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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30782986

RESUMO

Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) is a protein exotoxin found on the cell surface of Staphylococcus aureus that is the source for multiple pathologies in humans. When purified and concentrated in aerosol form, SEB can cause an acute and often fatal intoxication and thus is considered a biological threat agent. There are currently no vaccines or treatments approved for human use. Studies with rodent models of SEB intoxication show that antibody therapy may be a promising treatment strategy; however, many have used antibodies only prophylactically or well before any clinical signs of intoxication are apparent. We assessed and compared the protective efficacies of two monoclonal antibodies, Ig121 and c19F1, when administered after aerosol exposure in a uniformly lethal nonhuman primate model of SEB intoxication. Rhesus macaques were challenged using small-particle aerosols of SEB and then were infused intravenously with a single dose of either Ig121 or c19F1 (10 mg/kg of body weight) at either 0.5, 2, or 4 h postexposure. Onset of clinical signs and hematological and cytokine response in untreated controls confirmed the acute onset and potency of the toxin used in the challenge. All animals administered either Ig121 or c19F1 survived SEB challenge, whereas the untreated controls succumbed to SEB intoxication 30 to 48 h postexposure. These results represent the successful therapeutic in vivo protection by two investigational drugs against SEB in a severe nonhuman primate disease model and punctuate the therapeutic value of monoclonal antibodies when faced with treatment options for SEB-induced toxicity in a postexposure setting.

2.
JCI Insight ; 4(1)2019 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30626745

RESUMO

Ricin toxin (RT) ranks at the top of the list of bioweapons of concern to civilian and military personnel alike, due to its high potential for morbidity and mortality after inhalation. In nonhuman primates, aerosolized ricin triggers severe acute respiratory distress characterized by perivascular and alveolar edema, neutrophilic infiltration, and severe necrotizing bronchiolitis and alveolitis. There are currently no approved countermeasures for ricin intoxication. Here, we report the therapeutic potential of a humanized mAb against an immunodominant epitope on ricin's enzymatic A chain (RTA). Rhesus macaques that received i.v. huPB10 4 hours after a lethal dose of ricin aerosol exposure survived toxin challenge, whereas control animals succumbed to ricin intoxication within 30 hours. Antibody intervention at 12 hours resulted in the survival of 1 of 5 monkeys. Changes in proinflammatory cytokine, chemokine, and growth factor profiles in bronchial alveolar lavage fluids before and after toxin challenge successfully clustered animals by treatment group and survival, indicating a relationship between local tissue damage and experimental outcome. This study represents the first demonstration, to our knowledge, in nonhuman primates that the lethal effects of inhalational ricin exposure can be negated by a drug candidate, and it opens up a path forward for product development.

3.
Virol J ; 16(1): 2, 2019 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30611287

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Eastern equine encephalitis virus is an alphavirus that naturally cycles between mosquitoes and birds or rodents in Eastern States of the US. Equine infection occurs by being bitten by cross-feeding mosquitoes, with a case fatality rate of up to 75% in humans during epizootic outbreaks. There are no licensed medical countermeasures, and with an anticipated increase in mortality when exposed by the aerosol route based on anecdotal human data and experimental animal data, it is important to understand the pathogenesis of this disease in pursuit of treatment options. This report details the clinical and pathological findings of mice infected with EEEV by the aerosol route, and use as a model for EEEV infection in humans. METHODS: Mice were exposed by the aerosol route to a dose range of EEEV to establish the median lethal dose. A pathogenesis study followed whereby mice were exposed to a defined dose of virus and sacrificed at time-points thereafter for histopathological analysis and virology. RESULTS: Clinical signs of disease appeared within 2 days post challenge, culminating in severe clinical signs within 24 h, neuro-invasion and dose dependent lethality. EEEV was first detected in the lung 1 day post challenge, and by day 3 peak viral titres were observed in the brain, spleen and blood, corresponding with severe meningoencephalitis, indicative of encephalitic disease. Lethality follows severe neurological signs, and may be linked to a threshold level of virus replication in the brain. Effective medical countermeasures for EEEV may necessitate early inoculation to inhibit infection of the brain in zoonotic incidents, and be able to traverse the blood-brain barrier to sufficiently interrupt replication in the brain in cases of aerosol infection. CONCLUSIONS: There is little human data on the hazard posed by aerosol infection with encephalitic alphaviruses, and use of EEEV as a bioweapon may be by the aerosol route. A well characterized model of aerosol exposure that recapitulates some of the most severe human clinical features is necessary to evaluate the efficacy of putative medical countermeasures, and to increase our understanding about how this route of infection induces such rapid neuro-invasion and resulting disease.


