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1.
Isr Med Assoc J ; 23(9): 595-600, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34472236

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Limited data exist regarding the safety of ultrasound-guided femoral nerve blockade (US-FNB) in patients with hip fractures treated with anti-Xa direct oral anticoagulants (DOAC). OBJECTIVES: To compare the safety outcomes of US-FNB to conventional analgesia in patients with hip fractures treated with anti-Xa DOAC. METHODS: This observational exploratory prospective study included 69 patients who presented to our emergency department (ED) in 3 years with hip fracture and who were treated with apixaban or rivaroxaban. Patients received either a US-FNB (n=19) or conventional analgesics (n=50) based on their preference and, and the presence of a trained ED physician qualified in performing US-FNB. Patients were observed for major bleeding events during and 30 days after hospitalization. The degree of preoperative pain and opioid use were also observed. RESULTS: We found no significant difference in the number of major bleeding events between groups (47.4% vs. 54.0%, P = 0.84). Degree of pain measured 3 and 12 hours after presentation was found to be lower in the US-FNB group (median visual analog scale of pain improvement from baseline of -5 vs. -3 (P = 0.002) and -5 vs.-4 (P = 0.023), respectively. Opioid administration pre-surgery was found to be more than three times more common in the conventional analgesia group (26.3% vs.80%, P < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Regarding patients treated with Anti-Xa DOAC, US-FNB was not associated with an increase in major bleeding events compared to conventional analgesia, although it was an effective means of pain alleviation. Larger scale randomized controlled trials are required to determine long-term safety and efficacy.


Assuntos
Inibidores do Fator Xa/administração & dosagem , Fraturas do Quadril/cirurgia , Bloqueio Nervoso/métodos , Dor Pós-Operatória/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Analgésicos/administração & dosagem , Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , Estudos de Coortes , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Inibidores do Fator Xa/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Nervo Femoral/diagnóstico por imagem , Hemorragia/epidemiologia , Hemorragia/etiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Bloqueio Nervoso/efeitos adversos , Medição da Dor , Projetos Piloto , Estudos Prospectivos , Pirazóis/administração & dosagem , Pirazóis/efeitos adversos , Piridonas/administração & dosagem , Piridonas/efeitos adversos , Rivaroxabana/administração & dosagem , Rivaroxabana/efeitos adversos , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção
2.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0256513, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34473754

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Reducing aggressive tendencies among care receivers in the emergency department has great economic and psychological benefits for care receivers, staff, and health care organizations. In a study conducted in a large multicultural hospital emergency department, we examined how cultural factors relating to ethnicity interact to enhance care receivers' satisfaction and reduce their aggressive tendencies. Specifically, we explored how care receivers' cultural affiliation, individual cultural characteristics, and the cultural situational setting interact to increase care receivers' satisfaction and reduce their aggressive tendencies. METHOD: Data were collected using survey responses from 214 care receivers. We use structural equation models and the bootstrap method to analyze the data. RESULTS: Care receivers' openness to diversity (an individual cultural characteristic) was positively related to their satisfaction that was associated with lower aggressive tendencies, only when they were affiliated with a cultural minority group and when the cultural situational setting included language accessibility. CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrate that cultural affiliation, individual cultural characteristics, and cultural situational setting can affect care receivers' satisfaction and aggressive tendencies in a multicultural emergency department context. In particular, high cultural openness of care receivers, and making information accessible in their native language, increased satisfaction and reduced aggressive tendencies among cultural minority care receivers in our study.

3.
Gerontology ; 67(3): 299-305, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33596580

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: One-year mortality following hip fractures increases steeply with age, from 2% in the 60- to 69-year-old population up to 28% in the oldest old (older than 90 years). Of the various factors that contribute to hip fractures, atrial fibrillation (AF) is an independent risk factor at any age. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess the association of AF with mortality among the oldest old with hip fractures. METHOD: This is a retrospective cohort study of 701 persons above age 90 years who underwent orthopedic repair for a hip fracture during 2000-2018. Of them, 218 (31%) had AF at hospital admission. The primary outcome was survival following surgery. We compared patient characteristics and 30-day, 180-day, 1-year, and 3-year survival between patients with and without AF. RESULTS: The adjusted odds ratio for 30-day postoperative mortality for those with AF versus without AF group was 1.03 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.63-1.66). Survival estimates were higher among those without AF than with AF at 180 days postoperative: 0.85 (95% CI 0.82-0.89) versus 0.68 (95% CI 0.61-0.74), p < 0.001; at 1 year postoperative: 0.68 (95% CI 0.63-0.72) versus 0.48 (95% CI 0.42-0.55), p < 0.001; and at 3 years postoperative: 0.47 (95% CI 0.42-0.52) versus 0.28 (95% CI 0.27-0.34), p < 0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Among individuals aged >90 years, operated for hip fractures, mortality was similar for those with and without AF at 30 days postoperative. However, the survival curves diverged sharply after 180 days. Our findings suggest that AF is not an immediate surgical risk factor, but rather confers increased long-term risk in this population.

