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1.
Environ Sci Technol ; 54(7): 3861-3870, 2020 04 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32154714

RESUMO

Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) accounts for a large fraction of the tropospheric particulate matter. Although SOA production rates and mechanisms have been extensively investigated, loss pathways remain uncertain. Most large-scale chemistry and transport models account for mechanical deposition of SOA but not chemical losses such as photolysis. There is also a paucity of laboratory measurements of SOA photolysis, which limits how well photolytic losses can be modeled. Here, we show, through a combined experimental and modeling approach, that photolytic loss of SOA mass significantly alters SOA budget predictions. Using environmental chamber experiments at variable relative humidity between 0 and 60%, we find that SOA produced from several biogenic volatile organic compounds undergoes photolysis-induced mass loss at rates between 0 and 2.2 ± 0.4% of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) photolysis, equivalent to average atmospheric lifetimes as short as 10 h. We incorporate our photolysis rates into a regional chemical transport model to test the sensitivity of predicted SOA mass concentrations to photolytic losses. The addition of photolysis causes a ∼50% reduction in biogenic SOA loadings over the Amazon, indicating that photolysis exerts a substantial control over the atmospheric SOA lifetime, with a likely dependence upon the SOA molecular composition and thus production mechanisms.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Aerossóis , Modelos Químicos , Material Particulado , Fotólise
2.
Environ Sci Technol ; 54(5): 2595-2605, 2020 03 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31994876

RESUMO

The diffusivity of semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) in the bulk particle phase of a viscous atmospheric secondary organic aerosol (SOA) can have a profound impact on aerosol growth and size distribution dynamics. Here, we investigate the bulk diffusivity of SVOCs formed from photo-oxidation of isoprene as they partition to a bimodal aerosol consisting of an Aitken (potassium sulfate) and accumulation mode (aged α-pinene SOA) particles as a function of relative humidity (RH). The model analysis of the observed size distribution evolution shows that liquid-like diffusion coefficient values of Db > 10-10 cm2 s-1 fail to explain the growth of the Aitken mode. Instead, much lower values of Db between 2.5 × 10-15 cm2 s-1 at 32% RH and 8 × 10-15 cm2 s-1 at 82% RH were needed to successfully reproduce the growth of both modes. The diffusivity within the aged α-pinene SOA remains appreciably slow even at 80% RH, resulting in hindered partitioning of SVOCs to large viscous particles and allowing smaller and relatively less viscous particles to effectively absorb the available SVOCs and grow much faster than would be possible otherwise. These results have important implications for modeling SOA formation and growth in the ambient atmosphere.


Assuntos
Monoterpenos Bicíclicos , Compostos Orgânicos , Aerossóis , Atmosfera , Difusão , Monoterpenos
3.
Environ Sci Technol ; 53(12): 6669-6677, 2019 06 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31125204

RESUMO

Accurate long-range atmospheric transport (LRAT) modeling of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and PAH oxidation products (PAH-OPs) in secondary organic aerosol (SOA) particles relies on the known chemical composition of the particles. Four PAHs, phenanthrene (PHE), dibenzothiophene (DBT), pyrene (PYR), and benz(a)anthracene (BaA), were studied individually to identify and quantify PAH-OPs produced and incorporated into SOA particles formed by ozonolysis of α-pinene in the presence of PAH vapor. SOA particles were characterized using real-time in situ instrumentation, and collected on quartz fiber filters for offline analysis of PAHs and PAH-OPs. PAH-OPs were measured in all PAH experiments at equal or greater concentrations than the individual PAHs they were produced from. The total mass of PAH and PAH-OPs, relative to the total SOA mass, varied for different experiments on individual parent PAHs: PHE and 6 quantified PHE-OPs (3.0%), DBT and dibenzothiophene sulfone (4.9%), PYR and 3 quantified PYR-OPs (3.1%), and BaA and benz(a)anthracene-7,12-dione (0.26%). Further exposure of PAH-SOA to ozone generally increased the concentration ratio of PAH-OPs to PAH, suggesting longer atmospheric lifetimes for PAH-OPs, relative to PAHs. These data indicate that PAH-OPs are formed during SOA particle formation and growth.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Ozônio , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Aerossóis , Monoterpenos Bicíclicos , Monoterpenos
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 675: 686-693, 2019 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31039503