Assuntos
Suscetibilidade a Doenças/virologia , Vírus da Encefalite Equina do Leste/patogenicidade , Encefalite Viral/patologia , Aerossóis , Animais , Encéfalo/virologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Encefalite Viral/mortalidade , Feminino , Pulmão/virologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Replicação Viral
4.
Cell Host Microbe ; 25(1): 39-48.e5, 2019 01 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30629917

RESUMO

Passive administration of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) is a promising therapeutic approach for Ebola virus disease (EVD). However, all mAbs and mAb cocktails that have entered clinical development are specific for a single member of the Ebolavirus genus, Ebola virus (EBOV), and ineffective against outbreak-causing Bundibugyo virus (BDBV) and Sudan virus (SUDV). Here, we advance MBP134, a cocktail of two broadly neutralizing human mAbs, ADI-15878 from an EVD survivor and ADI-23774 from the same survivor but specificity-matured for SUDV GP binding affinity, as a candidate pan-ebolavirus therapeutic. MBP134 potently neutralized all ebolaviruses and demonstrated greater protective efficacy than ADI-15878 alone in EBOV-challenged guinea pigs. A second-generation cocktail, MBP134AF, engineered to effectively harness natural killer (NK) cells afforded additional improvement relative to its precursor in protective efficacy against EBOV and SUDV in guinea pigs. MBP134AF is an optimized mAb cocktail suitable for evaluation as a pan-ebolavirus therapeutic in nonhuman primates.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Ebolavirus/imunologia , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/imunologia , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/prevenção & controle , Bem-Estar do Animal , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Monoclonais/isolamento & purificação , Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/isolamento & purificação , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Antivirais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ebolavirus/patogenicidade , Epitopos/imunologia , Feminino , Filoviridae/imunologia , Cobaias , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/virologia , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Knockout , Proteínas Recombinantes/imunologia , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
Cell Host Microbe ; 25(1): 49-58.e5, 2019 01 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30629918

RESUMO

Recent and ongoing outbreaks of Ebola virus disease (EVD) underscore the unpredictable nature of ebolavirus reemergence and the urgent need for antiviral treatments. Unfortunately, available experimental vaccines and immunotherapeutics are specific for a single member of the Ebolavirus genus, Ebola virus (EBOV), and ineffective against other ebolaviruses associated with EVD, including Sudan virus (SUDV) and Bundibugyo virus (BDBV). Here we show that MBP134AF, a pan-ebolavirus therapeutic comprising two broadly neutralizing human antibodies (bNAbs), affords unprecedented effectiveness and potency as a therapeutic countermeasure to antigenically diverse ebolaviruses. MBP134AF could fully protect ferrets against lethal EBOV, SUDV, and BDBV infection, and a single 25-mg/kg dose was sufficient to protect NHPs against all three viruses. The development of MBP134AF provides a successful model for the rapid discovery and translational advancement of immunotherapeutics targeting emerging infectious diseases.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Ebolavirus/patogenicidade , Furões/virologia , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/imunologia , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/prevenção & controle , Bem-Estar do Animal , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Monoclonais/isolamento & purificação , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/isolamento & purificação , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Linhagem Celular , Cercopithecus aethiops , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Filoviridae/imunologia , Infecções por Filoviridae/imunologia , Infecções por Filoviridae/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Filoviridae/virologia , Glicoproteínas/imunologia , Cobaias , Células HEK293 , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/virologia , Humanos , Células Matadoras Naturais , Macaca , Macaca fascicularis , Masculino , Primatas , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento , Proteínas Virais/imunologia
6.
Cell ; 174(4): 938-952.e13, 2018 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30096313