4.
Emerg Med J ; 37(9): 540-545, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32753394

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The physician in triage (PIT) strategy was implemented in the emergency department (ED) of the Soroka University Medical Center (SUMC) to improve overcrowding and waiting time. Our objective in the current study was to assess the impact of the PIT strategy on door-to-balloon time for the treatment of acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). METHODS: The PIT programme began on January 2016, working weekdays between 8:00 and 23:00 hours. We included patients who visited the ED and were diagnosed with STEMI, from November 2014 to February 2018. The primary outcome was improvement in door-to-balloon (D2B) time <90 min between the preintervention and postintervention period. The analysis included a comparison between the two time periods using univariate tests, a time trend analysis illustrated by the locally weighted scatterplot smoothing curves and a regression analysis using generalised estimating equation models. To determine the impact of the PIT, as opposed to other changes in the department, we stratified the population arriving after January 2016 to patients arriving during PIT hours versus patients arriving on weekends and at nights (23:00-8:00 hours). RESULTS: In all, 415 patients met all the inclusion criteria of which 237 (57.1%) visited on weekdays 8:00-23:00 hours. The per cent of patients with D2B <90 min was 13.9% higher for postintervention versus preintervention visits (p=0.006). D2B time was significantly shorter by 9 min for postintervention visits (p=0.001). In the postintervention period, patients arriving between 8:00 and 23:00 hours on weekdays were more likely to have D2B <90 min than those arriving nights and weekends; 90/146 (61.6%) vs 47.2% (51/108), respectively, p=0.02. ORs for D2B <90 min was 2.04 (95% CI 1.06 to 3.91) for weekday visits, and 1.90 (0.88 to 4.12) for weekend and night visits. CONCLUSION: The PIT model in SUMC is associated with D2B reduction for patients with STEMI. To achieve further reduction, both targeted interventions should be performed and PIT strategy should be applied for full time, including nights and weekends.


Assuntos
Angioplastia Coronária com Balão , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/organização & administração , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/terapia , Tempo para o Tratamento , Triagem , Aglomeração , Feminino , Humanos , Israel , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Organizacionais , Listas de Espera
5.
Behav Brain Res ; 370: 111953, 2019 09 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31108115

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Depression is common and results in a significant morbidity and economic burden. Depression is associated with pervasive impairments in social functioning, and antidepressant treatments are highly variable in improving these impairments. The objectives of this study were to test the effects of depression on social organization and behavior in a rodent model of depression, and to study the effectiveness of antidepressant medication in improving both symptoms of depression and the social function of depressed animals. METHODS: One hundred-twenty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly and equally divided between the control group and depression group. After induction of depression by 5 weeks of chronic unpredictable stress, rats received either antidepressant treatment or placebo. In parallel with the initiation of drug therapy, 20 social groups of six rats were subjected to the complex diving-for-food situation to evaluate their social functioning. Four behavioral tests evaluated symptoms of depression and anxiety at 3 different time points. RESULTS: We found that 1) depressed rats were significantly more active and aggressive in all parameters of social organization test compared with the control and antidepressant treatment groups, 2) depressed rats that received antidepressant treatment exhibited social behaviors like the control group, and 3) depression in the experimental groups was not accompanied by symptoms of anxiety. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that depression can significantly alter the social behavior and hierarchy in the social group in rats. Investigations of complex social group dynamics offer novel opportunities for translational studies of mood and psychiatric disorders.


Assuntos
Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Depressão/psicologia , Imipramina/farmacologia , Animais , Antidepressivos/farmacologia , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Transtorno Depressivo/psicologia , Transtorno Depressivo/terapia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Hierarquia Social , Masculino , Psicoterapia/métodos , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Comportamento Social
6.
BMJ Case Rep ; 12(2)2019 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30733249

RESUMO

Pneumomediastinum (PNMD) entails the presence of air or other gas in the mediastinum and is also known as mediastinal emphysema. PNMD may cause a wide variety of signs and symptoms, as well as ECG abnormality, including ST segment changes. We present a 56-year-old man admitted to our hospital after a facial trauma. After undergoing tracheostomy, he complained of chest discomfort. A chest X-ray in the posteroanterior view showed PNMD, and an ECG was suggestive of inferior-lateral wall myocardial infarction. An urgent cardiac catheterisation identified a critical obstruction at the origin of the right coronary artery. Following a balloon angioplasty, chest discomfort continued; and the ECG ST segments did not show any dynamic change during the subsequent 72 hours. We urge clinicians to perform a comprehensive workup for every patient presenting with PNMD and ST segment changes, to prevent unnecessary invasive procedures.


