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1.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2022 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35026030

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) among individuals aged less than 50 years has been increasing. As screening guidelines lower the recommended age of screening initiation, concerns including the burden on screening capacity and costs have been recognized, suggesting that an individualized approach may be warranted. We developed risk prediction models for early-onset CRC that incorporate an environmental risk score (ERS), including 16 lifestyle and environmental factors, and a polygenic risk score (PRS), of 141 variants. METHODS: Relying on risk score weights for ERS and PRS derived from studies of CRC at all ages, we evaluated risks for early-onset CRC in 3,486 cases and 3,890 controls aged less than 50 years. Relative and absolute risks for early-onset CRC were assessed according to values of the ERS and PRS. The discriminatory performance of these scores was estimated using the covariate-adjusted area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. RESULTS: Increasing values of ERS and PRS were associated with increasing relative risks for early-onset CRC (odds ratio per standard deviation of ERS = 1.14, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.08, 1.20; odds ratio per standard deviation of PRS = 1.59, 95% CI = 1.51, 1.68), both contributing to case-control discrimination (area under the curve = 0.631, 95% CI = 0.615, 0.647). Based on absolute risks, we can expect 26 excess cases per 10,000 men and 21 per 10,000 women, among those scoring at the 90th percentile for both risk scores. CONCLUSIONS: Personal risk scores have the potential to identify individuals at differential relative and absolute risk for early-onset CRC. Improved discrimination may aid in targeted CRC screening of younger, high-risk individuals, potentially improving outcomes.

3.
Epidemiology ; 32(6): 763-772, 2021 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34347687

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a paucity of prospective cohort studies evaluating neighborhood walkability in relation to the risk of death. METHODS: We geocoded baseline residential addresses of 13,832 women in the New York University Women's Health Study (NYUWHS) and estimated the Built Environment and Health Neighborhood Walkability Index (BEH-NWI) for each participant circa 1990. The participants were recruited from 1985 to 1991 in New York City and followed for an average of 27 years. We conducted survival analyses using Cox proportional hazards models to assess the association between neighborhood walkability and risk of death from any cause, obesity-related diseases, cardiometabolic diseases, and obesity-related cancers. RESULTS: Residing in a neighborhood with a higher neighborhood walkability score was associated with a lower mortality rate. Comparing women in the top versus the lowest walkability tertile, the hazards ratios (and 95% CIs) were 0.96 (0.93, 0.99) for all-cause, 0.91 (0.86, 0.97) for obesity-related disease, and 0.72 (0.62, 0.85) for obesity-related cancer mortality, respectively, adjusting for potential confounders at both the individual and neighborhood level. We found no association between neighborhood walkability and risk of death from cardiometabolic diseases. Results were similar in analyses censoring participants who moved during follow-up, using multiple imputation for missing covariates, and using propensity scores matching women with high and low neighborhood walkability on potential confounders. Exploratory analyses indicate that outdoor walking and average BMI mediated the association between neighborhood walkability and mortality. CONCLUSION: Our findings are consistent with a protective role of neighborhood walkability in obesity-related mortality in women, particularly obesity-related cancer mortality.


Assuntos
Planejamento Ambiental , Características de Residência , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Cidade de Nova Iorque , Estudos Prospectivos , Caminhada
4.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 13805, 2021 07 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34226613

