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1.
J Interv Cardiol ; 2019: 4292987, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31772530

RESUMO

Background: Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is currently recommended for patients with severe aortic stenosis at intermediate or high surgical risk. The decision process during TAVI evaluation includes a thorough benefit-risk assessment, and knowledge about long-term benefits and outcomes may improve patients' expectation management. Objective: To evaluate patients' perceived health status and self-reported long-term outcome more than 5 years after TAVI. Methods and Results: Demographic and procedure data were obtained from all patients treated with TAVI at our institution from 2006 to 2012. A cross-sectional survey was conducted on the patients alive, measuring health status, including the EQ-5D-5L questionnaire, and clinical outcomes. 103 patients (22.8%) were alive at a median follow-up period of 7 years (5.4-9.8). 99 (96%) of the 103 patients were included in the final analysis. The mean age at follow-up was 86.5 years ± 8.0 years, and 56.6% were female. Almost all patients (93.9%) described an improvement of their quality of life after receiving TAVI. At late follow-up, the mean utility index and EQ-VAS score were 0.80 ± 0.20 and 58.49 ± 11.49, respectively. Mobility was found to be the most frequently reported limitation (85.4%), while anxiety/depression was the least frequently reported limitation (19.8%). With respect to functional class, 64.7% were in New York Heart Association (NYHA) class III or IV, compared to 67.0% prior to TAVI (p=0.51). Self-reported long-term outcomes revealed mainly low long-term complication rates. 74 total hospitalizations were reported after TAVI, and among those 43% for cardiovascular reasons. Within cardiovascular rehospitalizations, new pacemaker implantations were the most frequently reported (18.9%), followed by cardiac decompensation and coronary heart disease (15.6%). Conclusion: The majority of the patients described an improvement of health status after TAVI. More than five years after TAVI, the patients' perceived health status was satisfactory, and the incidence of clinical events and hospitalizations was very low.

4.
Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes ; 12(11): e005858, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31707826

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In ODYSSEY OUTCOMES (Evaluation of Cardiovascular Outcomes After an Acute Coronary Syndrome During Treatment With Alirocumab), alirocumab was compared with placebo, added to high-intensity or maximum tolerated statin treatment after acute coronary syndrome in 18 924 patients. Alirocumab reduced first occurrence of the primary composite end point-coronary heart disease death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, fatal or nonfatal ischemic stroke, or hospitalization for unstable angina-as well as total nonfatal cardiovascular events and all-cause deaths. The present analysis determined whether alirocumab reduced total (first and subsequent) hospitalizations and death and increased days alive and out of hospital (DAOH) and percent DAOH in ODYSSEY OUTCOMES. METHODS AND RESULTS: In prespecified analyses, hazard functions for total hospitalizations and death were jointly estimated by a semiparametric model, while in post hoc analyses, DAOH and percent DAOH were compared between treatment groups with Poisson regression and one-inflated beta regression, respectively. With 16 629 total hospitalizations and 726 deaths, 331 fewer hospitalizations, and 58 fewer deaths were observed with alirocumab compared with placebo, translating to 15.6 total hospitalizations or deaths avoided with alirocumab per 1000 patient-years of assigned treatment. Alirocumab reduced total hospitalizations (hazard ratio, 0.96 [95% CI, 0.92-1.00]; P=0.04) and increased DAOH relative to placebo (rate ratio, 1.003 [95% CI, 1.000-1.007]; P=0.05), primarily through a reduction in days dead (rate ratio, 0.847 [95% CI, 0.728-0.986]; P=0.03). Patients randomized to alirocumab were also more likely to survive to the end of the study without hospitalization (odds ratio, 1.06 [95% CI, 1.00-1.13]; P=0.03). CONCLUSIONS: Alirocumab reduced total hospitalizations with corresponding small increases in DAOH and percent DAOH. These outcomes provide alternative patient-centered metrics to capture the totality of alirocumab clinical efficacy after acute coronary syndrome. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01663402.

