomy. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment at an HV gastrectomy center is associated with improved surgical outcomes. Our study identified 17 cases/year as a clinically meaningful distinction between HV and LV centers. This definition of an HV center should be considered when evaluating regionalization of gastric cancer care to improve patient outcomes.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Gástricas , Adulto , Gastrectomia , Hospitais , Hospitais com Alto Volume de Atendimentos , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Neoplasias Gástricas/cirurgia , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Cell Rep ; 34(8): 108767, 2021 02 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33626342

RESUMO

Although induction of ferroptosis, an iron-dependent form of non-apoptotic cell death, has emerged as an anticancer strategy, the metabolic basis of ferroptotic death remains poorly elucidated. Here, we show that glucose determines the sensitivity of human pancreatic ductal carcinoma cells to ferroptosis induced by pharmacologically inhibiting system xc-. Mechanistically, SLC2A1-mediated glucose uptake promotes glycolysis and, thus, facilitates pyruvate oxidation, fuels the tricyclic acid cycle, and stimulates fatty acid synthesis, which finally facilitates lipid peroxidation-dependent ferroptotic death. Screening of a small interfering RNA (siRNA) library targeting metabolic enzymes leads to identification of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 (PDK4) as the top gene responsible for ferroptosis resistance. PDK4 inhibits ferroptosis by blocking pyruvate dehydrogenase-dependent pyruvate oxidation. Inhibiting PDK4 enhances the anticancer activity of system xc- inhibitors in vitro and in suitable preclinical mouse models (e.g., a high-fat diet diabetes model). These findings reveal metabolic reprogramming as a potential target for overcoming ferroptosis resistance.

14.
Ann Surg ; 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33534227

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess feasibility and safety of a multicenter training program in robotic pancreatoduodenectomy (RPD) adhering to the IDEAL framework for implementation of surgical innovation. BACKGROUND: Good results for RPD have been reported from single center studies. However, data on feasibility and safety of implementation through a multicenter training program in RPD are lacking. METHODS: A multicenter training program in RPD was designed together with the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, including an online video bank, robot simulation exercises, biotissue drills, and on-site proctoring. Benchmark patients were based on the criteria of Clavien. Outcomes were collected prospectively (March 2016-October 2019). Cumulative sum (CUSUM) analysis of operative time was performed to distinguish the first and second phase of the learning curve. Outcomes were compared between both phases of the learning curve. Trends in nationwide use of robotic and laparoscopic PD were assessed in the Dutch Pancreatic Cancer Audit. RESULTS: Overall, 275 RPD procedures were performed in seven centers by 15 trained surgeons. The recent benchmark criteria for low-risk PD were met by 125 (45.5%) patients. The conversion rate was 6.5% (n = 18) and median blood loss 250 ml (IQR 150-500). The rate of Clavien-Dindo grade ≥III complications was 44.4% (n = 122), postoperative pancreatic fistula (grade B/C) rate 23.6% (n = 65), 90-day complication-related mortality 2.5% (n = 7) and 90-day cancer-related mortality 2.2.% (n = 6). Median postoperative hospital stay was 12 days (IQR 8-20). In the subgroup of patients with pancreatic cancer (n = 80), the major complication rate was 31.3% and POPF rate was 10%. CUSUM analysis for operative time found a learning curve inflection point at 22 RPDs (IQR 10-35) with similar rates of Clavien-Dindo grade ≥III complications in the first and second phase (43.4% vs 43.8%, P = 0.956, respectively). During the study period the nationwide use of laparoscopic PD reduced from 15% to 1%, whereas the use of RPD increased from 0% to 25%. CONCLUSIONS: This multicenter RPD training program in centers with sufficient surgical volume was found to be feasible without a negative impact of the learning curve on clinical outcomes.

16.
HPB (Oxford) ; 23(8): 1269-1276, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33526357

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The short-term morbidity associated with post-operative pancreatic fistula (POPF) is well established, however data regarding the long-term impact are lacking. We aim to characterize long-term oncologic outcomes of POPF after pancreatic resection through a single institution, retrospective study of pancreatic resections performed for adenocarcinoma from 2009 to 2016. METHODS: Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, logistic regression, and multivariate analysis (MVA) were used to evaluate impact of POPF on overall survival (OS), disease free survival (DFS), and receipt of adjuvant chemotherapy (AC). RESULTS: 767 patients were included. 82 (10.6%) developed grade B (n = 67) or C (n = 15) POPF. Grade C POPF resulted in decreased OS when compared to no POPF (20.22 vs 26.33 months, p = 0.027) and to grade B POPF (20.22 vs. 26.87 months, p = 0.049). POPF patients were less likely to receive AC than those without POPF (59.5% vs 74.9%, p = 0.003) and grade C POPF were less likely to receive AC than all others (26.7% vs 74.2%, p = 0.0001). CONCLUSION: POPF patients are less likely to receive AC and more likely to have delay in time to AC. These factors are exacerbated in grade C POPF and likely contribute to decreased OS. These findings validate the clinical significance of the ISGPF definition of POPF.

