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1.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(36)2021 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34479998

RESUMO

Quantum error correction is an essential tool for reliably performing tasks for processing quantum information on a large scale. However, integration into quantum circuits to achieve these tasks is problematic when one realizes that nontransverse operations, which are essential for universal quantum computation, lead to the spread of errors. Quantum gate teleportation has been proposed as an elegant solution for this. Here, one replaces these fragile, nontransverse inline gates with the generation of specific, highly entangled offline resource states that can be teleported into the circuit to implement the nontransverse gate. As the first important step, we create a maximally entangled state between a physical and an error-correctable logical qubit and use it as a teleportation resource. We then demonstrate the teleportation of quantum information encoded on the physical qubit into the error-corrected logical qubit with fidelities up to 0.786. Our scheme can be designed to be fully fault tolerant so that it can be used in future large-scale quantum technologies.

2.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(42): 26118-26122, 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004628

RESUMO

We present an experimental demonstration of a general entanglement-generation framework, where the form of the entangled state is independent of the physical process used to produce the particles. It is the indistinguishability of multiple generation processes and the geometry of the setup that give rise to the entanglement. Such a framework, termed entanglement by path identity, exhibits a high degree of customizability. We employ one class of such geometries to build a modular source of photon pairs that are high-dimensionally entangled in their orbital angular momentum. We demonstrate the creation of three-dimensionally entangled states and show how to incrementally increase the dimensionality of entanglement. The generated states retain their quality even in higher dimensions. In addition, the design of our source allows for its generalization to various degrees of freedom and even for the implementation in integrated compact devices. The concept of entanglement by path identity itself is a general scheme and allows for construction of sources producing also customized states of multiple photons. We therefore expect that future quantum technologies and fundamental tests of nature in higher dimensions will benefit from this approach.

3.
Phys Rev Lett ; 125(5): 050501, 2020 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32794870

RESUMO

An open question in quantum optics is how to manipulate and control complex quantum states in an experimentally feasible way. Here we present concepts for transformations of high-dimensional multiphotonic quantum systems. The proposals rely on two new ideas: (i) a novel high-dimensional quantum nondemolition measurement, (ii) the encoding and decoding of the entire quantum transformation in an ancillary state for sharing the necessary quantum information between the involved parties. Many solutions can readily be performed in laboratories around the world and thereby we identify important pathways for experimental research in the near future. The concepts have been found using the computer algorithm melvin for designing computer-inspired quantum experiments. As opposed to the field of machine learning, here the human learns new scientific concepts by interpreting and analyzing the results presented by the machine. This demonstrates that computer algorithms can inspire new ideas in science, which has a widely unexplored potential that goes far beyond experimental quantum information science.

4.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(4): 1910-1916, 2020 01 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31937664

RESUMO

The vast and growing number of publications in all disciplines of science cannot be comprehended by a single human researcher. As a consequence, researchers have to specialize in narrow subdisciplines, which makes it challenging to uncover scientific connections beyond the own field of research. Thus, access to structured knowledge from a large corpus of publications could help push the frontiers of science. Here, we demonstrate a method to build a semantic network from published scientific literature, which we call SemNet We use SemNet to predict future trends in research and to inspire personalized and surprising seeds of ideas in science. We apply it in the discipline of quantum physics, which has seen an unprecedented growth of activity in recent years. In SemNet, scientific knowledge is represented as an evolving network using the content of 750,000 scientific papers published since 1919. The nodes of the network correspond to physical concepts, and links between two nodes are drawn when two concepts are concurrently studied in research articles. We identify influential and prize-winning research topics from the past inside SemNet, thus confirming that it stores useful semantic knowledge. We train a neural network using states of SemNet of the past to predict future developments in quantum physics and confirm high-quality predictions using historic data. Using network theoretical tools, we can suggest personalized, out-of-the-box ideas by identifying pairs of concepts, which have unique and extremal semantic network properties. Finally, we consider possible future developments and implications of our findings.