RESUMO

Antibodies are promising post-exposure therapies against emerging viruses, but which antibody features and in vitro assays best forecast protection are unclear. Our international consortium systematically evaluated antibodies against Ebola virus (EBOV) using multidisciplinary assays. For each antibody, we evaluated epitopes recognized on the viral surface glycoprotein (GP) and secreted glycoprotein (sGP), readouts of multiple neutralization assays, fraction of virions left un-neutralized, glycan structures, phagocytic and natural killer cell functions elicited, and in vivo protection in a mouse challenge model. Neutralization and induction of multiple immune effector functions (IEFs) correlated most strongly with protection. Neutralization predominantly occurred via epitopes maintained on endosomally cleaved GP, whereas maximal IEF mapped to epitopes farthest from the viral membrane. Unexpectedly, sGP cross-reactivity did not significantly influence in vivo protection. This comprehensive dataset provides a rubric to evaluate novel antibodies and vaccine responses and a roadmap for therapeutic development for EBOV and related viruses.

7.
Cell Host Microbe ; 24(2): 221-233.e5, 2018 08 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30092199

RESUMO

The recent Ebola virus (EBOV) epidemic highlighted the need for effective vaccines and therapeutics to limit and prevent outbreaks. Host antibodies against EBOV are critical for controlling disease, and recombinant monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) can protect from infection. However, antibodies mediate an array of antiviral functions including neutralization as well as engagement of Fc-domain receptors on immune cells, resulting in phagocytosis or NK cell-mediated killing of infected cells. Thus, to understand the antibody features mediating EBOV protection, we examined specific Fc features associated with protection using a library of EBOV-specific mAbs. Neutralization was strongly associated with therapeutic protection against EBOV. However, several neutralizing mAbs failed to protect, while several non-neutralizing or weakly neutralizing mAbs could protect. Antibody-mediated effector functions, including phagocytosis and NK cell activation, were associated with protection, particularly for antibodies with moderate neutralizing activity. This framework identifies functional correlates that can inform therapeutic and vaccine design strategies against EBOV and other pathogens.

8.
Mucosal Immunol ; 11(5): 1477-1486, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29988116

RESUMO

IgG possesses an important yet little recognized effector function in mucus. IgG bound to viral surface can immobilize otherwise readily diffusive viruses to the mucin matrix, excluding them from contacting target cells and facilitating their elimination by natural mucus clearance mechanisms. Cervicovaginal mucus (CVM) is populated by a microbial community, and its viscoelastic and barrier properties can vary substantially not only across the menstrual cycle, but also in women with distinct microbiota. How these variations impact the "muco-trapping" effector function of IgGs remains poorly understood. Here we obtained multiple fresh, undiluted CVM specimens (n = 82 unique specimens) from six women over time, and employed high-resolution multiple particle tracking to quantify the mobility of fluorescent Herpes Simplex Viruses (HSV-1) in CVM treated with different HSV-1-binding IgG. The IgG trapping potency was then correlated to the menstrual cycle, and the vaginal microbial composition was determined by 16 s rRNA. In the specimens studied, both polyclonal and monoclonal HSV-1-binding IgG appeared to consistently and effectively trap HSV-1 in CVM obtained at different times of the menstrual cycle and containing a diverse spectrum of commensals, including G. vaginalis-dominant microbiota. Our findings underscore the potential broad utility of this "muco-trapping" effector function of IgG to reinforce the vaginal mucosal defense, and motivates further investigation of passive immunization of the vagina as a strategy to protect against vaginally transmitted infections.

9.
J Infect Dis ; 218(suppl_5): S565-S573, 2018 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29982718

RESUMO

Background: The 2013-2016 Ebola virus disease (EVD) epidemics in West Africa highlighted a need for effective therapeutics for treatment of the disease caused by filoviruses. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are promising therapeutic candidates for prophylaxis or treatment of virus infections. Data about efficacy of human mAb monotherapy against filovirus infections in preclinical nonhuman primate models are limited. Methods: Previously, we described a large panel of human mAbs derived from the circulating memory B cells from Bundibugyo virus (BDBV) infection survivors that bind to the surface glycoprotein (GP) of the virus. We tested one of these neutralizing mAbs that recognized the glycan cap of the GP, designated mAb BDBV289, as monotherapy in rhesus macaques. Results: We found that recombinant mAb BDBV289-N could confer up to 100% protection to BDBV-infected rhesus macaques when treatment was initiated as late as 8 days after virus challenge. Protection was associated with survival and decreased viremia levels in the blood of treated animals. Conclusions: These findings define the efficacy of monotherapy of lethal BDBV infection with a glycan cap-specific mAb and identify a candidate mAb therapeutic molecule that could be included in antibody cocktails for prevention or treatment of ebolavirus infections.