RESUMO

Imbalances of blood biomarkers are associated with disease, and biomarkers may also vary non-pathologically across population groups. We described variation in concentrations of biomarkers of one-carbon metabolism, vitamin status, inflammation including tryptophan metabolism, and endothelial and renal function among cancer-free older adults. We analyzed 5167 cancer-free controls aged 40-80 years from 20 cohorts in the Lung Cancer Cohort Consortium (LC3). Centralized biochemical analyses of 40 biomarkers in plasma or serum were performed. We fit multivariable linear mixed effects models to quantify variation in standardized biomarker log-concentrations across four factors: age, sex, smoking status, and body mass index (BMI). Differences in most biomarkers across most factors were small, with 93% (186/200) of analyses showing an estimated difference lower than 0.25 standard-deviations, although most were statistically significant due to large sample size. The largest difference was for creatinine by sex, which was - 0.91 standard-deviations lower in women than men (95%CI - 0.98; - 0.84). The largest difference by age was for total cysteine (0.40 standard-deviation increase per 10-year increase, 95%CI 0.36; 0.43), and by BMI was for C-reactive protein (0.38 standard-deviation increase per 5-kg/m2 increase, 95%CI 0.34; 0.41). For 31 of 40 markers, the mean difference between current and never smokers was larger than between former and never smokers. A statistically significant (p < 0.05) association with time since smoking cessation was observed for 8 markers, including C-reactive protein, kynurenine, choline, and total homocysteine. We conclude that most blood biomarkers show small variations across demographic characteristics. Patterns by smoking status point to normalization of multiple physiological processes after smoking cessation.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Carbono/metabolismo , Inflamação/genética , Rim/metabolismo , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Índice de Massa Corporal , Proteína C-Reativa/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação/sangue , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/patologia , Cinurenina/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fumar/genética , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Vitaminas/sangue
5.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 30(9): 1652-1659, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34244157

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prolactin is synthesized in the ovaries and may play a role in ovarian cancer etiology. One prior prospective study observed a suggestive positive association between prolactin levels and risk of ovarian cancer. METHODS: We conducted a pooled case-control study of 703 cases and 864 matched controls nested within five prospective cohorts. We used unconditional logistic regression to calculate adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between prolactin and ovarian cancer risk. We examined heterogeneity by menopausal status at blood collection, body mass index (BMI), age, and histotype. RESULTS: Among women with known menopausal status, we observed a positive trend in the association between prolactin and ovarian cancer risk (P trend = 0.045; OR, quartile 4 vs. 1 = 1.34; 95% CI = 0.97-1.85), but no significant association was observed for premenopausal or postmenopausal women individually (corresponding OR = 1.38; 95% CI = 0.74-2.58; P trend = 0.32 and OR = 1.41; 95% CI = 0.93-2.13; P trend = 0.08, respectively; P heterogeneity = 0.91). In stratified analyses, we observed a positive association between prolactin and risk for women with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2, but not BMI < 25 kg/m2 (corresponding OR = 2.68; 95% CI = 1.56-4.59; P trend < 0.01 and OR = 0.90; 95% CI = 0.58-1.40; P trend = 0.98, respectively; P heterogeneity < 0.01). Associations did not vary by age, postmenopausal hormone therapy use, histotype, or time between blood draw and diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: We found a trend between higher prolactin levels and increased ovarian cancer risk, especially among women with a BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2. IMPACT: This work supports a previous study linking higher prolactin with ovarian carcinogenesis in a high adiposity setting. Future work is needed to understand the mechanism underlying this association.

6.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 106(11): e4542-e4553, 2021 10 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34157104

RESUMO

CONTEXT: We previously reported that anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), a marker of ovarian reserve, is positively associated with breast cancer risk, consistent with other studies. OBJECTIVE: This study assessed whether risk factors for breast cancer are correlates of AMH concentration. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 3831 healthy premenopausal women (aged 21-57, 87% aged 35-49) from 10 cohort studies among the general population. RESULTS: Adjusting for age and cohort, AMH positively associated with age at menarche (P < 0.0001) and parity (P = 0.0008) and inversely associated with hysterectomy/partial oophorectomy (P = 0.0008). Compared with women of normal weight, AMH was lower (relative geometric mean difference 27%, P < 0.0001) among women who were obese. Current oral contraceptive (OC) use and current/former smoking were associated with lower AMH concentration than never use (40% and 12% lower, respectively, P < 0.0001). We observed higher AMH concentrations among women who had had a benign breast biopsy (15% higher, P = 0.03), a surrogate for benign breast disease, an association that has not been reported. In analyses stratified by age (<40 vs ≥40), associations of AMH with body mass index and OCs were similar in younger and older women, while associations with the other factors (menarche, parity, hysterectomy/partial oophorectomy, smoking, and benign breast biopsy) were limited to women ≥40 (P-interaction < 0.05). CONCLUSION: This is the largest study of AMH and breast cancer risk factors among women from the general population (not presenting with infertility), and it suggests that most associations are limited to women over 40, who are approaching menopause and whose AMH concentration is declining.