Assuntos
Oclusão Coronária/diagnóstico , Traumatismos Faciais/terapia , Infarto Miocárdico de Parede Inferior/diagnóstico , Enfisema Mediastínico/diagnóstico por imagem , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico por imagem , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/diagnóstico , Traqueostomia , Angioplastia Coronária com Balão , Cateterismo Cardíaco , Dor no Peito , Oclusão Coronária/cirurgia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Eletrocardiografia , Humanos , Masculino , Enfisema Mediastínico/fisiopatologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/fisiopatologia
7.
Can J Neurol Sci ; 45(4): 451-461, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29880078

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Post-stroke depression (PSD) is the most frequent psychiatric complication following ischemic stroke. It affects up to 60% of all patients and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality following ischemic stroke. The pathophysiology of PSD remains elusive and appears to be multifactorial, rather than "purely" biological or psychosocial in origin. Thus, valid animal models of PSD would contribute to the study of the etiology (and treatment) of this disorder. METHODS: The present study depicts a rat model for PSD, using middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). The two-way shuttle avoidance task, Porsolt forced-swim test, and sucrose preference test were employed to assess any depression-like behavior. Localized brain expressions of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) protein levels were evaluated to examine the possible involvement of the brain neuronal plasticity in the observed behavioral syndrome. The raw data were subjected to unsupervised fuzzy clustering (UFC) algorithms to assess the sensitivity of bio-behavioral measures indicative of depressive symptoms post MCAO. RESULTS: About 56% of the rats developed significant depressive-like behavioral disruptions as a result of MCAO compared with 4% in the sham-operated control rats. A pattern of a depressive-like behavioral response was common to all affected MCAO animals, characterized by significantly more escape failures and reduced number of total avoidance shuttles, a significant elevation in immobility duration, and reduced sucrose preference. Significant downregulations of BDNF protein levels in the hippocampal sub-regions, frontal cortex, and hypothalamus were observed in all affected MCAO animals. CONCLUSION: The UFC analysis supports the behavioral analysis and thus, lends validity to our results.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem da Esquiva/fisiologia , Depressão/metabolismo , Depressão/fisiopatologia , Comportamento Exploratório/fisiologia , Animais , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Infarto Encefálico/etiologia , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/metabolismo , Análise por Conglomerados , Depressão/etiologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Preferências Alimentares/psicologia , Infarto da Artéria Cerebral Média/complicações , Infarto da Artéria Cerebral Média/patologia , Masculino , Exame Neurológico , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Sacarose/administração & dosagem , Natação/psicologia
9.
J Vis Exp ; (132)2018 02 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29553503

RESUMO

Contagious depression is a phenomenon that is yet to be fully recognized and this stems from insufficient material on the subject. At the moment, there is no existing format for studying the mechanism of action, prevention, containment, and treatment of contagious depression. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to establish the first animal model of contagious depression. Healthy rats can contract depressive behaviors if exposed to depressed rats. Depression is induced in rats by subjecting them to several manipulations of chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) over 5 weeks, as described in the protocol. A successful sucrose preference test confirmed the development of depression in the rats. The CUS-exposed rats were then caged with naïve rats from the contagion group (1 naïve rat/2 depressed rats in a cage) for an additional 5 weeks. 30 social groups were created from the combination of CUS-exposed rats and naïve rats. This proposed depression-contagion protocol in animals consists mainly of cohabiting CUS-exposed and healthy rats for 5 weeks. To ensure that this method works, a series of tests are carried out - first, the sucrose preference test upon inducing depression to rats, then, the sucrose preference test, alongside the open field and forced-swim tests at the end of the cohabitation period. Throughout the experiment, rats are given tags and are always returned to their cages after each test. A few limitations to this method are the weak differences recorded between the experimental and control groups in the sucrose preference test and the irreversible traumatic outcome of the forced swim test. These may be worth considering for suitability before any future application of the protocol. Nonetheless, following the experiment, naïve rats developed contagion depression after 5 weeks of sharing the same cage with the CUS-exposed rats.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Transtorno Depressivo/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
10.
Neurotox Res ; 33(2): 300-308, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28836163