10.
J Infect Dis ; 218(6): 901-910, 2018 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29688496

RESUMO

Filoviruses, including Ebola, have the potential to be transmitted via virus-laden droplets deposited onto mucus membranes. Protecting against such emerging pathogens will require understanding how they may transmit at mucosal surfaces and developing strategies to reinforce the airway mucus barrier. Here, we prepared Ebola pseudovirus (with Zaire strain glycoproteins) and used high-resolution multiple-particle tracking to track the motions of hundreds of individual pseudoviruses in fresh and undiluted human airway mucus isolated from extubated endotracheal tubes. We found that Ebola pseudovirus readily penetrates human airway mucus. Addition of ZMapp, a cocktail of Ebola-binding immunoglobulin G antibodies, effectively reduced mobility of Ebola pseudovirus in the same mucus secretions. Topical delivery of ZMapp to the mouse airways also facilitated rapid elimination of Ebola pseudovirus. Our work demonstrates that antibodies can immobilize virions in airway mucus and reduce access to the airway epithelium, highlighting topical delivery of pathogen-specific antibodies to the lungs as a potential prophylactic or therapeutic approach against emerging viruses or biowarfare agents.

11.
Viruses ; 9(7)2017 06 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28654007

RESUMO

Western equine encephalitis virus (WEEV) naturally cycles between mosquitos and birds or rodents, with a case fatality rate of up to 15% in humans during epizootic outbreaks. There are no medical countermeasures to treat WEEV infection, and accidental aerosol exposure increases the case fatality rate up to 40%. Understanding the pathogenesis of infection is required to develop and assess medical countermeasures. This study describes the clinical and pathological findings of mice infected with WEEV by the aerosol route, and use as a model for WEEV infection in humans. Balb/c mice were infected by the aerosol route with a dose range of high-virulence WEEV strain Fleming to establish the median lethal dose (MLD). The disease course was acute, culminating in severe clinical signs, neuroinvasion, and dose-dependent mortality. Further groups of mice were exposed by the aerosol route, periodically sacrificed, and tissues excised for histopathological examination and virology. Viral titres peaked four days post-challenge in the brain and lungs, corresponding with severe bilateral lesions in rostroventral regions of the encephalon, especially in the olfactory bulb and piriform cortex. Recapitulation of the most serious clinical presentations of human WEEV disease in mice may prove a useful tool in the evaluation of medical countermeasures.


Assuntos
Aerossóis/administração & dosagem , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Vírus da Encefalite Equina do Oeste/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Encefalomielite Equina do Oeste/patologia , Encefalomielite Equina do Oeste/virologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Animais , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Dose Letal Mediana , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C
12.
Cell ; 169(5): 878-890.e15, 2017 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28525755

RESUMO

Experimental monoclonal antibody (mAb) therapies have shown promise for treatment of lethal Ebola virus (EBOV) infections, but their species-specific recognition of the viral glycoprotein (GP) has limited their use against other divergent ebolaviruses associated with human disease. Here, we mined the human immune response to natural EBOV infection and identified mAbs with exceptionally potent pan-ebolavirus neutralizing activity and protective efficacy against three virulent ebolaviruses. These mAbs recognize an inter-protomer epitope in the GP fusion loop, a critical and conserved element of the viral membrane fusion machinery, and neutralize viral entry by targeting a proteolytically primed, fusion-competent GP intermediate (GPCL) generated in host cell endosomes. Only a few somatic hypermutations are required for broad antiviral activity, and germline-approximating variants display enhanced GPCL recognition, suggesting that such antibodies could be elicited more efficiently with suitably optimized GP immunogens. Our findings inform the development of both broadly effective immunotherapeutics and vaccines against filoviruses.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/isolamento & purificação , Anticorpos Antivirais/isolamento & purificação , Vacinas contra Ebola/imunologia , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/imunologia , Sobreviventes , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/química , Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/química , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/química , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Cercopithecus aethiops , Reações Cruzadas , Ebolavirus/classificação , Ebolavirus/imunologia , Feminino , Furões , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/virologia , Humanos , Cinética , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Modelos Moleculares , Alinhamento de Sequência , Células Vero
13.
AIDS ; 31(11): 1505-1517, 2017 07 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28463876