7.
JNCI Cancer Spectr ; 5(3): pkab029, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34041438

RESUMO

Background: Incidence of early-onset (younger than 50 years of age) colorectal cancer (CRC) is increasing in many countries. Thus, elucidating the role of traditional CRC risk factors in early-onset CRC is a high priority. We sought to determine whether risk factors associated with late-onset CRC were also linked to early-onset CRC and whether association patterns differed by anatomic subsite. Methods: Using data pooled from 13 population-based studies, we studied 3767 CRC cases and 4049 controls aged younger than 50 years and 23 437 CRC cases and 35 311 controls aged 50 years and older. Using multivariable and multinomial logistic regression, we estimated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to assess the association between risk factors and early-onset CRC and by anatomic subsite. Results: Early-onset CRC was associated with not regularly using nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (OR = 1.43, 95% CI = 1.21 to 1.68), greater red meat intake (OR = 1.10, 95% CI = 1.04 to 1.16), lower educational attainment (OR = 1.10, 95% CI = 1.04 to 1.16), alcohol abstinence (OR = 1.23, 95% CI = 1.08 to 1.39), and heavier alcohol use (OR = 1.25, 95% CI = 1.04 to 1.50). No factors exhibited a greater excess in early-onset compared with late-onset CRC. Evaluating risks by anatomic subsite, we found that lower total fiber intake was linked more strongly to rectal (OR = 1.30, 95% CI = 1.14 to 1.48) than colon cancer (OR = 1.14, 95% CI = 1.02 to 1.27; P = .04). Conclusion: In this large study, we identified several nongenetic risk factors associated with early-onset CRC, providing a basis for targeted identification of those most at risk, which is imperative in mitigating the rising burden of this disease.

8.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 114(2): 450-461, 2021 08 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33964859

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic studies examining the relations between dairy product and calcium intakes and breast cancer have been inconclusive, especially for tumor subtypes. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the associations between intakes of specific dairy products and calcium and risk of breast cancer overall and for subtypes defined by estrogen receptor (ER) status. METHOD: We pooled the individual-level data of over 1 million women who were followed for a maximum of 8-20 years across studies. Associations were evaluated for dairy product and calcium intakes and risk of incident invasive breast cancer overall (n = 37,861 cases) and by subtypes defined by ER status. Study-specific multivariable hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated and then combined using random-effects models. RESULTS: Overall, no clear association was observed between the consumption of specific dairy foods, dietary (from foods only) calcium, and total (from foods and supplements) calcium, and risk of overall breast cancer. Although each dairy product showed a null or very weak inverse association with risk of overall breast cancer (P, test for trend >0.05 for all), differences by ER status were suggested for yogurt and cottage/ricotta cheese with associations observed for ER-negative tumors only (pooled HR = 0.90, 95% CI: 0.83, 0.98 comparing ≥60 g/d with <1 g/d of yogurt and 0.85, 95% CI: 0.76, 0.95 comparing ≥25 g/d with <1 g/d of cottage/ricotta cheese). Dietary calcium intake was only weakly associated with breast cancer risk (pooled HR = 0.98, 95% CI: 0.97, 0.99 per 350 mg/d). CONCLUSION: Our study shows that adult dairy or calcium consumption is unlikely to associate with a higher risk of breast cancer and that higher yogurt and cottage/ricotta cheese intakes were inversely associated with the risk of ER-negative breast cancer, a less hormonally dependent subtype with poor prognosis. Future studies on fermented dairy products, earlier life exposures, ER-negative breast cancer, and different racial/ethnic populations may further elucidate the relation.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/prevenção & controle , Cálcio/administração & dosagem , Laticínios , Receptores de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Análise Multivariada , Receptores de Estrogênio/genética , Fatores de Risco
9.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 30(6): 1279-1282, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33737297