5.
Phys Rev Lett ; 123(7): 070505, 2019 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31491117

RESUMO

Quantum teleportation allows a "disembodied" transmission of unknown quantum states between distant quantum systems. Yet, all teleportation experiments to date were limited to a two-dimensional subspace of quantized multiple levels of the quantum systems. Here, we propose a scheme for teleportation of arbitrarily high-dimensional photonic quantum states and demonstrate an example of teleporting a qutrit. Measurements over a complete set of 12 qutrit states in mutually unbiased bases yield a teleportation fidelity of 0.75(1), which is well above both the optimal single-copy qutrit state-estimation limit of 1/2 and maximal qubit-qutrit overlap of 2/3, thus confirming a genuine and nonclassical three-dimensional teleportation. Our work will enable advanced quantum technologies in high dimensions, since teleportation plays a central role in quantum repeaters and quantum networks.

6.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(14): 6684-6688, 2019 04 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30872476

RESUMO

Quantum entanglement is one of the most extraordinary effects in quantum physics, with many applications in the emerging field of quantum information science. In particular, it provides the foundation for quantum key distribution (QKD), which promises a conceptual leap in information security. Entanglement-based QKD holds great promise for future applications owing to the possibility of device-independent security and the potential of establishing global-scale quantum repeater networks. While other approaches to QKD have already reached the level of maturity required for operation in absence of typical laboratory infrastructure, comparable field demonstrations of entanglement-based QKD have not been performed so far. Here, we report on the successful distribution of polarization-entangled photon pairs between Malta and Sicily over 96 km of submarine optical telecommunications fiber. We observe around 257 photon pairs per second, with a polarization visibility above 90%. Our results show that QKD based on polarization entanglement is now indeed viable in long-distance fiber links. This field demonstration marks the longest-distance distribution of entanglement in a deployed telecommunications network and demonstrates an international submarine quantum communication channel. This opens up myriad possibilities for future experiments and technological applications using existing infrastructure.

7.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(10): 4147-4155, 2019 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30770451

RESUMO

We present an approach to describe state-of-the-art photonic quantum experiments using graph theory. There, the quantum states are given by the coherent superpositions of perfect matchings. The crucial observation is that introducing complex weights in graphs naturally leads to quantum interference. This viewpoint immediately leads to many interesting results, some of which we present here. First, we identify an experimental unexplored multiphoton interference phenomenon. Second, we find that computing the results of such experiments is #P-hard, which means it is a classically intractable problem dealing with the computation of a matrix function Permanent and its generalization Hafnian. Third, we explain how a recent no-go result applies generally to linear optical quantum experiments, thus revealing important insights into quantum state generation with current photonic technology. Fourth, we show how to describe quantum protocols such as entanglement swapping in a graphical way. The uncovered bridge between quantum experiments and graph theory offers another perspective on a widely used technology and immediately raises many follow-up questions.

8.
Phys Rev Lett ; 121(8): 080403, 2018 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30192604

RESUMO

In this Letter, we present a cosmic Bell experiment with polarization-entangled photons, in which measurement settings were determined based on real-time measurements of the wavelength of photons from high-redshift quasars, whose light was emitted billions of years ago; the experiment simultaneously ensures locality. Assuming fair sampling for all detected photons and that the wavelength of the quasar photons had not been selectively altered or previewed between emission and detection, we observe statistically significant violation of Bell's inequality by 9.3 standard deviations, corresponding to an estimated p value of ≲7.4×10^{-21}. This experiment pushes back to at least ∼7.8 Gyr ago the most recent time by which any local-realist influences could have exploited the "freedom-of-choice" loophole to engineer the observed Bell violation, excluding any such mechanism from 96% of the space-time volume of the past light cone of our experiment, extending from the big bang to today.

9.
Phys Rev Lett ; 120(10): 103601, 2018 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29570339

RESUMO

We present an in principle lossless sorter for radial modes of light, using accumulated Gouy phases. The experimental setups have been found by a computer algorithm, and can be intuitively understood in a geometric way. Together with the ability to sort angular-momentum modes, we now have access to the complete two-dimensional transverse plane of light. The device can readily be used in multiplexing classical information. On a quantum level, it is an analog of the Stern-Gerlach experiment-significant for the discussion of fundamental concepts in quantum physics. As such, it can be applied in high-dimensional and multiphotonic quantum experiments.