5.
Eur Heart J ; 2019 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31732742

RESUMO

AIMS: Lowering low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) reduces cardiovascular risk irrespective of age, but the evidence is less strong for older patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: This prespecified analysis from ODYSSEY OUTCOMES compared the effect of alirocumab vs. placebo in 18 924 patients with recent acute coronary syndrome (ACS) according to age. We examined the effect of assigned treatment on occurrence of the primary study outcome, a composite of coronary heart disease death, myocardial infarction, ischaemic stroke, or unstable angina requiring hospitalization [major adverse cardiovascular event (MACE)] and all-cause death. Relative risk reductions were consistent for patients ≥65 vs. <65 years for MACE [hazard ratio (HR) 0.78, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.68-0.91 vs. 0.89, 0.80-1.00; Pinteraction = 0.19] and all-cause death [HR 0.77, 0.62-0.95 vs. 0.94, 0.77-1.15; Pinteraction = 0.46], and consistent for MACE when dichotomizing at age 75 years (HR 0.85, 0.64-1.13 in ≥75 vs. 0.85, 0.78-0.93 in <75, Pinteraction = 0.19). When considering age as a continuous variable in regression models, advancing age increased risk of MACE, as well as the absolute reduction in MACE with alirocumab, with numbers-needed-to-treat for MACE at 3 years of 43 (25-186) at age 45 years, 26 (15-97) at age 75 years, and 12 (6-81) for those at age 85 years. Although adverse events were more frequent in older patients, there were no differences between alirocumab and placebo. CONCLUSION: In patients with recent ACS, alirocumab improves outcomes irrespective of age. Increasing absolute benefit but not harm with advancing age suggests that LDL-C lowering is an important preventive intervention for older patients after ACS.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31631509

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We investigated whether transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) results in a short-term decrease in left atrium (LA) size and whether such decrease may predict patients' clinical outcome. BACKGROUND: Increased LA size is a hallmark of severe aortic stenosis (AS) and is associated with adverse patients' cardiovascular outcome. Whether TAVR may lead to a decrease in LA size is not known. METHODS AND RESULTS: Hundred and four patients with severe symptomatic AS and dilated LA undergoing TAVR were enrolled. LA volume was assessed by echocardiography before and shortly after TAVR (median time: 7 days). Composite rate of death and hospitalization for acutely decompensated heart failure (HF) was recorded and clinical status was assessed through NYHA-class evaluation at 12 months median follow-up. After TAVR, 49 patients (47%) demonstrated a decrease in LA volume. Despite a similar baseline NYHA class, patients with decrease in LA size had significant better improvement in clinical status respect to patients with unvaried LA size (NYHA post: 1.2 ± 0.6 vs. 1.8 ± 1.1, p = .001; NYHA reduction: -1.6 ± 0.9 vs. -0.9 ± 1.0, p = .002, respectively). Moreover, these patients had a significantly reduced rate of death or HF-hospitalization (4 vs. 29%, p = .001) and a significantly longer event-free-survival from Kaplan-Meier curves (p = .003). COX regression analysis showed that, among echocardiographic parameters, decrease in LA size was an independent predictor of clinical outcome (HR: 0.149, CI: 0.034-0.654, p = .012). CONCLUSIONS: The lack of decrease in LA size shortly after TAVR is associated with significantly higher rates of death and HF-hospitalization, as well as with impaired improvement in clinical status during long-term follow-up.

7.
Eur Heart J ; 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31504400

RESUMO

AIMS: Clonal haematopoiesis of indeterminate potential (CHIP), defined as the presence of an expanded somatic blood cell clone without other haematological abnormalities, was recently shown to increase with age and is associated with coronary artery disease and calcification. The most commonly mutated CHIP genes, DNMT3A and TET2, were shown to regulate inflammatory potential of circulating leucocytes. The incidence of degenerative calcified aortic valve (AV) stenosis increases with age and correlates with chronic inflammation. We assessed the incidence of CHIP and its association with inflammatory blood cell phenotypes in patients with AV stenosis undergoing transfemoral aortic valve implantation (TAVI). METHODS AND RESULTS: Targeted amplicon sequencing for DNMT3A and TET2 was performed in 279 patients with severe AV stenosis undergoing TAVI. Somatic DNMT3A- or TET2-CHIP-driver mutations with a VAF ≥ 2% were detected in 93 out of 279 patients (33.3%), with an age-dependent increase in the incidence from 25% (55-69 years) to 52.9% (90-100 years). Patients with DNMT3A- or TET2-CHIP-driver mutations did not differ from patients without such mutations in clinical parameters, concomitant atherosclerotic disease, blood cell counts, inflammatory markers, or procedural characteristics. However, patients with DNMT3A- or TET2-CHIP-driver mutations had a profoundly increased medium-term all-cause mortality following successful TAVI. Differential myeloid and T-cell distributions revealed pro-inflammatory T-cell polarization in DNMT3A-mutation carriers and increased pro-inflammatory non-classical monocytes in TET2-mutation carriers. CONCLUSION: This is the first study to show that acquired somatic mutations in the most commonly mutated CHIP-driver genes occur frequently in patients with severe degenerative AV stenosis, are associated with increased pro-inflammatory leucocyte subsets, and confer a profound increase in mortality following successful TAVI.