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The association between prediagnostic antibody responses to Fusobacterium nucleatum (F. nucleatum) and subsequent risk of colorectal cancer is not established. METHODS: We conducted a nested case-control study of 8,126 participants in a consortium of 10 prospective cohorts in the United States. RESULTS: Higher seroprevalence of any F. nucleatum antibody was observed among non-White participants (51.1%) compared with White participants (31.2%). We did not find any statistically significant association between seropositivity to any of the eight F. nucleatum proteins and colorectal cancer risk. CONCLUSIONS: Prediagnostic antibody responses to F. nucleatum proteins were not associated with the risk of colorectal cancer. IMPACT: Future studies may consider a more specific detection of the immunoglobulin isotypes or focus on examining F. nucleatum in stool or tissue samples.

10.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 113(4): 821-831, 2021 04 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33564828

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many studies have addressed effects of dietary supplementation with soy protein, but most have been inconsistent and few have been long-term studies in men. OBJECTIVES: This study was a secondary analysis of body weight, blood pressure, thyroid hormones, iron status, and clinical chemistry in a 2-y trial of soy protein supplementation in middle-aged to older men. METHODS: Data were analyzed as secondary outcomes of a randomized controlled trial of dietary supplementation with 20 g/d soy protein isolate, providing 41 mg/d total isoflavones and 23 mg/d genistein, in 44- to 75-y-old men who were at risk of cancer recurrence following prostatectomy randomized to soy (n = 50) or a casein-based placebo (n  = 43). Weight, blood pressure, and blood samples were collected at baseline, every 2 mo in year 1, and every 3 mo in year 2. RESULTS: Compared with casein, soy supplementation did not affect body weight, blood pressure, serum total cholesterol, calcium, phosphorus, and thyroid hormones. Serum ferritin concentrations doubled over 2 y in both groups (117-129%), whereas hemoglobin and hematocrit increased slightly. In an exploratory subgroup analysis of soy group data, weight increased in subjects producing equol but not in nonproducers. Blood pressure was reduced in nonequol producers but not in producers. Other endpoints were not affected by equol production status. CONCLUSIONS: Soy protein supplementation for 2 y compared with a casein-based placebo did not affect body weight, blood pressure, serum total cholesterol, iron status parameters, calcium, phosphorus, and thyroid hormones. Exploratory analysis suggests that equol production status of subjects on soy may modify effects of soy on body weight and possibly blood pressure. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00765479.


Assuntos
Prostatectomia , Neoplasias da Próstata/cirurgia , Proteínas de Soja/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Suplementos Nutricionais , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hormônios Tireóideos/sangue , Hormônios Tireóideos/metabolismo
11.
Int J Cancer ; 148(9): 2068-2078, 2021 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33105052

RESUMO

A full-term pregnancy is associated with reduced endometrial cancer risk; however, whether the effect of additional pregnancies is independent of age at last pregnancy is unknown. The associations between other pregnancy-related factors and endometrial cancer risk are less clear. We pooled individual participant data from 11 cohort and 19 case-control studies participating in the Epidemiology of Endometrial Cancer Consortium (E2C2) including 16 986 women with endometrial cancer and 39 538 control women. We used one- and two-stage meta-analytic approaches to estimate pooled odds ratios (ORs) for the association between exposures and endometrial cancer risk. Ever having a full-term pregnancy was associated with a 41% reduction in risk of endometrial cancer compared to never having a full-term pregnancy (OR = 0.59, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.56-0.63). The risk reduction appeared the greatest for the first full-term pregnancy (OR = 0.78, 95% CI 0.72-0.84), with a further ~15% reduction per pregnancy up to eight pregnancies (OR = 0.20, 95% CI 0.14-0.28) that was independent of age at last full-term pregnancy. Incomplete pregnancy was also associated with decreased endometrial cancer risk (7%-9% reduction per pregnancy). Twin births appeared to have the same effect as singleton pregnancies. Our pooled analysis shows that, while the magnitude of the risk reduction is greater for a full-term pregnancy than an incomplete pregnancy, each additional pregnancy is associated with further reduction in endometrial cancer risk, independent of age at last full-term pregnancy. These results suggest that the very high progesterone level in the last trimester of pregnancy is not the sole explanation for the protective effect of pregnancy.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Endométrio/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Fatores de Risco
12.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 36(1): 37-55, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33128203