RESUMO

Plastic is ubiquitous in modern life, but most conventional plastic is non-biodegradable and accumulates as waste after use. Biodegradable plastic is a promising alternative to conventional plastic. However, biodegradable plastics must be thoroughly evaluated to ensure that they undergo complete degradation and have no adverse impact on the environment. We evaluated the degradation of biodegradable plastics during 18-week full-scale composting, and determined whether additives from the plastics are released upon degradation. Two biodegradable plastic films-one containing polybutylene co-adipate co-terephthalate (PBAT) and the other containing polylactic acid/poly-hydroxy-alkanoate (PLA/PHA)-were placed into meshbags and buried in the compost. Degradation was assessed by image analysis, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy, electrophoretic mobility, δ13C isotope analyses, and single particle mass spectrometry of mulch fragments. The results showed >99% macroscopic degradation of PLA/PHA and 97% for PBAT film. Polymers in the biodegradable films degraded; however, micro- and nanoparticles, most likely carbon black, were observed on the meshbags. Overall, biodegradable plastics hold promise, but the release of micro- and nanoparticles from biodegradable plastic upon degradation warrants additional investigation and calls for longer field testing to ensure that either complete biodegradation occurs or that no long-term harm to the environment is caused.


Assuntos
Plásticos Biodegradáveis/análise , Biodegradação Ambiental , Compostagem , Nanopartículas/análise , Poliésteres
5.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1046, 2019 03 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30837467

RESUMO

One of the least understood aspects in atmospheric chemistry is how urban emissions influence the formation of natural organic aerosols, which affect Earth's energy budget. The Amazon rainforest, during its wet season, is one of the few remaining places on Earth where atmospheric chemistry transitions between preindustrial and urban-influenced conditions. Here, we integrate insights from several laboratory measurements and simulate the formation of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) in the Amazon using a high-resolution chemical transport model. Simulations show that emissions of nitrogen-oxides from Manaus, a city of ~2 million people, greatly enhance production of biogenic SOA by 60-200% on average with peak enhancements of 400%, through the increased oxidation of gas-phase organic carbon emitted by the forests. Simulated enhancements agree with aircraft measurements, and are much larger than those reported over other locations. The implication is that increasing anthropogenic emissions in the future might substantially enhance biogenic SOA in pristine locations like the Amazon.

6.
Environ Sci Technol ; 52(16): 9225-9234, 2018 08 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30028598

RESUMO

We developed a parametrizable box model to empirically derive the yields of semivolatile products from VOC oxidation using chamber measurements, while explicitly accounting for the multigenerational chemical aging processes (such as the gas-phase fragmentation and functionalization and aerosol-phase oligomerization and photolysis) under different NO x levels and the loss of particles and gases to chamber walls. Using the oxidation of isoprene as an example, we showed that the assumptions regarding the NO x-sensitive, multigenerational aging processes of VOC oxidation products have large impacts on the parametrized product yields and SOA formation. We derived sets of semivolatile product yields from isoprene oxidation under different NO x levels. However, we stress that these product yields must be used in conjunction with the corresponding multigenerational aging schemes in chemical transport models. As more mechanistic insights regarding SOA formation from VOC oxidation emerge, our box model can be expanded to include more explicit chemical aging processes and help ultimately bridge the gap between the process-based understanding of SOA formation from VOC oxidation and the bulk-yield parametrizations used in chemical transport models.


Assuntos
Gases , Hemiterpenos , Aerossóis , Butadienos , Oxirredução , Pentanos
7.
Environ Sci Technol ; 52(3): 1191-1199, 2018 02 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29244949

RESUMO

Low bulk diffusivity inside viscous semisolid atmospheric secondary organic aerosol (SOA) can prolong equilibration time scale, but its broader impacts on aerosol growth and size distribution dynamics are poorly understood. Here, we present quantitative insights into the effects of bulk diffusivity on the growth and evaporation kinetics of SOA formed under dry conditions from photooxidation of isoprene in the presence of a bimodal aerosol consisting of Aitken (ammonium sulfate) and accumulation (isoprene or α-pinene SOA) mode particles. Aerosol composition measurements and evaporation kinetics indicate that isoprene SOA is composed of several semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs), with some reversibly reacting to form oligomers. Model analysis shows that liquid-like bulk diffusivities can be used to fit the observed evaporation kinetics of accumulation mode particles but fail to explain the growth kinetics of bimodal aerosol by significantly under-predicting the evolution of the Aitken mode. In contrast, the semisolid scenario successfully reproduces both evaporation and growth kinetics, with the interpretation that hindered partitioning of SVOCs into large viscous particles effectively promotes the growth of smaller particles that have shorter diffusion time scales. This effect has important implications for the growth of atmospheric ultrafine particles to climatically active sizes.


