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1.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 12064, 2020 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32694602

RESUMO

The medial temporal lobe is one of the most well-studied brain regions affected by Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although the spread of neurofibrillary pathology in the hippocampus throughout the progression of AD has been thoroughly characterized and staged using histology and other imaging techniques, it has not been precisely quantified in vivo at the subfield level using simultaneous positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Here, we investigate alterations in metabolism and volume using [18F]fluoro-deoxyglucose (FDG) and simultaneous time-of-flight (TOF) PET/MRI with hippocampal subfield analysis of AD, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and healthy subjects. We found significant structural and metabolic changes within the hippocampus that can be sensitively assessed at the subfield level in a small cohort. While no significant differences were found between groups for whole hippocampal SUVr values (p = 0.166), we found a clear delineation in SUVr between groups in the dentate gyrus (p = 0.009). Subfield analysis may be more sensitive for detecting pathological changes using PET-MRI in AD compared to global hippocampal assessment.

2.
Brain Imaging Behav ; 2020 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32720179

RESUMO

Sport-related brain injury is very common, and the potential long-term effects include a wide range of neurological and psychiatric symptoms, and potentially neurodegeneration. Around the globe, researchers are conducting neuroimaging studies on primarily homogenous samples of athletes. However, neuroimaging studies are expensive and time consuming, and thus current findings from studies of sport-related brain injury are often limited by small sample sizes. Further, current studies apply a variety of neuroimaging techniques and analysis tools which limit comparability among studies. The ENIGMA Sports Injury working group aims to provide a platform for data sharing and collaborative data analysis thereby leveraging existing data and expertise. By harmonizing data from a large number of studies from around the globe, we will work towards reproducibility of previously published findings and towards addressing important research questions with regard to diagnosis, prognosis, and efficacy of treatment for sport-related brain injury. Moreover, the ENIGMA Sports Injury working group is committed to providing recommendations for future prospective data acquisition to enhance data quality and scientific rigor.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32572562

RESUMO

PURPOSE: In vivo measurement of the spatial distribution of neurofibrillary tangle pathology is critical for early diagnosis and disease monitoring of Alzheimer's disease (AD). METHODS: Forty-nine participants were scanned with 18F-PI-2620 PET to examine the distribution of this novel PET ligand throughout the course of AD: 36 older healthy controls (HC) (age range 61 to 86), 11 beta-amyloid+ (Aß+) participants with cognitive impairment (CI; clinical diagnosis of either mild cognitive impairment or AD dementia, age range 57 to 86), and 2 participants with semantic variant primary progressive aphasia (svPPA, age 66 and 78). Group differences in brain regions relevant in AD (medial temporal lobe, posterior cingulate cortex, and lateral parietal cortex) were examined using standardized uptake value ratios (SUVRs) normalized to the inferior gray matter of the cerebellum. RESULTS: SUVRs in target regions were relatively stable 60 to 90 min post-injection, with the exception of very high binders who continued to show increases over time. Robust elevations in 18F-PI-2620 were observed between HC and Aß+ CI across all AD regions. Within the HC group, older age was associated with subtle elevations in target regions. Mildly elevated focal uptake was observed in the anterior temporal pole in one svPPA patient. CONCLUSION: Preliminary results suggest strong differences in the medial temporal lobe and cortical regions known to be impacted in AD using 18F-PI-2620 in patients along the AD trajectory. This work confirms that 18F-PI-2620 holds promise as a tool to visualize tau aggregations in AD.