RESUMO

Associations between anthropometric factors and breast cancer (BC) risk have varied inconsistently by estrogen and/or progesterone receptor (ER/PR) status. Associations between prediagnostic anthropometric factors and risk of premenopausal and postmenopausal BC overall and ER/PR status subtypes were investigated in a pooled analysis of 20 prospective cohorts, including 36,297 BC cases among 1,061,915 women, using multivariable Cox regression analyses, controlling for reproductive factors, diet and other risk factors. We estimated dose-response relationships and tested for nonlinear associations using restricted cubic splines. Height showed positive, linear associations for premenopausal and postmenopausal BC risk (6-7% RR increase per 5 cm increment), with stronger associations for receptor-positive subtypes. Body mass index (BMI) at cohort baseline was strongly inversely associated with premenopausal BC risk, and strongly positively-and nonlinearly-associated with postmenopausal BC (especially among women who never used hormone replacement therapy). This was primarily observed for receptor-positive subtypes. Early adult BMI (at 18-20 years) showed inverse, linear associations for premenopausal and postmenopausal BC risk (21% and 11% RR decrease per 5 kg/m2, respectively) with stronger associations for receptor-negative subtypes. Adult weight gain since 18-20 years was positively associated with postmenopausal BC risk, stronger for receptor-positive subtypes, and among women who were leaner in early adulthood. Women heavier in early adulthood generally had reduced premenopausal BC risk, independent of later weight gain. Positive associations between height, baseline (adult) BMI, adult weight gain and postmenopausal BC risk were substantially stronger for hormone receptor-positive versus negative subtypes. Premenopausal BC risk was positively associated with height, but inversely with baseline BMI and weight gain (mostly in receptor-positive subtypes). Inverse associations with early adult BMI seemed stronger in receptor-negative subtypes of premenopausal and postmenopausal BC.


Assuntos
Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Menopausa/fisiologia , Receptores de Estrogênio/análise , Ganho de Peso , Adulto , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pré-Menopausa , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
13.
Microorganisms ; 8(11)2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33143263

RESUMO

Previously, we found that risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) is increased in individuals with serum antibody response to both Helicobacter pylori (HP) Vacuolating Cytotoxin (VacA) toxin or Streptococcus gallolyticus (SGG) pilus protein Gallo2178. In the present analysis, we tested the hypothesis that combined seropositivity to both antigens is a better indicator of CRC risk than seropositivity to single antigens. We used multiplex serologic assays to analyze pre-diagnostic serum for antibody responses from 4063 incident CRC cases and 4063 matched controls from 10 US cohorts. To examine whether combined SGG Gallo2178 and HP VacA sero-status was associated with CRC risk, we used conditional logistic regression models to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Compared to dual sero-negative individuals, there was no increased risk for individuals sero-positive to SGG Gallo2178 only (OR: 0.93; 95% CI: 0.66-1.31) or to HP VacA only (OR: 1.08; 95% CI: 0.98-1.19). However, dual sero-positive individuals had a >50% increased odds of developing CRC (OR: 1.54; 95% CI: 1.16-2.04), suggesting an interaction between antibody responses to these two pathogens and CRC risk (pinteraction = 0.06). In conclusion, this study suggests that dual sero-positivity to HP VacA and SGG Gallo2178 is an indicator of increased risk of CRC.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32751422