8.
Circulation ; 140(19): 1578-1589, 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31475572

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The 2018 US cholesterol management guidelines recommend additional lipid-lowering therapies for secondary prevention in patients with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol ≥70 mg/dL or non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ≥100 mg/dL despite maximum tolerated statin therapy. Such patients are considered at very high risk (VHR) based on a history of >1 major atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) event or a single ASCVD event and multiple high-risk conditions. We investigated the association of US guideline-defined risk categories with the occurrence of ischemic events after acute coronary syndrome and reduction of those events by alirocumab, a PCSK9 (proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9) inhibitor. METHODS: In the ODYSSEY OUTCOMES trial (Evaluation of Cardiovascular Outcomes After an Acute Coronary Syndrome During Treatment With Alirocumab), patients with recent acute coronary syndrome and residual dyslipidemia despite optimal statin therapy were randomly assigned to alirocumab or placebo. The primary trial outcome (major adverse cardiovascular events, ie, coronary heart disease death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, or hospitalization for unstable angina) was examined according to American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association risk category. RESULTS: Of 18 924 participants followed for a median of 2.8 years, 11 935 (63.1%) were classified as VHR: 4450 (37.3%) had multiple prior ASCVD events and 7485 (62.7%) had 1 major ASCVD event and multiple high-risk conditions. Major adverse cardiovascular events occurred in 14.4% of placebo-treated patients at VHR versus 5.6% of those not at VHR. In the VHR category, major adverse cardiovascular events occurred in 20.4% with multiple prior ASCVD events versus 10.7% with 1 ASCVD event and multiple high-risk conditions. Alirocumab was associated with consistent relative risk reductions in both risk categories (hazard ratio=0.84 for VHR; hazard ratio=0.86 for not VHR; Pinteraction=0.820) and by stratification within the VHR group (hazard ratio=0.86 for multiple prior ASCVD events; hazard ratio=0.82 for 1 major ASCVD event and multiple high-risk conditions; Pinteraction=0.672). The absolute risk reduction for major adverse cardiovascular events with alirocumab was numerically greater (but not statistically different) in the VHR group versus those not at VHR (2.1% versus 0.8%; Pinteraction=0.095) and among patients at VHR with multiple prior ASCVD events versus a single prior ASCVD event (2.4% versus 1.8%; Pinteraction=0.661). CONCLUSIONS: The US guideline criteria identify patients with recent acute coronary syndrome and dyslipidemia who are at VHR for recurrent ischemic events and who may derive a larger absolute benefit from treatment with alirocumab. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01663402.

9.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 74(9): 1177-1186, 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31466614

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and history of coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) are at high risk for recurrent cardiovascular events and death. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to determine the clinical benefit of adding alirocumab to statins in ACS patients with prior CABG in a pre-specified analysis of ODYSSEY OUTCOMES (Evaluation of Cardiovascular Outcomes After an Acute Coronary Syndrome During Treatment With Alirocumab). METHODS: Patients (n = 18,924) 1 to 12 months post-ACS with elevated atherogenic lipoprotein levels despite high-intensity statin therapy were randomized to alirocumab or placebo subcutaneously every 2 weeks. Median follow-up was 2.8 years. The primary composite endpoint of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) comprised coronary heart disease death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, or unstable angina requiring hospitalization. All-cause death was a secondary endpoint. Patients were categorized by CABG status: no CABG (n = 16,896); index CABG after qualifying ACS, but before randomization (n = 1,025); or CABG before the qualifying ACS (n = 1,003). RESULTS: In each CABG category, hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) for MACE (no CABG 0.86 [0.78 to 0.95], index CABG 0.85 [0.54 to 1.35], prior CABG 0.77 [0.61 to 0.98]) and death (0.88 [0.75 to 1.03], 0.85 [0.46 to 1.59], 0.67 [0.44 to 1.01], respectively) were consistent with the overall trial results (0.85 [0.78 to 0.93] and 0.85 [0.73 to 0.98], respectively). Absolute risk reductions (95% confidence intervals) differed across CABG categories for MACE (no CABG 1.3% [0.5% to 2.2%], index CABG 0.9% [-2.3% to 4.0%], prior CABG 6.4% [0.9% to 12.0%]) and for death (0.4% [-0.1% to 1.0%], 0.5% [-1.9% to 2.9%], and 3.6% [0.0% to 7.2%]). CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with recent ACS and elevated atherogenic lipoproteins despite intensive statin therapy, alirocumab was associated with large absolute reductions in MACE and death in those with CABG preceding the ACS event. (ODYSSEY OUTCOMES: Evaluation of Cardiovascular Outcomes After an Acute Coronary Syndrome During Treatment With Alirocumab; NCT01663402).