17.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 28(5): 2438-2446, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33523364

RESUMO

AIMS: National studies have demonstrated disparities in the treatment and survival of pancreatic cancer patients based on socioeconomic status (SES). This study aimed to identify specific differences in perioperative management and outcomes based on patient SES and to study the role of a multidisciplinary clinic (MDC) in mitigating any variations. METHODS: The study analyzed patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma in a large hospital system. The patients were categorized into groups of high and low SES and whether they were managed by the authors' pancreatic cancer MDC or not. The study compared differences in disease characteristics, receipt of multimodality therapy, perioperative outcomes, and recurrence-free and overall survival. RESULTS: Of the 162 low-SES patients and 119 high-SES patients, 54% were managed in the MDC. Outside the MDC, low-SES patients were less likely to receive neoadjuvant chemotherapy and had less minimally invasive surgery, a longer OR time, less enhanced recovery participation, and more major complications (p < 0.05). No SES disparities were observed among the MDC patients. Despite similar tumor characteristics, the low-SES patients had inferior median overall survival (21 vs 32 months; p = 0.005), but the MDC appeared to eliminate this disparity. Low SES correlated with inferior survival for the non-MDC patients (17 vs 32 months; p < 0.001), but not for the MDC patients (24 vs 25 months; p = 0.33). These findings persisted in the multivariable analysis. CONCLUSION: A pancreatic cancer MDC standardizes treatment decisions, eliminates disparities in surgical outcomes, and improves survival for low-SES patients.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático , Neoplasias Pancreáticas , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/cirurgia , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Humanos , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Pancreatectomia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/cirurgia , Classe Social
18.
Surg Endosc ; 2021 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33543349

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Treatment of pancreaticobiliary pathology following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) poses significant technical challenges. Laparoscopic-assisted endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (LA-ERCP) can overcome those anatomical hurdles, allowing access to the papilla. Our aims were to analyze our 12-year institutional outcomes and determine the learning curve for LA-ERCP. METHODS: A retrospective review of cases between 2007 and 2019 at a high-volume pancreatobiliary unit was performed. Logistic regression was used to identify predictors of specific outcomes. To identify the learning curve, CUSUM analyses and innovative methods for standardizing the surgeon's timelines were performed. RESULTS: 131 patients underwent LA-ERCP (median age 60, 81% females) by 17 surgeons and 10 gastroenterologists. Cannulation of the papilla was achieved in all cases. Indications were choledocholithiasis (78%), Sphincter of Oddi dysfunction/Papillary stenosis (18%), management of bile leak (2%) and stenting/biopsy of malignant strictures (2%). Median total, surgical and ERCP times were 180, 128 and 48 min, respectively, and 47% underwent concomitant cholecystectomy. Surgical site infection developed in 9.2% and post-ERCP pancreatitis in 3.8%. Logistic regression revealed multiple abdominal operations and magnitude of BMI decrease (between RYGB and LA-ERCP) to be predictive of conversion to open approach. CUSUM analysis of operative time demonstrated a learning curve at case 27 for the surgical team and case 9 for the gastroenterology team. On binary cut analysis, 3-5 cases per surgeon were needed to optimize operative metrics. CONCLUSION: LA-ERCP is associated with high success rates and low adverse events. We identify outcome benchmarks and a learning curve for new adopters of this increasingly performed procedure.

19.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 28(5): 2831-2843, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33389294

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Accurate clinical staging (CS) of gastric cancer is critical for appropriate treatment selection and prognostication, but CS remains highly imprecise. Our study evaluates factors associated with inaccurate CS, the impact of inaccurate CS on outcomes, and utilization of adjuvant therapy in patients who are understaged. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of NCDB patients diagnosed with clinical early stage gastric adenocarcinoma (cT1-2N0M0) between 2004 and 2016. Patients not undergoing upfront gastrectomy or with missing pathologic staging were excluded. Patients were classified as accurately staged, inaccurately staged with receipt of adjuvant therapy (IS+), and inaccurately staged with no receipt of adjuvant therapy (IS-). Logistic regression was utilized to assess the impact of factors on CS accuracy and receipt of adjuvant therapies. Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazard methods were used for survival analysis. RESULTS: Approximately 40% of patients were inaccurately staged (IS). cT2, moderately/poorly differentiated, and site-overlapping tumors were associated with increased likelihood of being IS. Treatment at an academic facility was associated with decreased likelihood of understaging. Only 54% of patients who were IS received adjuvant therapy. CONCLUSION: Accurate CS of gastric cancer remains inadequate. Understaging is associated with detrimental effects on receiving guideline-concordant care and, possibly, patient outcomes. Targeted interventions reducing the proportion of understaged patients and ensuring receipt of appropriate therapy is needed to optimize outcomes. Patients with high-risk disease that are frequently understaged may benefit from selective neoadjuvant therapy. Centralization of gastric cancer care may also be a key strategy in improving receipt of guideline-concordant therapies.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma , Neoplasias Gástricas , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Gastrectomia , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Terapia Neoadjuvante , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Estudos Retrospectivos , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia
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