RESUMO

The primary goal of this pilot study was to assess feasibility of studies among local community members to address the hypothesis that complex exposures to the World Trade Center (WTC) dust and fumes resulted in long-term epigenetic changes. We enrolled 18 WTC-exposed cancer-free women from the WTC Environmental Health Center (WTC EHC) who agreed to donate blood samples during their standard clinical visits. As a reference WTC unexposed group, we randomly selected 24 age-matched cancer-free women from an existing prospective cohort who donated blood samples before 11 September 2001. The global DNA methylation analyses were performed using Illumina Infinium MethylationEpic arrays. Statistical analyses were performed using R Bioconductor package. Functional genomic analyses were done by mapping the top 5000 differentially expressed CpG sites to the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) Pathway database. Among cancer-free subjects, we observed substantial methylation differences between WTC-exposed and unexposed women. The top 15 differentially methylated gene probes included BCAS2, OSGIN1, BMI1, EEF1A2, SPTBN5, CHD8, CDCA7L, AIDA, DDN, SNORD45C, ZFAND6, ARHGEF7, UBXN8, USF1, and USP12. Several cancer-related pathways were enriched in the WTC-exposed subjects, including endocytosis, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), viral carcinogenesis, as well as Ras-associated protein-1 (Rap1) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling. The study provides preliminary data on substantial differences in DNA methylation between WTC-exposed and unexposed populations that require validation in further studies.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Poluentes Ambientais , Ataques Terroristas de 11 de Setembro , Poeira , Exposição Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Feminino , Humanos , Fator 1 de Elongação de Peptídeos , Projetos Piloto , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Troca de Nucleotídeo Guanina Rho
15.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(10): 2010-2018, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32732252

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube, and primary peritoneal cancers have shared developmental pathways. Few studies have prospectively examined heterogeneity in risk factor associations across these three anatomic sites. METHODS: We identified 3,738 ovarian, 337 peritoneal, and 176 fallopian tube incident cancer cases in 891,731 women from 15 prospective cohorts in the Ovarian Cancer Cohort Consortium. Associations between 18 putative risk factors and risk of ovarian, peritoneal, and fallopian tube cancer, overall and for serous and high-grade serous tumors, were evaluated using competing risks Cox proportional hazards regression. Heterogeneity was assessed by likelihood ratio tests. RESULTS: Most associations did not vary by tumor site (P het ≥ 0.05). Associations between first pregnancy (P het = 0.04), tubal ligation (P het = 0.01), and early-adult (age 18-21 years) body mass index (BMI; P het = 0.02) and risk differed between ovarian and peritoneal cancers. The association between early-adult BMI and risk further differed between peritoneal and fallopian tube cancer (P het = 0.03). First pregnancy and tubal ligation were inversely associated with ovarian, but not peritoneal, cancer. Higher early-adult BMI was associated with higher risk of peritoneal, but not ovarian or fallopian tube, cancer. Patterns were generally similar when restricted to serous and high-grade serous cases. CONCLUSIONS: Ovarian, fallopian tube, and primary peritoneal cancers appear to have both shared and distinct etiologic pathways, although most risk factors appear to have similar associations by anatomic site. IMPACT: Further studies on the mechanisms underlying the differences in risk profiles may provide insights regarding the developmental origins of tumors arising in the peritoneal cavity and inform prevention efforts.

16.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(10): 2084-2092, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32856604