4.
Neuroimage ; 217: 116864, 2020 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32360690

RESUMO

Collegiate football athletes are subject to repeated head impacts. The purpose of this study was to determine whether this exposure can lead to changes in brain structure. This prospective cohort study was conducted with up to 4 years of follow-up on 63 football (high-impact) and 34 volleyball (control) male collegiate athletes with a total of 315 MRI scans (after exclusions: football n â€‹= â€‹50, volleyball n â€‹= â€‹24, total scans â€‹= â€‹273) using high-resolution structural imaging. Volumetric and cortical thickness estimates were derived using FreeSurfer 5.3's longitudinal pipeline. A linear mixed-effects model assessed the effect of group (football vs. volleyball), time from baseline MRI, and the interaction between group and time. We confirmed an expected developmental decrement in cortical thickness and volume in our cohort (p â€‹< â€‹.001). Superimposed on this, total cortical gray matter volume (p â€‹= â€‹.03) and cortical thickness within the left hemisphere (p â€‹= â€‹.04) showed a group by time interaction, indicating less age-related volume reduction and thinning in football compared to volleyball athletes. At the regional level, sport by time interactions on thickness and volume were identified in the left orbitofrontal (p â€‹= â€‹.001), superior temporal (p â€‹= â€‹.001), and postcentral regions (p â€‹< â€‹.001). Additional cortical thickness interactions were found in the left temporal pole (p â€‹= â€‹.003) and cuneus (p â€‹= â€‹.005). At the regional level, we also found main effects of sport in football athletes characterized by reduced volume in the right hippocampus (p â€‹= â€‹.003), right superior parietal cortical gray (p â€‹< â€‹.001) and white matter (p â€‹< â€‹.001), and increased volume of the left pallidum (p â€‹= â€‹.002). Within football, cortical thickness was higher with greater years of prior play (left hemisphere p â€‹= â€‹.013, right hemisphere p â€‹= â€‹.005), and any history of concussion was associated with less cortical thinning (left hemisphere p â€‹= â€‹.010, right hemisphere p â€‹= â€‹.011). Additionally, both position-associated concussion risk (p â€‹= â€‹.002) and SCAT scores (p â€‹= â€‹.023) were associated with less of the expected volume decrement of deep gray structures. This prospective longitudinal study comparing football and volleyball athletes shows divergent age-related trajectories of cortical thinning, possibly reflecting an impact-related alteration of normal cortical development. This warrants future research into the underlying mechanisms of impacts to the head on cortical maturation.

5.
Neuroimage ; 217: 116886, 2020 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32389728

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Geometric distortions along the phase encoding direction caused by off-resonant spins are a major issue in EPI based functional and diffusion imaging. The widely used blip up/down approach estimates the underlying distortion field from a pair of images with inverted phase encoding direction. Typically, iterative methods are used to find a solution to the ill-posed problem of finding the displacement field that maps up/down acquisitions onto each other. Here, we explore the use of a deep convolutional network to estimate the displacement map from a pair of input images. METHODS: We trained a deep convolutional U-net architecture that was previously used to estimate optic flow between moving images to learn to predict the distortion map from an input pair of distorted EPI acquisitions. During the training step, the network minimizes a loss function (similarity metric) that is calculated from corrected input image pairs. This approach does not require the explicit knowledge of the ground truth distortion map, which is difficult to get for real life data. RESULTS: We used data from a total of Ntrain â€‹= â€‹22 healthy subjects to train our network. A separate dataset of Ntest â€‹= â€‹12 patients including some with abnormal findings and unseen acquisition modes, e.g. LR-encoding, coronal orientation) was reserved for testing and evaluation purposes. We compared our results to FSL's topup function with default parameters that served as the gold standard. We found that our approach results in a correction accuracy that is virtually identical to the optimum found by an iterative search, but with reduced computational time. CONCLUSION: By using a deep convolutional network, we can reduce the processing time to a few seconds per volume, which is significantly faster than iterative approaches like FSL's topup which takes around 10min on the same machine (but using only 1 CPU). This facilitates the use of a blip up/down scheme for all diffusion-weighted acquisitions and potential real-time EPI distortion correction without sacrificing accuracy.