10.
Phys Rev Lett ; 120(3): 030501, 2018 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29400544

RESUMO

We perform decoy-state quantum key distribution between a low-Earth-orbit satellite and multiple ground stations located in Xinglong, Nanshan, and Graz, which establish satellite-to-ground secure keys with ∼kHz rate per passage of the satellite Micius over a ground station. The satellite thus establishes a secure key between itself and, say, Xinglong, and another key between itself and, say, Graz. Then, upon request from the ground command, Micius acts as a trusted relay. It performs bitwise exclusive or operations between the two keys and relays the result to one of the ground stations. That way, a secret key is created between China and Europe at locations separated by 7600 km on Earth. These keys are then used for intercontinental quantum-secured communication. This was, on the one hand, the transmission of images in a one-time pad configuration from China to Austria as well as from Austria to China. Also, a video conference was performed between the Austrian Academy of Sciences and the Chinese Academy of Sciences, which also included a 280 km optical ground connection between Xinglong and Beijing. Our work clearly confirms the Micius satellite as a robust platform for quantum key distribution with different ground stations on Earth, and points towards an efficient solution for an ultralong-distance global quantum network.

11.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 115(6): 1221-1226, 2018 02 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29348200

RESUMO

How useful can machine learning be in a quantum laboratory? Here we raise the question of the potential of intelligent machines in the context of scientific research. A major motivation for the present work is the unknown reachability of various entanglement classes in quantum experiments. We investigate this question by using the projective simulation model, a physics-oriented approach to artificial intelligence. In our approach, the projective simulation system is challenged to design complex photonic quantum experiments that produce high-dimensional entangled multiphoton states, which are of high interest in modern quantum experiments. The artificial intelligence system learns to create a variety of entangled states and improves the efficiency of their realization. In the process, the system autonomously (re)discovers experimental techniques which are only now becoming standard in modern quantum optical experiments-a trait which was not explicitly demanded from the system but emerged through the process of learning. Such features highlight the possibility that machines could have a significantly more creative role in future research.

12.
Light Sci Appl ; 7: 17146, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30839541

RESUMO

Twisted photons can be used as alphabets to encode information beyond one bit per single photon. This ability offers great potential for quantum information tasks, as well as for the investigation of fundamental questions. In this review article, we give a brief overview of the theoretical differences between qubits and higher dimensional systems, qudits, in different quantum information scenarios. We then describe recent experimental developments in this field over the past three years. Finally, we summarize some important experimental and theoretical questions that might be beneficial to understand better in the near future.

13.
Phys Rev Lett ; 119(18): 180510, 2017 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29219590

RESUMO

Transformations on quantum states form a basic building block of every quantum information system. From photonic polarization to two-level atoms, complete sets of quantum gates for a variety of qubit systems are well known. For multilevel quantum systems beyond qubits, the situation is more challenging. The orbital angular momentum modes of photons comprise one such high-dimensional system for which generation and measurement techniques are well studied. However, arbitrary transformations for such quantum states are not known. Here we experimentally demonstrate a four-dimensional generalization of the Pauli X gate and all of its integer powers on single photons carrying orbital angular momentum. Together with the well-known Z gate, this forms the first complete set of high-dimensional quantum gates implemented experimentally. The concept of the X gate is based on independent access to quantum states with different parities and can thus be generalized to other photonic degrees of freedom and potentially also to other quantum systems.

14.
Phys Rev Lett ; 119(24): 240403, 2017 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29286732

RESUMO

We show a surprising link between experimental setups to realize high-dimensional multipartite quantum states and graph theory. In these setups, the paths of photons are identified such that the photon-source information is never created. We find that each of these setups corresponds to an undirected graph, and every undirected graph corresponds to an experimental setup. Every term in the emerging quantum superposition corresponds to a perfect matching in the graph. Calculating the final quantum state is in the #P-complete complexity class, thus it cannot be done efficiently. To strengthen the link further, theorems from graph theory-such as Hall's marriage problem-are rephrased in the language of pair creation in quantum experiments. We show explicitly how this link allows one to answer questions about quantum experiments (such as which classes of entangled states can be created) with graph theoretical methods, and how to potentially simulate properties of graphs and networks with quantum experiments (such as critical exponents and phase transitions).

15.
Phys Rev Lett ; 118(25): 259902, 2017 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28696744

RESUMO

This corrects the article DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.118.080401.