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection, the main risk factor for gastric cancer, has been decreasing in the United States; however, there remains a substantial racial disparity. Moreover, the time-trends for prevalence of CagA-positive H. pylori infection, the most virulent form, are unknown in the U.S. POPULATION: We sought to assess prevalence of CagA-positive H. pylori infection over time by race in the United States. METHODS: We utilized multiplex serology to quantify antibody responses to H. pylori antigens in 4,476 participants across five cohorts that sampled adults from 1985 to 2009. Using log-binomial regression models, we calculated prevalence ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the association between H. pylori-CagA sero-prevalence and birth year by race. RESULTS: African Americans were three times more likely to be H. pylori-CagA sero-positive than Whites. After adjustment, H. pylori-CagA sero-prevalence was lower with increasing birth year among Whites (P trend = 0.001), but remained stable for African Americans. When stratified by sex and education separately, the decline in H. pylori-CagA sero-positivity among Whites remained only for females (P trend < 0.001) and was independent of educational attainment. Among African Americans, there was no difference by sex; furthermore, sero-prevalence increased with increasing birth year among those with a high school education or less (P = 0.006). CONCLUSIONS: Among individuals in the United States born from the 1920s to 1960s, H. pylori-CagA sero-prevalence has declined among Whites, but not among African Americans. IMPACT: Our findings suggest a widening racial disparity in the prevalence of the most virulent form of H. pylori, the main cause of gastric cancer.

17.
Lifetime Data Anal ; 26(4): 789-819, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32529421

RESUMO

Mean residual life (MRL) is the remaining life expectancy of a subject who has survived to a certain time point and can be used as an alternative to hazard function for characterizing the distribution of a time-to-event variable. Inference and application of MRL models have primarily focused on full-cohort studies. In practice, case-cohort and nested case-control designs have been commonly used within large cohorts that have long follow-up and study rare diseases, particularly when studying costly molecular biomarkers. They enable prospective inference as the full-cohort design with significant cost-saving benefits. In this paper, we study the modeling and inference of a family of generalized MRL models under case-cohort and nested case-control designs. Built upon the idea of inverse selection probability, the weighted estimating equations are constructed to estimate regression parameters and baseline MRL function. Asymptotic properties of the proposed estimators are established and finite-sample performance is evaluated by extensive numerical simulations. An application to the New York University Women's Health Study is presented to illustrate the proposed models and demonstrate a model diagnostic method to guide practical implementation.


Assuntos
Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Expectativa de Vida , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Simulação por Computador , Humanos , Probabilidade , Análise de Regressão
18.
Br J Cancer ; 123(2): 316-324, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32376888

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) arises from cholangiocytes in the intrahepatic bile duct and is the second most common type of liver cancer. Cholangiocytes express both oestrogen receptor-α and -ß, and oestrogens positively modulate cholangiocyte proliferation. Studies in women and men have reported higher circulating oestradiol is associated with increased ICC risk, further supporting a hormonal aetiology. However, no observational studies have examined the associations between exogenous hormone use and reproductive factors, as proxies of endogenous hormone levels, and risk of ICC. METHODS: We harmonised data from 1,107,498 women who enroled in 12 North American-based cohort studies (in the Liver Cancer Pooling Project, LCPP) and the UK Biobank between 1980-1998 and 2006-2010, respectively. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to generate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence internals (CI). Then, meta-analytic techniques were used to combine the estimates from the LCPP (n = 180 cases) and the UK Biobank (n = 57 cases). RESULTS: Hysterectomy was associated with a doubling of ICC risk (HR = 1.98, 95% CI: 1.27-3.09), compared to women aged 50-54 at natural menopause. Long-term oral contraceptive use (9+ years) was associated with a 62% increased ICC risk (HR = 1.62, 95% CI: 1.03-2.55). There was no association between ICC risk and other exogenous hormone use or reproductive factors. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that hysterectomy and long-term oral contraceptive use may be associated with an increased ICC risk.


Assuntos
Colangiocarcinoma/epidemiologia , Anticoncepcionais Orais Hormonais/efeitos adversos , Hormônios/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/epidemiologia , Idoso , Ductos Biliares , Ductos Biliares Intra-Hepáticos , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Colangiocarcinoma/induzido quimicamente , Colangiocarcinoma/metabolismo , Colangiocarcinoma/patologia , Estudos de Coortes , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/genética , Receptor beta de Estrogênio/genética , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Hormônios/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Histerectomia/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Menopausa/efeitos dos fármacos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Risco , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
19.
Eur J Clin Nutr ; 74(9): 1306-1315, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32317749