6.
J Parkinsons Dis ; 10(2): 591-604, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32250317

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In postmortem analysis of late stage Parkinson's disease (PD) neuronal loss in the substantial nigra (SN) correlates with the antemortem severity of bradykinesia and rigidity, but not tremor. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between midbrain nuclei volume as an in vivo biomarker for surviving neurons in mild-to-moderate patients using 7.0 Tesla MRI. METHODS: We performed ultra-high resolution quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) on the midbrain in 32 PD participants with less than 10 years duration and 8 healthy controls. Following blinded manual segmentation, the individual volumes of the SN, subthalamic nucleus, and red nucleus were measured. We then determined the associations between the midbrain nuclei and clinical metrics (age, disease duration, MDS-UPDRS motor score, and subscores for bradykinesia/rigidity, tremor, and postural instability/gait difficulty). RESULTS: We found that smaller SN correlated with longer disease duration (r = -0.49, p = 0.004), more severe MDS-UPDRS motor score (r = -0.42, p = 0.016), and more severe bradykinesia-rigidity subscore (r = -0.47, p = 0.007), but not tremor or postural instability/gait difficulty subscores. In a hemi-body analysis, bradykinesia-rigidity severity only correlated with SN contralateral to the less-affected hemi-body, and not contralateral to the more-affected hemi-body, possibly reflecting the greatest change in dopamine neuron loss early in disease. Multivariate generalized estimating equation model confirmed that bradykinesia-rigidity severity, age, and disease duration, but not tremor severity, predicted SN volume. CONCLUSIONS: In mild-to-moderate PD, SN volume relates to motor manifestations in a motor domain-specific and laterality-dependent manner. Non-invasive in vivo 7.0 Tesla QSM may serve as a biomarker in longitudinal studies of SN atrophy and in studies of people at risk for developing PD.

7.
Magn Reson Med ; 84(3): 1661-1671, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32077521

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Motion artifact limits the clinical translation of high-field MR. We present an optical prospective motion correction system for 7 Tesla MRI using a custom-built, within-coil camera to track an optical marker mounted on a subject. METHODS: The camera was constructed to fit between the transmit-receive coils with direct line of sight to a forehead-mounted marker, improving upon prior mouthpiece work at 7 Tesla MRI. We validated the system by acquiring a 3D-IR-FSPGR on a phantom with deliberate motion applied. The same 3D-IR-FSPGR and a 2D gradient echo were then acquired on 7 volunteers, with/without deliberate motion and with/without motion correction. Three neuroradiologists blindly assessed image quality. In 1 subject, an ultrahigh-resolution 2D gradient echo with 4 averages was acquired with motion correction. Four single-average acquisitions were then acquired serially, with the subject allowed to move between acquisitions. A fifth single-average 2D gradient echo was acquired following subject removal and reentry. RESULTS: In both the phantom and human subjects, deliberate and involuntary motion were well corrected. Despite marked levels of motion, high-quality images were produced without spurious artifacts. The quantitative ratings confirmed significant improvements in image quality in the absence and presence of deliberate motion across both acquisitions (P < .001). The system enabled ultrahigh-resolution visualization of the hippocampus during a long scan and robust alignment of serially acquired scans with interspersed movement. CONCLUSION: We demonstrate the use of a within-coil camera to perform optical prospective motion correction and ultrahigh-resolution imaging at 7 Tesla MRI. The setup does not require a mouthpiece, which could improve accessibility of motion correction during 7 Tesla MRI exams.

8.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 325, 2020 01 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31949140

RESUMO

Neuroimaging evidence suggests that the default mode network (DMN) exhibits antagonistic activity with dorsal attention (DAN) and salience (SN) networks. Here we use human intracranial electroencephalography to investigate the behavioral relevance of fine-grained dynamics within and between these networks. The three networks show dissociable profiles of task-evoked electrophysiological activity, best captured in the high-frequency broadband (HFB; 70-170 Hz) range. On the order of hundreds of milliseconds, HFB responses peak fastest in the DAN, at intermediate speed in the SN, and slowest in the DMN. Lapses of attention (behavioral errors) are marked by distinguishable patterns of both pre- and post-stimulus HFB activity within each network. Moreover, the magnitude of temporally lagged, negative HFB coupling between the DAN and DMN (but not SN and DMN) is associated with greater sustained attention performance and is reduced during wakeful rest. These findings underscore the behavioral relevance of temporally delayed coordination between antagonistic brain networks.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Córtex Cerebral/fisiologia , Fenômenos Eletrofisiológicos , Vias Neurais/fisiologia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Mapeamento Encefálico , Córtex Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Neurociência Cognitiva , Eletrocorticografia , Humanos , Imageamento Tridimensional , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Ondas de Rádio , Descanso , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas
9.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 5504, 2019 12 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31796741