10.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 7(8): 618-628, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31272931

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: After acute coronary syndrome, diabetes conveys an excess risk of ischaemic cardiovascular events. A reduction in mean LDL cholesterol to 1·4-1·8 mmol/L with ezetimibe or statins reduces cardiovascular events in patients with an acute coronary syndrome and diabetes. However, the efficacy and safety of further reduction in LDL cholesterol with an inhibitor of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) after acute coronary syndrome is unknown. We aimed to explore this issue in a prespecified analysis of the ODYSSEY OUTCOMES trial of the PCSK9 inhibitor alirocumab, assessing its effects on cardiovascular outcomes by baseline glycaemic status, while also assessing its effects on glycaemic measures including risk of new-onset diabetes. METHODS: ODYSSEY OUTCOMES was a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, done at 1315 sites in 57 countries, that compared alirocumab with placebo in patients who had been admitted to hospital with an acute coronary syndrome (myocardial infarction or unstable angina) 1-12 months before randomisation and who had raised concentrations of atherogenic lipoproteins despite use of high-intensity statins. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive alirocumab or placebo every 2 weeks; randomisation was stratified by country and was done centrally with an interactive voice-response or web-response system. Alirocumab was titrated to target LDL cholesterol concentrations of 0·65-1·30 mmol/L. In this prespecified analysis, we investigated the effect of alirocumab on cardiovascular events by glycaemic status at baseline (diabetes, prediabetes, or normoglycaemia)-defined on the basis of patient history, review of medical records, or baseline HbA1c or fasting serum glucose-and risk of new-onset diabetes among those without diabetes at baseline. The primary endpoint was a composite of death from coronary heart disease, non-fatal myocardial infarction, fatal or non-fatal ischaemic stroke, or unstable angina requiring hospital admission. ODYSSEY OUTCOMES is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01663402. FINDINGS: At study baseline, 5444 patients (28·8%) had diabetes, 8246 (43·6%) had prediabetes, and 5234 (27·7%) had normoglycaemia. There were no significant differences across glycaemic categories in median LDL cholesterol at baseline (2·20-2·28 mmol/L), after 4 months' treatment with alirocumab (0·80 mmol/L), or after 4 months' treatment with placebo (2·25-2·28 mmol/L). In the placebo group, the incidence of the primary endpoint over a median of 2·8 years was greater in patients with diabetes (16·4%) than in those with prediabetes (9·2%) or normoglycaemia (8·5%); hazard ratio (HR) for diabetes versus normoglycaemia 2·09 (95% CI 1·78-2·46, p<0·0001) and for diabetes versus prediabetes 1·90 (1·65-2·17, p<0·0001). Alirocumab resulted in similar relative reductions in the incidence of the primary endpoint in each glycaemic category, but a greater absolute reduction in the incidence of the primary endpoint in patients with diabetes (2·3%, 95% CI 0·4 to 4·2) than in those with prediabetes (1·2%, 0·0 to 2·4) or normoglycaemia (1·2%, -0·3 to 2·7; absolute risk reduction pinteraction=0·0019). Among patients without diabetes at baseline, 676 (10·1%) developed diabetes in the placebo group, compared with 648 (9·6%) in the alirocumab group; alirocumab did not increase the risk of new-onset diabetes (HR 1·00, 95% CI 0·89-1·11). HRs were 0·97 (95% CI 0·87-1·09) for patients with prediabetes and 1·30 (95% CI 0·93-1·81) for those with normoglycaemia (pinteraction=0·11). INTERPRETATION: After a recent acute coronary syndrome, alirocumab treatment targeting an LDL cholesterol concentration of 0·65-1·30 mmol/L produced about twice the absolute reduction in cardiovascular events among patients with diabetes as in those without diabetes. Alirocumab treatment did not increase the risk of new-onset diabetes. FUNDING: Sanofi and Regeneron Pharmaceuticals.