Assuntos
Compostos Orgânicos , Aerossóis , Difusão , Cinética , Viscosidade
12.
Faraday Discuss ; 200: 143-164, 2017 08 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28581016

RESUMO

When secondary organic aerosol (SOA) particles are formed by ozonolysis in the presence of gas-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), their formation and properties are significantly different from SOA particles formed without PAHs. For all SOA precursors and all PAHs, discussed in this study, the presence of the gas-phase PAHs during SOA formation significantly affects particle mass loadings, composition, growth, evaporation kinetics, and viscosity. SOA particles formed in the presence of PAHs have, as part of their compositions, trapped unreacted PAHs and products of heterogeneous reactions between PAHs and ozone. Compared to 'pure' SOA particles, these particles exhibit slower evaporation kinetics, have higher fractions of non-volatile components, like oligomers, and higher viscosities, assuring their longer atmospheric lifetimes. In turn, the increased viscosity and decreased volatility provide a shield that protects PAHs from chemical degradation and evaporation, allowing for the long-range transport of these toxic pollutants. The magnitude of the effect of PAHs on SOA formation is surprisingly large. The presence of PAHs during SOA formation increases mass loadings by factors of two to five, and particle number concentrations, in some cases, by more than a factor of 100. Increases in SOA mass, particle number concentrations, and lifetime have important implications to many atmospheric processes related to climate, weather, visibility, and human health, all of which relate to the interactions between biogenic SOA and anthropogenic PAHs. The synergistic relationship between SOA and PAHs presented here are clearly complex and call for future research to elucidate further the underlying processes and their exact atmospheric implications.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/química , Aerossóis/síntese química , Aerossóis/química , Aerossóis/metabolismo , Gases/química , Estrutura Molecular , Tamanho da Partícula
13.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 19(9): 6497-6507, 2017 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28197606

RESUMO

Chemical transformations and aging of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) particles can alter their physical and chemical properties, including particle morphology. Ammonia, one of the common atmospheric reactive constituents, can react with SOA particles, changing their properties and behavior. At low relative humidity, NH3 uptake by α-pinene SOA particles appears to be limited to the particle surface, which suggests that the reacted particles might not be homogeneous and have complex morphology. Here, we present a study aimed at detailed characterization of the effect of ammonia on the composition, density, morphology, shape, and evaporation kinetics of α-pinene SOA particles. We find that a small amount of NH3 diffuses and reacts throughout the particle bulk, while most of the ammoniated products result from the reaction of NH3 with carboxylic acids on the particle surface, leading to a slight increase in particle size. We show that the reaction products form a solid semi-volatile coating that is a few nanometers thick. This solid coating prevents coagulating particles from coalescing for over two days. However, when the gas phase is diluted this semi-volatile coating evaporates in minutes, which is ensued by rapid coalescence. The ammoniated products in the particle bulk affect particles' evaporation kinetics, more so for the smaller particles that contain a higher fraction of ammoniated products.

14.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 114(6): 1246-1251, 2017 02 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28115713

RESUMO

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have toxic impacts on humans and ecosystems. One of the most carcinogenic PAHs, benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), is efficiently bound to and transported with atmospheric particles. Laboratory measurements show that particle-bound BaP degrades in a few hours by heterogeneous reaction with ozone, yet field observations indicate BaP persists much longer in the atmosphere, and some previous chemical transport modeling studies have ignored heterogeneous oxidation of BaP to bring model predictions into better agreement with field observations. We attribute this unexplained discrepancy to the shielding of BaP from oxidation by coatings of viscous organic aerosol (OA). Accounting for this OA viscosity-dependent shielding, which varies with temperature and humidity, in a global climate/chemistry model brings model predictions into much better agreement with BaP measurements, and demonstrates stronger long-range transport, greater deposition fluxes, and substantially elevated lung cancer risk from PAHs. Model results indicate that the OA coating is more effective in shielding BaP in the middle/high latitudes compared with the tropics because of differences in OA properties (semisolid when cool/dry vs. liquid-like when warm/humid). Faster chemical degradation of BaP in the tropics leads to higher concentrations of BaP oxidation products over the tropics compared with higher latitudes. This study has profound implications demonstrating that OA strongly modulates the atmospheric persistence of PAHs and their cancer risks.