RESUMO

: Passive immunization, the transfer of antibodies to a nonimmune individual to provide immunological protection, has been used for over 100 years to prevent and treat human infectious diseases. The introduction of techniques to produce human mAbs has revolutionized the field, and a large number of human mAbs have been licensed for the treatment of cancer, autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. With the recent discovery and production of highly potent broadly neutralizing and other multifunctional antibodies to HIV, mAbs are now being considered for HIV therapy and prophylaxis. In this review, we briefly present recent advances in the anti-HIV mAb field and outline strategies for the selection, engineering and production of human mAbs, including the modification of their structure for optimized stability and function. We also describe results from nonhuman primate studies and phase 1 clinical trials that have tested the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and efficacy of mAb-based HIV prevention strategies, and discuss the future of parenteral and topical mAb administration for the prevention of HIV transmission.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Anticorpos Monoclonais/farmacologia , Anticorpos Anti-HIV/efeitos dos fármacos , Anticorpos Anti-HIV/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Imunização Passiva , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição/métodos , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida dos Símios/prevenção & controle , Administração Tópica , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Imunização Passiva/métodos , Reto/virologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida dos Símios/transmissão , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Símia/efeitos dos fármacos , Resultado do Tratamento , Vagina/virologia
14.
Sci Transl Med ; 9(384)2017 04 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28381540

RESUMO

As observed during the 2013-2016 Ebola virus disease epidemic, containment of filovirus outbreaks is challenging and made more difficult by the lack of approved vaccine or therapeutic options. Marburg and Ravn viruses are highly virulent and cause severe and frequently lethal disease in humans. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are a platform technology in wide use for autoimmune and oncology indications. Previously, we described human mAbs that can protect mice from lethal challenge with Marburg virus. We demonstrate that one of these mAbs, MR191-N, can confer a survival benefit of up to 100% to Marburg or Ravn virus-infected rhesus macaques when treatment is initiated up to 5 days post-inoculation. These findings extend the small but growing body of evidence that mAbs can impart therapeutic benefit during advanced stages of disease with highly virulent viruses and could be useful in epidemic settings.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Filoviridae/tratamento farmacológico , Filoviridae/fisiologia , Doença do Vírus de Marburg/tratamento farmacológico , Marburgvirus/fisiologia , Animais , Proteção Cruzada , Infecções por Filoviridae/virologia , Cobaias , Humanos , Macaca fascicularis , Macaca mulatta , Doença do Vírus de Marburg/virologia , Projetos Piloto
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28416548

RESUMO

The broadly neutralizing antibody (bNAb) VRC01, capable of neutralizing 91% of known human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) isolates in vitro, is a promising candidate microbicide for preventing sexual HIV infection when administered topically to the vagina; however, accessibility to antibody-based prophylactic treatment by target populations in sub-Saharan Africa and other underdeveloped regions may be limited by the high cost of conventionally produced antibodies and the limited capacity to manufacture such antibodies. Intravaginal rings of the pod design (pod-IVRs) delivering Nicotiana-manufactured VRC01 (VRC01-N) over a range of release rates have been developed. The pharmacokinetics and preliminary safety of VRC01-N pod-IVRs were evaluated in a rhesus macaque model. The devices sustained VRC01-N release for up to 21 days at controlled rates, with mean steady-state VRC01-N levels in vaginal fluids in the range of 102 to 103 µg g-1 being correlated with in vitro release rates. No adverse safety indications were observed. These findings indicate that pod-IVRs are promising devices for the delivery of the candidate topical microbicide VRC01-N against HIV-1 infection and merit further preclinical evaluation.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Monoclonais/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Intravaginal , Animais , Fármacos Anti-HIV/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/uso terapêutico , Feminino , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , HIV-1/patogenicidade , Macaca mulatta
17.
Nat Microbiol ; 1(9): 16128, 2016 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27562261