11.
J Invasive Cardiol ; 31(7): E199-E204, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31257214

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Pairwise comparisons of clinical and hemodynamic outcomes with new transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) prostheses are needed to help interventionists select the most appropriate device. The self-expandable Portico valve (Abbott Vascular) was compared with the balloon-expandable Sapien 3 valve (Edwards Lifesciences) at a high-volume center in a real-world setting. METHODS: All patients undergoing TAVR with a new-generation device from March 2015 to September 2017 at a single center were included. Baseline, peri-interventional, and prospective 30-day follow-up data were obtained. A nearest-neighbor propensity-score matching procedure (2:1) was used, based on age, STS score, EuroScore II, New York Heart Association (NYHA) status, and sex. Primary endpoint was 30-day all-cause mortality. Secondary endpoints included procedural results, complications according to Valve Academic Research Consortium (VARC)-2 criteria, and echocardiographic findings. RESULTS: A total of 177 out of 273 patients were matched (104 Portico valves and 73 Sapien 3 valves). Procedural success rates were 99.0% vs 98.6%, respectively; P=NS). Contrast dye use (160 mL for Portico vs 120 mL for Sapien 3; P<.001) and fluoroscopy time (19.0 min for Portico vs 15.5 min for Sapien 3; P=.048) were significantly lower with the Sapien 3 device. Thirty-day mortality rate was 5.8% for the Portico group vs 4.1% for the Sapien 3 group (P=.74). Complication rates were similar between Portico and Sapien 3 groups: stroke (2.9% vs 4.1%, respectively; P=.31), major bleeding (3.8% vs 5.5%, respectively; P=.51), major vascular complications (5.8% vs 5.5%, respectively; P=.99), and pacemaker implantation (21.9% vs 17.5%, respectively; P=.55). A more-than-mild paravalvular leak was observed in 8.2% vs 4.5%, respectively (P=NS). CONCLUSIONS: Short-term clinical and hemodynamic outcomes were similar with Portico and Sapien 3 prostheses; no statistically significant differences were observed in mortality and major complication rates. An individually tailored prosthesis choice is suggested.

12.
Thromb Haemost ; 119(9): 1539-1545, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31226721

RESUMO

Despite dual antiplatelet therapy patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) continue to experience periprocedural ischemic events. In addition, all currently used antithrombotic drugs increase the bleeding risk. Thus, there is an unmet clinical need for antithrombotic strategies with improved efficacy and no increase in bleeding. Revacept is a novel, lesion-directed antithrombotic drug that does not interfere with the function of circulating platelets. This dimeric fusion protein of the extracellular domain of glycoprotein VI (the major platelet collagen receptor) and the human Fc-fragment inhibits collagen-mediated platelet adhesion and subsequent aggregation at the site of vascular injury. The randomized, double-blinded, phase II ISAR-PLASTER trial is based on extensive preclinical evaluation of Revacept and a favorable first-in-man trial. A total of 332 patients with stable coronary artery disease undergoing elective PCI will be randomized to either Revacept 160 mg, Revacept 80 mg, or placebo administered as single intravenous infusion directly before the intervention, on top of standard dual antiplatelet therapy and either heparin or bivalirudin, based on local practice and current guidelines. The primary endpoint is the composite of death or myocardial injury (defined as increase in high sensitivity troponin T ≥ 5 times the upper limit of normal) at 48 hours. The safety endpoint is bleeding of class 2 or higher according to the Bleeding Academic Research Consortium at 30 days. This phase II randomized, double blind trial will assess for the first time the efficacy and safety of Revacept-a lesion-directed inhibitor of platelet adhesion-in patients undergoing elective PCI.

13.
Biomarkers ; 24(6): 549-555, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31159594

RESUMO

Purpose: Established diagnostic thresholds for high-sensitivity cardiac troponins (hs-cTn) might not apply for elderly patients as they are elevated irrespective of the presence of an acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Aim of the present study was to investigate hs-cTnI in elderly patients with suspected AMI and to calculate optimized diagnostic cutoffs. Material and methods: Data from a prospective multi-centre study and from a second independent prospective single-centre cohort study were analysed. A number of 2903 patients were eligible for further analysis. Patients > 70 years were classified as elderly. hs-cTnI was measured upon admission. Results: Around 34.7% of 2903 patients were classified as elderly. Around 22.5% of elderly patients were finally diagnosed with AMI. Elderly patients had higher hs-cTnI levels at admission irrespective of the final diagnosis (p < 0.001). According to the AUROC, hs-cTnI was a strong marker for detection of AMI in elderly patients. Application of the 99th percentile cutoffs showed a substantially lower specificity in elderly. By using optimized thresholds, specificity was improved to levels as in younger patients in both cohorts but accompanied with a decrease in sensitivity. Conclusions: hs-cTnI levels have a lower specificity for detecting AMI in elderly patients. This lower specificity can be improved by using hs-cTnI thresholds optimized for elderly patients.