RESUMO

Glutamate toxicity plays a well-established role in secondary brain damage following acute and chronic brain insults. Previous studies have demonstrated the efficacy of hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis in reducing blood glutamate levels. However, these methods are not viable options for hemodynamically unstable patients. Given more favorable hemodynamics, longer treatment, and less needed anticoagulation, we investigated whether hemofiltration could be effective in lowering blood glutamate levels. Blood samples were taken from 10 critically ill patients immediately before initiation of hemofiltration and after 1, 2, 4, 6, and 12 h, for a total of 6 blood samples. Samples were sent for determination of glutamate, glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT), glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT), hemoglobin, hematocrit, urea, creatinine, glucose, sodium, potassium, platelet, and white blood cell (WBC) levels. There was a statistically significant reduction in blood glutamate levels at all time points compared to baseline levels. There was no difference in levels of GOT or GPT. Hemofiltration can be a promising method of reducing blood glutamate levels, especially in critically ill patients where hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis may be contraindicated.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/metabolismo , Estado Terminal/terapia , Ácido Glutâmico/sangue , Hemofiltração , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Aspartato Aminotransferases/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
11.
Clin Pract Cases Emerg Med ; 1(3): 179-182, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29849297

RESUMO

Acute myocardial infarction and perforated peptic ulcer disease with associated peritonitis are both medical emergencies requiring urgent intervention. This patient presented with both emergencies simultaneously. Current literature is devoid of guidance as to which should be addressed initially. A multidisciplinary discussion was conducted leading to a unanimous decision for initiating percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). After successful PCI, the patient was immediately taken to the operating room for laparoscopic repair of the perforated viscous. Subsequent to the operative repair, the patient became hemodynamically unstable and a repeat electrocardiogram demonstrated complete right coronary occlusion. Shock ensued and the patient died in the intensive care unit despite this plan of care. It is our opinion that this case reveals the need for expert panels to devise decision algorithms for concomitant presentations of life-threatening diseases.

12.
Am J Emerg Med ; 33(3): 479.e1-3, 2015 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25241359

RESUMO

Angioedema is a localized, sudden, transient, and often recurrent swelling of the deeper layers of the skin or mucosa with no epidermal component. It is caused by vasoactive substances that produce a transient increase in endothelial permeability. Angioedema involving the laryngeal components is a life-threatening situation for the patient,and it is a challenge for the emergency medicine physician to rapidly achieve a safety airway. Most cases of laryngeal angioedema are induced by histamine release; but 10% are bradykinin induced, which does not respond to the conventional algorithm of treating allergic induced angioedema. We present a case report of an angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor­induced laryngeal angioedema alleviated only after treatment with the new bradykinin receptor inhibitor medication icatibant which was licensed only for use in hereditary angioedema. We reviewed the literature for the use of icatibant in acquired drug-induced angioedema; and because of the similar pathogenesis between the hereditary angioedema and the ACE inhibitor­induced angioedema,we propose an algorithm for careful use of icatibantin life-threatening angioedema in the emergency department.


Assuntos
Angioedema/tratamento farmacológico , Antagonistas de Receptor B2 da Bradicinina/uso terapêutico , Bradicinina/análogos & derivados , Edema Laríngeo/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Angioedema/induzido quimicamente , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/efeitos adversos , Bradicinina/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Edema Laríngeo/induzido quimicamente
13.
Cardiology ; 102(4): 200-5, 2004.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15452388

RESUMO

To assess the classification of neurocardiogenic syncope (NCS) as a IIA indication for pacemaker implantation in the recent American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines/North American Society for Pacing and Electrophysiology guidelines, we performed chart reviews and follow-up interviews in a cohort of 45 consecutive young Israeli soldiers (age 18-24 years) with a history of syncope (mean of 9 prior syncopal episodes) and a positive tilt test treated with drug therapy. Asystole longer than 5 s during tilt testing occurred in 11 patients. Five years later, we found that only 2 patients were still taking medications, only 1 patient (2%) still reported frequent syncopal or near-syncopal episodes and 3 patients (7%) had rare symptoms (no more than one syncopal episode during the past 2 years), while the remaining 40 (89%) were symptom free off medications. Thus, NCS in young patients, even with prolonged asystole during tilt testing, a history of frequent syncopal episodes and other high- risk factors described in the guidelines, is often a self-limiting disorder, perhaps stress related or situational in nature; an overwhelming number of patients become asymptomatic and stop taking medications within 1-2 years. These patients do not require long-term therapy; thus, our data would suggest that the IIA pacing indication for NCS should be restricted to older patients.


Assuntos
Fatores Etários , Estimulação Cardíaca Artificial , Síncope Vasovagal/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Seleção de Pacientes , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Estudos Retrospectivos , Prevenção Secundária , Síncope Vasovagal/tratamento farmacológico , Teste da Mesa Inclinada , Resultado do Tratamento
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