RESUMO

3D histology, slice-based connectivity atlases, and diffusion MRI are common techniques to map brain wiring. While there are many modality-specific tools to process these data, there is a lack of integration across modalities. We develop an automated resource that combines histologically cleared volumes with connectivity atlases and MRI, enabling the analysis of histological features across multiple fiber tracts and networks, and their correlation with in-vivo biomarkers. We apply our pipeline in a murine stroke model, demonstrating not only strong correspondence between MRI abnormalities and CLARITY-tissue staining, but also uncovering acute cellular effects in areas connected to the ischemic core. We provide improved maps of connectivity by quantifying projection terminals from CLARITY viral injections, and integrate diffusion MRI with CLARITY viral tracing to compare connectivity maps across scales. Finally, we demonstrate tract-level histological changes of stroke through this multimodal integration. This resource can propel investigations of network alterations underlying neurological disorders.


Assuntos
Conectoma , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Microscopia , Animais , Automação , Axônios/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Infarto da Artéria Cerebral Média/complicações , Infarto da Artéria Cerebral Média/diagnóstico por imagem , Infarto da Artéria Cerebral Média/patologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Software , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/patologia
10.
J Comput Assist Tomogr ; 43(5): 690-696, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31490891

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to refine and validate the NeuroImaging Radiological Interpretation System (NIRIS), which was developed to predict management and clinical outcome based on noncontrast head computerized tomography findings in patients suspected of acute traumatic brain injury (TBI). METHODS: We assessed the performance of the NIRIS score in a prospective, single-center cohort of patients suspected of TBI (n = 648) and compared the performance of NIRIS with that of the Marshall and Rotterdam scoring systems. We also revised components of the NIRIS scoring system using decision tree methodologies implemented on pooled data from the retrospective and prospective studies (N = 1190). RESULTS: The NIRIS performed similarly to the Marshall and Rotterdam scoring systems in predicting mortality and markedly better in terms of predicting more granular elements of disposition and management of TBI patients, such as admission, follow-up imaging, intensive care unit stay, and neurosurgical procedures. The revised NIRIS classification correctly predicted disposition and outcome in 91.2% (331/363) after excluding patients with other major extracranial traumatic injuries or intracranial nontraumatic injuries. CONCLUSIONS: The present study further demonstrates the predictive value of NIRIS in guiding standardized clinical management and decision-making regarding treatment options for TBI patients.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/diagnóstico por imagem , Neuroimagem/métodos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/mortalidade , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/terapia , Tomada de Decisões , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Índices de Gravidade do Trauma
11.
IEEE Trans Radiat Plasma Med Sci ; 3(4): 498-503, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31396580

RESUMO

A significant challenge during high-resolution PET brain imaging on PET/MR scanners is patient head motion. This challenge is particularly significant for clinical patient populations who struggle to remain motionless in the scanner for long periods of time. Head motion also affects the MR scan data. An optical motion tracking technique, which has already been demonstrated to perform MR motion correction during acquisition, is used with a list-mode PET reconstruction algorithm to correct the motion for each recorded event and produce a corrected reconstruction. The technique is demonstrated on real Alzheimer's disease patient data for the GE SIGNA PET/MR scanner.

12.
PLoS One ; 14(7): e0219705, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31314813

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To develop a 7T simultaneous multi-slice (SMS) 2D gradient-echo sequence for susceptibility contrast imaging, and to compare its quality to 3D imaging. METHODS: A frequency modulated and phase cycled RF pulse was designed to simultaneously excite multiple slices in multi-echo 2D gradient-echo imaging. The imaging parameters were chosen to generate images with susceptibility contrast, including T2*-weighted magnitude/phase images, susceptibility-weighted images and quantitative susceptibility/R2* maps. To compare their image quality with 3D gradient-echo imaging, both 2D and 3D imaging were performed on 11 healthy volunteers and 4 patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). The signal to noise ratio (SNR) in gray and white matter and their contrast to noise ratio (CNR) was simulated for the 2D and 3D magnitude images using parameters from the imaging. The experimental SNRs and CNRs were measured in gray/white matter and deep gray matter structures on magnitude, phase, R2* and QSM images from volunteers and the visibility of MS lesions on these images from patients was visually rated. All SNRs and CNRs were compared between the 2D and 3D imaging using a paired t-test. RESULTS: Although the 3D magnitude images still had significantly higher SNRs (by 13.0~17.6%), the 2D magnitude and QSM images generated significantly higher gray/white matter or globus pallidus/putamen contrast (by 13.3~87.5%) and significantly higher MS lesion contrast (by 5.9~17.3%). CONCLUSION: 2D SMS gradient-echo imaging can serve as an alternative to often used 3D imaging to obtain susceptibility-contrast-weighted images, with an advantage of providing better image contrast and MS lesion sensitivity.