14.
Eur Heart J ; 40(24): 1942-1951, 2019 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31226213

RESUMO

AIMS: The value of platelet function testing (PFT) in predicting clinical outcomes and guiding P2Y12-inhibitor treatment is uncertain. In a pre-specified sub-study of the TROPICAL-ACS trial, we assessed ischaemic and bleeding risks according to high platelet reactivity (HPR) and low platelet reactivity (LPR) to ADP in patients receiving uniform prasugrel vs. PFT-guided clopidogrel or prasugrel. METHODS AND RESULTS: Acute coronary syndrome patients with PFT done 14 days after hospital discharge were included with prior randomization to uniform prasugrel for 12 months (control group, no treatment modification) vs. early de-escalation from prasugrel to clopidogrel and PFT-guided maintenance treatment (HPR: switch-back to prasugrel, non-HPR: clopidogrel). The composite ischaemic endpoint included cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke, while key safety outcome was Bleeding Academic Research Consortium (BARC) 2-5 bleeding, from PFT until 12 months. We identified 2527 patients with PFT results available: 1266 were randomized to the guided and 1261 to the control group. Before treatment adjustment, HPR was more prevalent in the guided group (40% vs. 15%), while LPR was more common in control patients (27% vs. 11%). Compared to control patients without HPR on prasugrel (n = 1073), similar outcomes were observed in guided patients kept on clopidogrel [n = 755, hazard ratio (HR): 1.06 (0.57-1.95), P = 0.86] and also in patients with HPR on clopidogrel switched to prasugrel [n = 511, HR: 0.96 (0.47-1.96), P = 0.91]. In contrast, HPR on prasugrel was associated with a higher risk for ischaemic events in control patients [n = 188, HR: 2.16 (1.01-4.65), P = 0.049]. Low platelet reactivity was an independent predictor of bleeding [HR: 1.74 (1.18-2.56), P = 0.005], without interaction (Pint = 0.76) between study groups. CONCLUSION: Based on this substudy of a randomized trial, selecting prasugrel or clopidogrel based on PFT resulted in similar ischaemic outcomes as uniform prasugrel therapy without HPR. Although infrequent, HPR on prasugrel was associated with increased risk of ischaemic events. Low platelet reactivity was a strong and independent predictor of bleeding both on prasugrel and clopidogrel.

15.
Circulation ; 140(2): 103-112, 2019 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31117810

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous trials of PCSK9 (proprotein convertase subtilisin-kexin type 9) inhibitors demonstrated reductions in major adverse cardiovascular events, but not death. We assessed the effects of alirocumab on death after index acute coronary syndrome. METHODS: ODYSSEY OUTCOMES (Evaluation of Cardiovascular Outcomes After an Acute Coronary Syndrome During Treatment With Alirocumab) was a double-blind, randomized comparison of alirocumab or placebo in 18 924 patients who had an ACS 1 to 12 months previously and elevated atherogenic lipoproteins despite intensive statin therapy. Alirocumab dose was blindly titrated to target achieved low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) between 25 and 50 mg/dL. We examined the effects of treatment on all-cause death and its components, cardiovascular and noncardiovascular death, with log-rank testing. Joint semiparametric models tested associations between nonfatal cardiovascular events and cardiovascular or noncardiovascular death. RESULTS: Median follow-up was 2.8 years. Death occurred in 334 (3.5%) and 392 (4.1%) patients, respectively, in the alirocumab and placebo groups (hazard ratio [HR], 0.85; 95% CI, 0.73 to 0.98; P=0.03, nominal P value). This resulted from nonsignificantly fewer cardiovascular (240 [2.5%] vs 271 [2.9%]; HR, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.74 to 1.05; P=0.15) and noncardiovascular (94 [1.0%] vs 121 [1.3%]; HR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.59 to 1.01; P=0.06) deaths with alirocumab. In a prespecified analysis of 8242 patients eligible for ≥3 years follow-up, alirocumab reduced death (HR, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.65 to 0.94; P=0.01). Patients with nonfatal cardiovascular events were at increased risk for cardiovascular and noncardiovascular deaths ( P<0.0001 for the associations). Alirocumab reduced total nonfatal cardiovascular events ( P<0.001) and thereby may have attenuated the number of cardiovascular and noncardiovascular deaths. A post hoc analysis found that, compared to patients with lower LDL-C, patients with baseline LDL-C ≥100 mg/dL (2.59 mmol/L) had a greater absolute risk of death and a larger mortality benefit from alirocumab (HR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.56 to 0.90; Pinteraction=0.007). In the alirocumab group, all-cause death declined with achieved LDL-C at 4 months of treatment, to a level of approximately 30 mg/dL (adjusted P=0.017 for linear trend). CONCLUSIONS: Alirocumab added to intensive statin therapy has the potential to reduce death after acute coronary syndrome, particularly if treatment is maintained for ≥3 years, if baseline LDL-C is ≥100 mg/dL, or if achieved LDL-C is low. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov . Unique identifier: NCT01663402.