Assuntos
Atmosfera/química , Benzo(a)pireno/química , Carcinógenos/química , Neoplasias Pulmonares/induzido quimicamente , Modelos Químicos , Aerossóis , Benzo(a)pireno/efeitos adversos , Clima , Humanos , Oxirredução , Medição de Risco
15.
Environ Sci Technol ; 50(11): 5580-8, 2016 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27176464

RESUMO

Multiphase chemistry of isomeric isoprene epoxydiols (IEPOX) has been shown to be the dominant source of isoprene-derived secondary organic aerosol (SOA). Recent studies have reported particles composed of ammonium bisulfate (ABS) mixed with model organics exhibit slower rates of IEPOX uptake. In the present study, we investigate the effect of atmospherically relevant organic coatings of α-pinene (AP) SOA on the reactive uptake of trans-ß-IEPOX onto ABS particles under different conditions and coating thicknesses. Single particle mass spectrometry was used to characterize in real-time particle size, shape, density, and quantitative composition before and after reaction with IEPOX. We find that IEPOX uptake by pure sulfate particles is a volume-controlled process, which results in particles with uniform concentration of IEPOX-derived SOA across a wide range of sizes. Aerosol acidity was shown to enhance IEPOX-derived SOA formation, consistent with recent studies. The presence of water has a weaker impact on IEPOX-derived SOA yield, but significantly enhanced formation of 2-methyltetrols, consistent with offline filter analysis. In contrast, IEPOX uptake by ABS particles coated with AP-derived SOA is lower compared to that of pure ABS particles, strongly dependent on particle composition, and therefore on particle size.


Assuntos
Atmosfera/química , Umidade , Ácidos/química , Aerossóis , Compostos de Epóxi/química
16.
J Am Soc Mass Spectrom ; 26(2): 257-70, 2015 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25563475

RESUMO

Understanding the effect of aerosols on climate requires knowledge of the size and chemical composition of individual aerosol particles-two fundamental properties that determine an aerosol's optical properties and ability to serve as cloud condensation or ice nuclei. Here we present our aircraft-compatible single particle mass spectrometers, SPLAT II and its new, miniaturized version, miniSPLAT that measure in-situ and in real-time the size and chemical composition of individual aerosol particles with extremely high sensitivity, temporal resolution, and sizing precision on the order of a monolayer. Although miniSPLAT's size, weight, and power consumption are significantly smaller, its performance is on par with SPLAT II. Both instruments operate in dual data acquisition mode to measure, in addition to single particle size and composition, particle number concentrations, size distributions, density, and asphericity with high temporal resolution. We also present ND-Scope, our newly developed interactive visual analytics software package. ND-Scope is designed to explore and visualize the vast amount of complex, multidimensional data acquired by our single particle mass spectrometers, along with other aerosol and cloud characterization instruments on-board aircraft. We demonstrate that ND-Scope makes it possible to visualize the relationships between different observables and to view the data in a geo-spatial context, using the interactive and fully coupled Google Earth and Parallel Coordinates displays. Here we illustrate the utility of ND-Scope to visualize the spatial distribution of atmospheric particles of different compositions, and explore the relationship between individual particle compositions and their activity as cloud condensation nuclei.

17.
Environ Sci Technol ; 49(1): 243-9, 2015 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25494490

RESUMO

Secondary organic aerosols (SOA) dominate atmospheric organic aerosols that affect climate, air quality, and health. Recent studies indicate that, contrary to previously held assumptions, at low relative humidity (RH) these particles are semisolid and evaporate orders of magnitude slower than expected. Elevated relative humidity has the potential to affect significantly formation, properties, and atmospheric evolution of SOA particles. Here we present a study of the effect of RH on the room-temperature evaporation kinetics of SOA particles formed by ozonolysis of α-pinene and limonene. Experiments were carried out on α-pinene SOA particles generated, evaporated, and aged at <5%, 50 and 90% RH, and on limonene SOA particles at <5% and 90% RH. We find that in all cases evaporation begins with a relatively fast phase, during which 30-70% of the particle mass evaporates in 2 h, followed by a much slower evaporation rate. Evaporation kinetics at <5% and 50% RH are nearly the same, while at 90% RH a slightly larger fraction evaporates. In all cases, aging the particles prior to inducing evaporation reduces the evaporative losses; with aging at elevated RH leading to a more significant effect. In all cases, the observed SOA evaporation is nearly size-independent.