Assuntos
Substância Cinzenta/diagnóstico por imagem , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Substância Branca/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Algoritmos , Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Meios de Contraste/farmacologia , Feminino , Globo Pálido/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Putamen/diagnóstico por imagem , Razão Sinal-Ruído , Software
13.
Neuroimage Clin ; 23: 101824, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31054380

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Parkinson's disease (PD) episodic memory impairments are common; however, it is not known whether these impairments are due to hippocampal pathology. Hippocampal Lewy-bodies emerge by Braak stage 4, but are not uniformly distributed. For instance, hippocampal CA1 Lewy-body pathology has been specifically associated with pre-mortem episodic memory performance in demented patients. By contrast, the dentate gyrus (DG) is relatively free of Lewy-body pathology. In this study, we used ultra-high field 7-Tesla to measure hippocampal subfields in vivo and determine if these measures predict episodic memory impairment in PD during life. METHODS: We studied 29 participants with PD (age 65.5 ±â€¯7.8 years; disease duration 4.5 ±â€¯3.0 years) and 8 matched-healthy controls (age 67.9 ±â€¯6.8 years), who completed comprehensive neuropsychological testing and MRI. With 7-Tesla MRI, we used validated segmentation techniques to estimate CA1 stratum pyramidale (CA1-SP) and stratum radiatum lacunosum moleculare (CA1-SRLM) thickness, dentate gyrus/CA3 (DG/CA3) area, and whole hippocampus area. We used linear regression, which included imaging and clinical measures (age, duration, education, gender, and CSF), to determine the best predictors of episodic memory impairment in PD. RESULTS: In our cohort, 62.1% of participants with PD had normal cognition, 27.6% had mild cognitive impairment, and 10.3% had dementia. Using 7-Tesla MRI, we found that smaller CA1-SP thickness was significantly associated with poorer immediate memory, delayed memory, and delayed cued memory; by contrast, whole hippocampus area, DG/CA3 area, and CA1-SRLM thickness did not significantly predict memory. Age-adjusted linear regression models revealed that CA1-SP predicted immediate memory (beta[standard error]10.895[4.215], p < .05), delayed memory (12.740[5.014], p < .05), and delayed cued memory (12.801[3.991], p < .05). In the fully-adjusted models, which included all five clinical measures as covariates, only CA1-SP remained a significant predictor of delayed cued memory (13.436[4.651], p < .05). CONCLUSIONS: In PD, we found hippocampal CA1-SP subfield thickness estimated on 7-Tesla MRI scans was the best predictor of episodic memory impairment, even when controlling for confounding clinical measures. Our results imply that ultra-high field imaging could be a sensitive measure to identify changes in hippocampal subfields and thus probe the neuroanatomical underpinnings of episodic memory impairments in patients with PD.


Assuntos
Região CA1 Hipocampal/patologia , Memória Episódica , Doença de Parkinson/patologia , Doença de Parkinson/psicologia , Idoso , Região CA1 Hipocampal/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença de Parkinson/diagnóstico por imagem
14.
J Neurotrauma ; 36(19): 2762-2773, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31044639