16.
Eur Heart J ; 40(33): 2801-2809, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31121022

RESUMO

AIMS : The third Universal Definition of Myocardial Infarction (MI) Task Force classified MIs into five types: Type 1, spontaneous; Type 2, related to oxygen supply/demand imbalance; Type 3, fatal without ascertainment of cardiac biomarkers; Type 4, related to percutaneous coronary intervention; and Type 5, related to coronary artery bypass surgery. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) reduction with statins and proprotein convertase subtilisin-kexin Type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors reduces risk of MI, but less is known about effects on types of MI. ODYSSEY OUTCOMES compared the PCSK9 inhibitor alirocumab with placebo in 18 924 patients with recent acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and elevated LDL-C (≥1.8 mmol/L) despite intensive statin therapy. In a pre-specified analysis, we assessed the effects of alirocumab on types of MI. METHODS AND RESULTS : Median follow-up was 2.8 years. Myocardial infarction types were prospectively adjudicated and classified. Of 1860 total MIs, 1223 (65.8%) were adjudicated as Type 1, 386 (20.8%) as Type 2, and 244 (13.1%) as Type 4. Few events were Type 3 (n = 2) or Type 5 (n = 5). Alirocumab reduced first MIs [hazard ratio (HR) 0.85, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.77-0.95; P = 0.003], with reductions in both Type 1 (HR 0.87, 95% CI 0.77-0.99; P = 0.032) and Type 2 (0.77, 0.61-0.97; P = 0.025), but not Type 4 MI. CONCLUSION : After ACS, alirocumab added to intensive statin therapy favourably impacted on Type 1 and 2 MIs. The data indicate for the first time that a lipid-lowering therapy can attenuate the risk of Type 2 MI. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol reduction below levels achievable with statins is an effective preventive strategy for both MI types.

17.
Cardiol J ; 2019 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30994180

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nutritional risk index (NRI) has been shown to better predict survival than body mass index (BMI) or albumin after several cardiovascular interventions. Under assessment herein is whether NRI can have higher predictive value than conventional parameters for short-term survival after transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). METHODS: A prospective cohort study was performed. In-hospital, 1-month and 3-month survival was evaluated. Since most patients undergoing TAVR are over 65, the NRI definition for a geriatric population (GNRI) was used. The impact of baseline BMI, albumin levels, and GNRI on in-hospital and short-term survival was assessed. RESULTS: 152 patients aged 82 ± 5.4 were included. In-hospital, 1-month, and 3-month mortality was 5.3%, 5.9%, and 9.2%, respectively. Mean GNRI was 112.7 ± 11.9, and was significantly lower in patients who died in-hospital (101.0 ± 8.8 vs. 113.3 ± 11.7), at 30 days (103.4 ± 10.9 vs. 113.3 ± 11.7), and at 90 days (104.0 ± 9.6 vs. 113.6 ± 11.8) than in survivors (all, p < 0.05). Three-month mortality in patients with no nutritional risk was 6.8% (9/132) vs. 25% (5/20) in patients with malnutrition (p = 0.022). In univariate analysis, GNRI predicted in-hospital, 30-day, and 90-day mortality (all, p < 0.05). Predictive value remained significant after adjusting for age, EuroSCORE II, and STS-Score (p < 0.05). Based on Receiver operating curves, GNRI (AUC: 0.73) showed a better discrimination for 3-month mortality than albumin (0.69), weight (0.67) or BMI (0.62). The optimal cut-off value was 109.8. CONCLUSIONS: The geriatric nutritional risk index predicts short-term mortality after TAVR and has a higher discriminating ability than other commonly used nutritional variables. It is a simple parameter that identifies those patients who could benefit from pre-procedural nutritional therapy.

18.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 74(9): 1167-1176, 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30898609

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and concomitant noncoronary atherosclerosis have a high risk of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs) and death. The impact of lipid lowering by proprotein convertase subtilisin-kexin type 9 inhibition in such patients is undetermined. OBJECTIVES: This pre-specified analysis from ODYSSEY OUTCOMES (Evaluation of Cardiovascular Outcomes After an Acute Coronary Syndrome During Treatment With Alirocumab) determined whether polyvascular disease influenced risks of MACEs and death and their modification by alirocumab in patients with recent ACS and dyslipidemia despite intensive statin therapy. METHODS: Patients were randomized to alirocumab or placebo 1 to 12 months after ACS. The primary MACEs endpoint was the composite of coronary heart disease death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, fatal or nonfatal ischemic stroke, or unstable angina requiring hospitalization. All-cause death was a secondary endpoint. RESULTS: Median follow-up was 2.8 years. Of 18,924 patients, 17,370 had monovascular (coronary) disease, 1,405 had polyvascular disease in 2 beds (coronary and peripheral artery or cerebrovascular), and 149 had polyvascular disease in 3 beds (coronary, peripheral artery, cerebrovascular). With placebo, the incidence of MACEs by respective vascular categories was 10.0%, 22.2%, and 39.7%. With alirocumab, the corresponding absolute risk reduction was 1.4% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.6% to 2.3%), 1.9% (95% CI: -2.4% to 6.2%), and 13.0% (95% CI: -2.0% to 28.0%). With placebo, the incidence of death by respective vascular categories was 3.5%, 10.0%, and 21.8%; the absolute risk reduction with alirocumab was 0.4% (95% CI: -0.1% to 1.0%), 1.3% (95% CI: -1.8% to 4.3%), and 16.2% (95% CI: 5.5% to 26.8%). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with recent ACS and dyslipidemia despite intensive statin therapy, polyvascular disease is associated with high risks of MACEs and death. The large absolute reductions in those risks with alirocumab are a potential benefit for these patients. (Evaluation of Cardiovascular Outcomes After an Acute Coronary Syndrome During Treatment With Alirocumab [ODYSSEY OUTCOMES]: NCT01663402).