RESUMO

The Ebola virus (EBOV) GP gene encodes two glycoproteins. The major product is a soluble, dimeric glycoprotein (sGP) that is secreted abundantly. Despite the abundance of sGP during infection, little is known regarding its structure or functional role. A minor product, resulting from transcriptional editing, is the transmembrane-anchored, trimeric viral surface glycoprotein (GP). GP mediates attachment to and entry into host cells, and is the intended target of antibody therapeutics. Because large portions of sequence are shared between GP and sGP, it has been hypothesized that sGP may potentially subvert the immune response or may contribute to pathogenicity. In this study, we present cryo-electron microscopy structures of GP and sGP in complex with GP-specific and GP/sGP cross-reactive antibodies undergoing human clinical trials. The structure of the sGP dimer presented here, in complex with both an sGP-specific antibody and a GP/sGP cross-reactive antibody, permits us to unambiguously assign the oligomeric arrangement of sGP and compare its structure and epitope presentation to those of GP. We also provide biophysical evaluation of naturally occurring GP/sGP mutations that fall within the footprints identified by our high-resolution structures. Taken together, our data provide a detailed and more complete picture of the accessible Ebolavirus glycoprotein landscape and a structural basis to evaluate patient and vaccine antibody responses towards differently structured products of the GP gene.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/química , Ebolavirus/imunologia , Glicoproteínas/química , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/imunologia , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/química , Modelos Estruturais , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Formação de Anticorpos , Reações Cruzadas , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , Ebolavirus/patogenicidade , Epitopos/imunologia , Glicoproteínas/genética , Glicoproteínas/imunologia , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/virologia , Humanos , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/genética , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/imunologia , Mutação , Multimerização Proteica , Alinhamento de Sequência , Proteínas Virais/química , Proteínas Virais/imunologia
18.
Clin Vaccine Immunol ; 23(9): 795-9, 2016 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27466351

RESUMO

PB10 is a murine monoclonal antibody against an immunodominant epitope on ricin toxin's enzymatic subunit. Here, we characterize a fully humanized version of PB10 IgG1 (hPB10) and demonstrate that it has potent in vitro and in vivo toxin-neutralizing activities. We also report the minimum serum concentrations of hPB10 required to protect mice against 10 times the 50% lethal dose of ricin when delivered by injection and inhalation.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Monoclonais/administração & dosagem , Antitoxinas/administração & dosagem , Substâncias para a Guerra Química/toxicidade , Envenenamento/terapia , Ricina/toxicidade , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/isolamento & purificação , Anticorpos Monoclonais/farmacologia , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/isolamento & purificação , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/farmacologia , Antitoxinas/isolamento & purificação , Antitoxinas/farmacologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
PLoS One ; 11(7): e0159313, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27427976