RESUMO

Collegiate football athletes are subject to repeated traumatic brain injuriesthat may cause brain injury. The hippocampus is composed of several distinct subfields with possible differential susceptibility to injury. The aim of this study is to determine whether there are longitudinal changes in hippocampal subfield volume in collegiate football. A prospective cohort study was conducted over a 5-year period tracking 63 football and 34 volleyball male collegiate athletes. Athletes underwent high-resolution structural magnetic resonance imaging, and automated segmentation provided hippocampal subfield volumes. At baseline, football (n = 59) athletes demonstrated a smaller subiculum volume than volleyball (n = 32) athletes (-67.77 mm3; p = 0.012). A regression analysis performed within football athletes similarly demonstrated a smaller subiculum volume among those at increased concussion risk based on athlete position (p = 0.001). For the longitudinal analysis, a linear mixed-effects model assessed the interaction between sport and time, revealing a significant decrease in cornu ammonis area 1 (CA1) volume in football (n = 36) athletes without an in-study concussion compared to volleyball (n = 23) athletes (volume difference per year = -35.22 mm3; p = 0.005). This decrease in CA1 volume over time was significant when football athletes were examined in isolation from volleyball athletes (p = 0.011). Thus, this prospective, longitudinal study showed a decrease in CA1 volume over time in football athletes, in addition to baseline differences that were identified in the downstream subiculum. Hippocampal changes may be important to study in high-contact sports.

15.
J Neurotrauma ; 36(16): 2407-2416, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30968744

RESUMO

Blood biomarker tests were recently approved for clinical diagnosis of traumatic brain injury (TBI), yet there are still fundamental questions that need attention. One such question is the stability of putative biomarkers in blood over the course of several days after injury if the sample is unable to be processed into serum or plasma and stored at low temperatures. Blood may not be able to be stored at ultra-low temperatures in austere combat or sports environments. In this prospective study of 20 adult patients with positive head computed tomography imaging findings, the stability of three biomarkers (glial fibrillary acidic protein [GFAP], ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase-L1 [UCH-L1], and S100 calcium binding protein B [S100B]) in whole blood and in serum stored at 4-5°C was evaluated over the course of 72 h after blood collection. The amount of time whole blood and serum were refrigerated had no significant effect on GFAP concentration in plasma obtained from whole blood and in serum (p = 0.6256 and p = 0.3687, respectively), UCH-L1 concentration in plasma obtained from whole blood and in serum (p = 0.0611 and p = 0.5189, respectively), and S100B concentration in serum (p = 0.4663). Concentration levels of GFAP, UCH-L1, and S100B in blood collected from patients with TBI were found to be stable at 4-5°C for at least 3 days after blood draw. This study suggests that the levels of the three diagnostic markers above are still valid for diagnostic TBI tests if the sample is stored in 4-5°C refrigerated conditions.

16.
Biomech Model Mechanobiol ; 18(3): 631-649, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30859404

RESUMO

Corpus callosum trauma has long been implicated in mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), yet the mechanism by which forces penetrate this structure is unknown. We investigated the hypothesis that coronal and horizontal rotations produce motion of the falx cerebri that damages the corpus callosum. We analyzed previously published head kinematics of 115 sports impacts (2 diagnosed mTBI) measured with instrumented mouthguards and used finite element (FE) simulations to correlate falx displacement with corpus callosum deformation. Peak coronal accelerations were larger in impacts with mTBI (8592 rad/s2 avg.) than those without (1412 rad/s2 avg.). From FE simulations, coronal acceleration was strongly correlated with deep lateral motion of the falx center (r = 0.85), while horizontal acceleration was correlated with deep lateral motion of the falx periphery (r > 0.78). Larger lateral displacement at the falx center and periphery was correlated with higher tract-oriented strains in the corpus callosum body (r = 0.91) and genu/splenium (r > 0.72), respectively. The relationship between the corpus callosum and falx was unique: removing the falx from the FE model halved peak strains in the corpus callosum from 35% to 17%. Consistent with model results, we found indications of corpus callosum trauma in diffusion tensor imaging of the mTBI athletes. For a measured alteration of consciousness, depressed fractional anisotropy and increased mean diffusivity indicated possible damage to the mid-posterior corpus callosum. Our results suggest that the corpus callosum may be sensitive to coronal and horizontal rotations because they drive lateral motion of a relatively stiff membrane, the falx, in the direction of commissural fibers below.