19.
ESC Heart Fail ; 6(3): 536-544, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30912310

RESUMO

AIMS: Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23) is known to be elevated in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF). As FGF-23 is expressed in the bone but can also be expressed in the myocardium, the origin of serum FGF-23 in CHF remains unclear. It is also unclear if FGF-23 expressed in the bone is associated with outcome in CHF. The aim of the present study was to investigate FGF-23 levels measured in bone marrow plasma (FGF-23-BM) and in peripheral blood (FGF-23-P) in CHF patients to gain further insights into the heart-bone axis of FGF-23 expression. We also investigated possible associations between FGF-23-BM as well as FGF-23-P and outcome in CHF patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: We determined FGF-23-P and FGF-23-BM levels in 203 CHF patients (85% male, mean age 61.3 years) with a left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≤45% and compared them with those of 48 healthy controls (48% male, mean age 39.2 years). We investigated the association between FGF-23-BM and FGF-23-P with all-cause mortality in CHF patients, 32 events, median follow-up 1673 days, interquartile range [923, 1828]. FGF-23-P (median 60.3 vs. 22.0 RU/mL, P < 0.001) and FGF-23-BM (median 130.7 vs. 93.1 RU/mL, P < 0.001) levels were higher in CHF patients compared with healthy controls. FGF-23-BM levels were significantly higher than FGF-23-P levels in both CHF patients and in healthy controls (P < 0.001). FGF-23-P and FGF-23-BM correlated significantly with LVEF (r = -0.37 and r = -0.33, respectively), N terminal pro brain natriuretic peptide levels (r = 0.57 and r = 0.6, respectively), New York Heart Association status (r = 0.28 and r = 0.25, respectively), and estimated glomerular filtration rate (r = -0.43 and r = -0.41, respectively) (P for all <0.001) and were independently associated with all-cause mortality in CHF patients after adjustment for LVEF, estimated glomerular filtration rate, New York Heart Association status, and N terminal pro brain natriuretic peptide, hazard ratio 2.71 [confidence interval: 1.18-6.20], P = 0.018, and hazard ratio 2.80 [confidence interval: 1.19-6.57], P = 0.018, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: In CHF patients, FGF-23 is elevated in bone marrow plasma and is independently associated with heart failure severity and all-cause mortality. The failing heart seems to interact via FGF-23 within a heart-bone axis.

20.
FASEB J ; 33(3): 4107-4123, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30526058

RESUMO

The epigenetic enzyme p300/CBP-associated factor (PCAF) belongs to the GCN5-related N-acetyltransferase (GNAT) family together with GCN5. Although its transcriptional and post-translational function is well characterized, little is known about its properties as regulator of cell metabolism. Here, we report the mitochondrial localization of PCAF conferred by an 85 aa mitochondrial targeting sequence (MTS) at the N-terminal region of the protein. In mitochondria, one of the PCAF targets is the isocitrate dehydrogenase 2 (IDH2) acetylated at lysine 180. This PCAF-regulated post-translational modification might reduce IDH2 affinity for isocitrate as a result of a conformational shift involving predictively the tyrosine at position 179. Site-directed mutagenesis and functional studies indicate that PCAF regulates IDH2, acting at dual level during myoblast differentiation: at a transcriptional level together with MyoD, and at a post-translational level by direct modification of lysine acetylation in mitochondria. The latter event determines a decrease in IDH2 function with negative consequences on muscle fiber formation in C2C12 cells. Indeed, a MTS-deprived PCAF does not localize into mitochondria, remains enriched into the nucleus, and contributes to a significant increase of muscle-specific gene expression enhancing muscle differentiation. The role of PCAF in mitochondria is a novel finding shedding light on metabolic processes relevant to early muscle precursor differentiation.-Savoia, M., Cencioni, C., Mori, M., Atlante, S., Zaccagnini, G., Devanna, P., Di Marcotullio, L., Botta, B., Martelli, F., Zeiher, A. M., Pontecorvi, A., Farsetti, A., Spallotta, F., Gaetano, C. P300/CBP-associated factor regulates transcription and function of isocitrate dehydrogenase 2 during muscle differentiation.

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