16.
Phys Rev Lett ; 118(8): 080401, 2017 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28282180

RESUMO

Quantum entanglement is one of the most prominent features of quantum mechanics and forms the basis of quantum information technologies. Here we present a novel method for the creation of quantum entanglement in multipartite and high-dimensional systems. The two ingredients are (i) superposition of photon pairs with different origins and (ii) aligning photons such that their paths are identical. We explain the experimentally feasible creation of various classes of multiphoton entanglement encoded in polarization as well as in high-dimensional Hilbert spaces-starting only from nonentangled photon pairs. For two photons, arbitrary high-dimensional entanglement can be created. The idea of generating entanglement by path identity could also apply to quantum entities other than photons. We discovered the technique by analyzing the output of a computer algorithm. This shows that computer designed quantum experiments can be inspirations for new techniques.

17.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 114(7): 1508-1511, 2017 02 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28143940

RESUMO

We report a measurement of the transverse momentum correlation between two photons by detecting only one of them. Our method uses two identical sources in an arrangement in which the phenomenon of induced coherence without induced emission is observed. In this way, we produce an interference pattern in the superposition of one beam from each source. We quantify the transverse momentum correlation by analyzing the visibility of this pattern. Our approach might be useful for the characterization of correlated photon pair sources and may lead to an experimental measure of continuous variable entanglement, which relies on the detection of only one of two entangled particles.

18.
Phys Rev Lett ; 118(6): 060401, 2017 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28234500

RESUMO

Bell's theorem states that some predictions of quantum mechanics cannot be reproduced by a local-realist theory. That conflict is expressed by Bell's inequality, which is usually derived under the assumption that there are no statistical correlations between the choices of measurement settings and anything else that can causally affect the measurement outcomes. In previous experiments, this "freedom of choice" was addressed by ensuring that selection of measurement settings via conventional "quantum random number generators" was spacelike separated from the entangled particle creation. This, however, left open the possibility that an unknown cause affected both the setting choices and measurement outcomes as recently as mere microseconds before each experimental trial. Here we report on a new experimental test of Bell's inequality that, for the first time, uses distant astronomical sources as "cosmic setting generators." In our tests with polarization-entangled photons, measurement settings were chosen using real-time observations of Milky Way stars while simultaneously ensuring locality. Assuming fair sampling for all detected photons, and that each stellar photon's color was set at emission, we observe statistically significant ≳7.31σ and ≳11.93σ violations of Bell's inequality with estimated p values of ≲1.8×10^{-13} and ≲4.0×10^{-33}, respectively, thereby pushing back by ∼600 years the most recent time by which any local-realist influences could have engineered the observed Bell violation.

19.
Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci ; 375(2087)2017 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28069773

RESUMO

The identification of orbital angular momentum (OAM) as a fundamental property of a beam of light nearly 25 years ago has led to an extensive body of research around this topic. The possibility that single photons can carry OAM has made this degree of freedom an ideal candidate for the investigation of complex quantum phenomena and their applications. Research in this direction has ranged from experiments on complex forms of quantum entanglement to the interaction between light and quantum states of matter. Furthermore, the use of OAM in quantum information has generated a lot of excitement, as it allows for encoding large amounts of information on a single photon. Here, we explain the intuition that led to the first quantum experiment with OAM 15 years ago. We continue by reviewing some key experiments investigating fundamental questions on photonic OAM and the first steps to applying these properties in novel quantum protocols. At the end, we identify several interesting open questions that could form the subject of future investigations with OAM.This article is part of the themed issue 'Optical orbital angular momentum'.

20.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 113(48): 13642-13647, 2016 11 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27856742

RESUMO

Photons with a twisted phase front carry a quantized amount of orbital angular momentum (OAM) and have become important in various fields of optics, such as quantum and classical information science or optical tweezers. Because no upper limit on the OAM content per photon is known, they are also interesting systems to experimentally challenge quantum mechanical prediction for high quantum numbers. Here, we take advantage of a recently developed technique to imprint unprecedented high values of OAM, namely spiral phase mirrors, to generate photons with more than 10,000 quanta of OAM. Moreover, we demonstrate quantum entanglement between these large OAM quanta of one photon and the polarization of its partner photon. To our knowledge, this corresponds to entanglement with the largest quantum number that has been demonstrated in an experiment. The results may also open novel ways to couple single photons to massive objects, enhance angular resolution, and highlight OAM as a promising way to increase the information capacity of a single photon.

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