Assuntos
Aerossóis/química , Cicloexenos/química , Monoterpenos/química , Terpenos/química , Poluentes Atmosféricos/química , Monoterpenos Bicíclicos , Umidade , Cinética , Laboratórios , Limoneno , Volatilização
18.
IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph ; 20(3): 351-64, 2014 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24434217

RESUMO

Although the euclidean distance does well in measuring data distances within high-dimensional clusters, it does poorly when it comes to gauging intercluster distances. This significantly impacts the quality of global, low-dimensional space embedding procedures such as the popular multidimensional scaling (MDS) where one can often observe nonintuitive layouts. We were inspired by the perceptual processes evoked in the method of parallel coordinates which enables users to visually aggregate the data by the patterns the polylines exhibit across the dimension axes. We call the path of such a polyline its structure and suggest a metric that captures this structure directly in high-dimensional space. This allows us to better gauge the distances of spatially distant data constellations and so achieve data aggregations in MDS plots that are more cognizant of existing high-dimensional structure similarities. Our biscale framework distinguishes far-distances from near-distances. The coarser scale uses the structural similarity metric to separate data aggregates obtained by prior classification or clustering, while the finer scale employs the appropriate euclidean distance.

19.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 15(8): 2983-91, 2013 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23340901

RESUMO

Formation, properties, transformations, and temporal evolution of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) particles depend strongly on SOA phase. Recent experimental evidence from both our group and several others indicates that, in contrast to common models' assumptions, SOA constituents do not form a low-viscosity, well-mixed solution, yielding instead a semisolid phase with high, but undetermined, viscosity. We find that when SOA particles are made in the presence of vapors of semi-volatile hydrophobic compounds, such molecules become trapped in the particles' interiors and their subsequent evaporation rates and thus their rates of diffusion through the SOA can be directly obtained. Using pyrene as the tracer molecule and SOA derived from α-pinene ozonolysis, we find that it takes ~24 hours for half the pyrene to evaporate. Based on the observed pyrene evaporation kinetics we estimate a diffusivity of 2.5 × 10(-21) m(2) s(-1) for pyrene in SOA. Similar measurements on SOA doped with fluoranthene and phenanthrene yield diffusivities comparable to that of pyrene. Assuming a Stokes-Einstein relation, an approximate viscosity of 10(8) Pa s can be calculated for this SOA. Such a high viscosity is characteristic of tars and is consistent with published measurements of SOA particle bounce, evaporation kinetics, and the stability of two reverse-layered morphologies. We show that a viscosity of 10(8) Pa s implies coalescence times of minutes, consistent with the findings that SOA particles formed by coagulation are spherical on the relevant experimental timescales. Measurements on aged SOA particles doped with pyrene yield an estimated diffusivity ~3 times smaller, indicating that hardening occurs with time, which is consistent with the increase in SOA oligomer content, decrease in water uptake, and decrease in evaporation rates previously observed with aging.

20.
Environ Sci Technol ; 46(22): 12459-66, 2012 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23098132

RESUMO

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), known for their harmful health effects, undergo long-range transport (LRT) when adsorbed on and/or absorbed in atmospheric particles. The association between atmospheric particles, PAHs, and their LRT has been the subject of many studies yet remains poorly understood. Current models assume PAHs instantaneously attain reversible gas-particle equilibrium. In this paradigm, as gas-phase PAH concentrations are depleted due to oxidation and dilution during LRT, particle-bound PAHs rapidly evaporate to re-establish equilibrium leading to severe underpredictions of LRT potential of particle-bound PAHs. Here we present a new, experimentally based picture in which PAHs trapped inside highly viscous semisolid secondary organic aerosol (SOA) particles, during particle formation, are prevented from evaporation and shielded from oxidation. In contrast, surface-adsorbed PAHs rapidly evaporate leaving no trace. We find synergetic effects between hydrophobic organics and SOA - the presence of hydrophobic organics inside SOA particles drastically slows SOA evaporation to the point that it can almost be ignored, and the highly viscous SOA prevents PAH evaporation ensuring efficient LRT. The data show the assumptions of instantaneous reversible gas-particle equilibrium for PAHs and SOA are fundamentally flawed, providing an explanation for the persistent discrepancy between observed and predicted particle-bound PAHs.


Assuntos
Aerossóis/química , Poluentes Atmosféricos/química , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/química , Adsorção , Gases/química , Espectrometria de Massas , Modelos Químicos , Oxirredução , Volatilização
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