RESUMO

Rabies is a neglected zoonotic disease that has no effective treatment after onset of illness. However the disease can be prevented effectively by prompt administration of post exposure prophylaxis which includes administration of passive immunizing antibodies (Rabies Immune Globulin, RIG). Currently, human RIG suffers from many restrictions including limited availability, batch-to batch inconsistencies and potential for contamination with blood-borne pathogens. Anti-rabies monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have been identified as a promising alternative to RIG. Here, we applied a plant-based transient expression system to achieve rapid, high level production and efficacy of the two highly potent anti-rabies mAbs E559 and 62-71-3. Expression levels of up to 490 mg/kg of recombinant mAbs were obtained in Nicotiana benthamiana glycosylation mutants by using a viral based transient expression system. The plant-made E559 and 62-71-3, carrying human-type fucose-free N-glycans, assembled properly and were structurally sound as determined by mass spectrometry and calorimetric density measurements. Both mAbs efficiently neutralised diverse rabies virus variants in vitro. Importantly, E559 and 62-71-3 exhibited enhanced protection against rabies virus compared to human RIG in a hamster model post-exposure challenge trial. Collectively, our results provide the basis for the development of a multi-mAb based alternative to RIG.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/biossíntese , Anticorpos Antivirais/biossíntese , Imunização Passiva , Raiva/prevenção & controle , Tabaco/genética , Agrobacterium tumefaciens/genética , Agrobacterium tumefaciens/metabolismo , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Monoclonais/genética , Anticorpos Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Antivirais/genética , Clonagem Molecular , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Vetores Genéticos/química , Vetores Genéticos/metabolismo , Mesocricetus , Testes de Neutralização , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Raiva/imunologia , Raiva/mortalidade , Raiva/virologia , Vacinas Antirrábicas/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Antirrábicas/biossíntese , Vírus da Raiva/efeitos dos fármacos , Vírus da Raiva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vírus da Raiva/imunologia , Vírus da Raiva/patogenicidade , Proteínas Recombinantes/administração & dosagem , Proteínas Recombinantes/biossíntese , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Análise de Sobrevida , Tabaco/metabolismo
20.
J Virol ; 90(17): 7618-27, 2016 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27279622

RESUMO

UNLABELLED: ZMapp, a cocktail of three monoclonal antibodies (MAbs; c2G4, c4G7, and c13C6) against the ebolavirus (EBOV) glycoprotein (GP), shows promise for combatting outbreaks of EBOV, as occurred in West Africa in 2014. Prior studies showed that Fabs from these MAbs bind a soluble EBOV GP ectodomain and that MAbs c2G4 and c4G7, but not c13C6, neutralize infections in cell cultures. Using cryo-electron tomography, we extended these findings by characterizing the structures of c2G4, c4G7, and c13C6 IgGs bound to native, full-length GP from the West African 2014 isolate embedded in filamentous viruslike particles (VLPs). As with the isolated ectodomain, c13C6 bound to the glycan cap, whereas c2G4 and c4G7 bound to the base region of membrane-bound GP. The tomographic data suggest that all three MAbs bind with high occupancy and that the base-binding antibodies can potentially bridge neighboring GP spikes. Functional studies indicated that c2G4 and c4G7, but not c13C6, competitively inhibit entry of VLPs bearing EBOV GP into the host cell cytoplasm, without blocking trafficking of VLPs to NPC1(+) endolysosomes, where EBOV fuses. Moreover, c2G4 and c4G7 bind to and can block entry mediated by the primed (19-kDa) form of GP without impeding binding of the C-loop of NPC1, the endolysosomal receptor for EBOV. The most likely mode of action of c2G4 and c4G7 is therefore by inhibiting conformational changes in primed, NPC1-bound GP that initiate fusion between the viral and target membranes, similar to the action of certain broadly neutralizing antibodies against influenza hemagglutinin and HIV Env. IMPORTANCE: The recent West African outbreak of ebolavirus caused the deaths of more than 11,000 individuals. Hence, there is an urgent need to be prepared with vaccines and therapeutics for similar future disasters. ZMapp, a cocktail of three MAbs directed against the ebolavirus glycoprotein, is a promising anti-ebolavirus therapeutic. Using cryo-electron tomography, we provide structural information on how each of the MAbs in this cocktail binds to the ebolavirus glycoprotein as it is displayed-embedded in the membrane and present at high density-on filamentous viruslike particles that recapitulate the surface structure and entry functions of ebolavirus. Moreover, after confirming that two of the MAbs bind to the same region in the base of the glycoprotein, we show that they competitively block the entry function of the glycoprotein and that they can do so after the glycoprotein is proteolytically primed and bound to its intracellular receptor, Niemann-Pick C1. These findings should inform future developments of ebolavirus therapeutics.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Ebolavirus/imunologia , Ebolavirus/fisiologia , Proteínas do Envelope Viral/imunologia , Internalização do Vírus/efeitos dos fármacos , Anticorpos Monoclonais/metabolismo , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/metabolismo , Tomografia com Microscopia Eletrônica , Ligação Proteica , Proteínas do Envelope Viral/metabolismo , Virossomos/imunologia , Virossomos/metabolismo
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