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Folates found in natural foods are thought to protect against cancer. However, folic acid (FA), a synthetic form of folate used in supplements and fortified foods, may increase breast cancer risk if present in unmetabolized form (UMFA) in the circulation. This study examined the associations of serum UMFA and 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-mTHF), the predominant form of circulating folate, with breast cancer risk. SUBJECTS/METHODS: We conducted a nested case-control study in a prospective cohort. In total, 553 cases of invasive breast cancer, diagnosed before mandatory FA fortification of grain in the US in 1998, were individually-matched to 1059 controls. Serum UMFA and 5-mTHF were measured using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in stored serum samples, and 5-mTHF was corrected for storage degradation. RESULTS: Serum UMFA was not associated with breast cancer risk: the percentage of women with detectable levels of UMFA was similar in cases and controls (18% and 20%, respectively; p = 0.46). Two tag-SNPs in the promoter region of the FA-metabolizing gene were also not associated with risk. There was a marginally significant inverse association of 5-mTHFcorrected with breast cancer risk (odds ratio for the highest vs. lowest quintile = 0.69, 95% CI = 0.49 to 0.97; ptrend = 0.08). CONCLUSIONS: Circulating UMFA was not associated with breast cancer risk. These results apply to countries without mandatory FA food fortification. Studies are needed in countries with mandatory fortification, where levels of UMFA are much higher than in our study.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Ácido Fólico , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Tetra-Hidrofolatos
20.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(5): 1074-1078, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32108027

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lipid traits have been inconsistently linked to risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). We examined the association of genetically predicted lipid traits with risk of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), follicular lymphoma (FL), and marginal zone lymphoma (MZL) using Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis. METHODS: Genome-wide association study data from the InterLymph Consortium were available for 2,661 DLBCLs, 2,179 CLLs, 2,142 FLs, 824 MZLs, and 6,221 controls. SNPs associated (P < 5 × 10-8) with high-density lipoprotein (HDL, n = 164), low-density lipoprotein (LDL, n = 137), total cholesterol (TC, n = 161), and triglycerides (TG, n = 123) were used as instrumental variables (IV), explaining 14.6%, 27.7%, 16.8%, and 12.8% of phenotypic variation, respectively. Associations between each lipid trait and NHL subtype were calculated using the MR inverse variance-weighted method, estimating odds ratios (OR) per standard deviation and 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: HDL was positively associated with DLBCL (OR = 1.14; 95% CI, 1.00-1.30) and MZL (OR = 1.09; 95% CI, 1.01-1.18), while TG was inversely associated with MZL risk (OR = 0.90; 95% CI, 0.83-0.99), all at nominal significance (P < 0.05). A positive trend was observed for HDL with FL risk (OR = 1.08; 95% CI, 0.99-1.19; P = 0.087). No associations were noteworthy after adjusting for multiple testing. CONCLUSIONS: We did not find evidence of a clear or strong association of these lipid traits with the most common NHL subtypes. While these IVs have been previously linked to other cancers, our findings do not support any causal associations with these NHL subtypes. IMPACT: Our results suggest that prior reported inverse associations of lipid traits are not likely to be causal and could represent reverse causality or confounding.


Assuntos
Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/epidemiologia , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , Linfoma de Zona Marginal Tipo Células B/epidemiologia , Linfoma Folicular/epidemiologia , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/epidemiologia , Causalidade , Colesterol/sangue , Colesterol/metabolismo , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/sangue , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/genética , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/metabolismo , Lipoproteínas HDL/sangue , Lipoproteínas HDL/metabolismo , Lipoproteínas LDL/sangue , Lipoproteínas LDL/metabolismo , Linfoma de Zona Marginal Tipo Células B/sangue , Linfoma de Zona Marginal Tipo Células B/genética , Linfoma de Zona Marginal Tipo Células B/metabolismo , Linfoma Folicular/sangue , Linfoma Folicular/genética , Linfoma Folicular/metabolismo , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/sangue , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/genética , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/metabolismo , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Razão de Chances , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Fatores de Risco , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo
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