Assuntos
Concussão Encefálica/patologia , Corpo Caloso/patologia , Medula Espinal/patologia , Esportes , Aceleração , Adulto , Anisotropia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Simulação por Computador , Imagem de Tensor de Difusão , Análise de Elementos Finitos , Cabeça , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Biológicos , Adulto Jovem
17.
Stroke ; 49(9): 2191-2199, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30354987

RESUMO

Background and Purpose- Many restorative therapies have been used to study brain repair after stroke. These therapeutic-induced changes have revealed important insights on brain repair and recovery mechanisms; however, the intrinsic changes that occur in spontaneously recovery after stroke is less clear. The goal of this study is to elucidate the intrinsic changes in spontaneous recovery after stroke, by directly investigating the transcriptome of primary motor cortex in mice that naturally recovered after stroke. Methods- Male C57BL/6J mice were subjected to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion. Functional recovery was evaluated using the horizontal rotating beam test. A novel in-depth lesion mapping analysis was used to evaluate infarct size and locations. Ipsilesional and contralesional primary motor cortices (iM1 and cM1) were processed for RNA-sequencing transcriptome analysis. Results- Cluster analysis of the stroke mice behavior performance revealed 2 distinct recovery groups: a spontaneously recovered and a nonrecovered group. Both groups showed similar lesion profile, despite their differential recovery outcome. RNA-sequencing transcriptome analysis revealed distinct biological pathways in the spontaneously recovered stroke mice, in both iM1 and cM1. Correlation analysis revealed that 38 genes in the iM1 were significantly correlated with improved recovery, whereas 74 genes were correlated in the cM1. In particular, ingenuity pathway analysis highlighted the involvement of cAMP signaling in the cM1, with selective reduction of Adora2a (adenosine receptor A2A), Drd2 (dopamine receptor D2), and Pde10a (phosphodiesterase 10A) expression in recovered mice. Interestingly, the expressions of these genes in cM1 were negatively correlated with behavioral recovery. Conclusions- Our RNA-sequencing data revealed a panel of recovery-related genes in the motor cortex of spontaneously recovered stroke mice and highlighted the involvement of contralesional cortex in spontaneous recovery, particularly Adora2a, Drd2, and Pde10a-mediated cAMP signaling pathway. Developing drugs targeting these candidates after stroke may provide beneficial recovery outcome.


Assuntos
Infarto da Artéria Cerebral Média/genética , Córtex Motor/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica/genética , Animais , Análise por Conglomerados , AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Infarto da Artéria Cerebral Média/diagnóstico por imagem , Infarto da Artéria Cerebral Média/patologia , Infarto da Artéria Cerebral Média/fisiopatologia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Camundongos , Córtex Motor/diagnóstico por imagem , Córtex Motor/patologia , Córtex Motor/fisiopatologia , Diester Fosfórico Hidrolases/genética , Receptor A2A de Adenosina/genética , Receptores de Dopamina D2/genética , Receptores de Prostaglandina E Subtipo EP4/genética , Remissão Espontânea , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Transdução de Sinais , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/genética , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/patologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia
18.
Neuroimage Clin ; 19: 572-580, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29984165

RESUMO

Purpose: To evaluate the use of diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) tractography for neurosurgical guidance of transcranial MRI-guided focused ultrasound (tcMRgFUS) thalamotomy for essential tremor (ET). Materials and methods: Eight patients with medication-refractory ET were treated with tcMRgFUS targeting the ventral intermediate nucleus (Vim) of the thalamus contralateral to their dominant hand. Diffusion and structural MRI data and clinical evaluations were acquired pre-treatment and post-treatment. To identify the optimal target location, tractography was performed on pre-treatment diffusion MRI data between the treated thalamus and the hand-knob region of the ipsilateral motor cortex, the entire ipsilateral motor cortex and the contralateral dentate nucleus. The tractography-identified locations were compared to the lesion location delineated on 1 year post-treatment T2-weighted MR image. Their overlap was correlated with the clinical outcomes measured by the percentage change of the Clinical Rating Scale for Tremor scores acquired pre-treatment, as well as 1 month, 3 months, 6 months and 1 year post-treatment. Results: The probabilistic tractography was consistent from subject-to-subject and followed the expected anatomy of the thalamocortical radiation and the dentatothalamic tract. Higher overlap between the tractography-identified location and the tcMRgFUS treatment-induced lesion highly correlated with better treatment outcome (r = -0.929, -0.75, -0.643, p = 0.00675, 0.0663, 0.139 for the tractography between the treated thalamus and the hand-knob region of the ipsilateral motor cortex, the entire ipsilateral motor cortex and the contralateral dentate nucleus, respectively, at 1 year post-treatment). The correlation for the tractography between the treated thalamus and the hand-knob region of the ipsilateral motor cortex is the highest for all time points (r = -0.719, -0.976, -0.707, -0.929, p = 0.0519, 0.000397, 0.0595, 0.00675 at 1 month, 3 months, 6 months and 1 year post-treatment, respectively). Conclusion: Our data support the use of diffusion tractography as a complementary approach to current targeting methods for tcMRgFUS thalamotomy.


Assuntos
Tremor Essencial/terapia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Córtex Motor/fisiopatologia , Tálamo/fisiopatologia , Terapia por Ultrassom , Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Imagem de Difusão por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Imagem de Tensor de Difusão/métodos , Tremor Essencial/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Córtex Motor/patologia , Tálamo/patologia , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
J Neurotrauma ; 35(22): 2665-2672, 2018 11 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29665763

RESUMO

The purpose of the study was to develop an outcome-based NeuroImaging Radiological Interpretation System (NIRIS) for patients with acute traumatic brain injury (TBI) that would standardize the interpretation of noncontrast head computer tomography (CT) scans and consolidate imaging findings into ordinal severity categories that would inform specific patient management actions and that could be used as a clinical decision support tool. We retrospectively identified all patients transported to our emergency department by ambulance or helicopter for whom a trauma alert was triggered per established criteria and who underwent a noncontrast head CT because of suspicion of TBI, between November 2015 and April 2016. Two neuroradiologists reviewed the noncontrast head CTs and assessed the TBI imaging common data elements (CDEs), as defined by the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Using descriptive statistics and receiver operating characteristic curve analyses to identify imaging characteristics and associated thresholds that best distinguished among outcomes, we classified patients into five mutually exclusive categories: 0-discharge from the emergency department; 1-follow-up brain imaging and/or admission; 2-admission to an advanced care unit; 3-neurosurgical procedure; 4-death up to 6 months after TBI. Sensitivity of NIRIS with respect to each patient's true outcome was then evaluated and compared with that of the Marshall and Rotterdam scoring systems for TBI. In our cohort of 542 patients with TBI, NIRIS was developed to predict discharge (182 patients), follow-up brain imaging/admission (187 patients), need for advanced care unit (151 patients), neurosurgical procedures (10 patients), and death (12 patients). NIRIS performed similarly to the Marshall and Rotterdam scoring systems in terms of predicting death. We developed an interpretation system for neuroimaging using the CDEs that informs specific patient management actions and could be used as a clinical decision support tool for patients with TBI. Our NIRIS classification, with evidence-based grouping of the CDEs into actionable categories, will need to be validated in different TBI populations.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/diagnóstico por imagem , Lesões Encefálicas/diagnóstico por imagem , Interpretação de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Interpretação de Imagem Assistida por Computador/normas , Neuroimagem/métodos , Neuroimagem/normas , Adulto , Idoso , Lesões Encefálicas/classificação , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/classificação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/normas
20.
Neuroimage ; 156: 412-422, 2017 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28411157

RESUMO

Despite the widespread use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain, the relative contribution of different biological components (e.g. lipids and proteins) to structural MRI contrasts (e.g., T1, T2, T2*, proton density, diffusion) remains incompletely understood. This limitation can undermine the interpretation of clinical MRI and hinder the development of new contrast mechanisms. Here, we determine the respective contribution of lipids and proteins to MRI contrast by removing lipids and preserving proteins in mouse brains using CLARITY. We monitor the temporal dynamics of tissue clearance via NMR spectroscopy, protein assays and optical emission spectroscopy. MRI of cleared brain tissue showed: 1) minimal contrast on standard MRI sequences; 2) increased relaxation times; and 3) diffusion rates close to free water. We conclude that lipids, present in myelin and membranes, are a dominant source of MRI contrast in brain tissue.


Assuntos
Química Encefálica , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Lipídeos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Proteínas , Animais , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Camundongos , Neuroimagem/métodos , Fixação de Tecidos/métodos
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