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1.
Circ Res ; 125(3): 328-340, 2019 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31159652

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs), including microRNAs (miRNAs), circular RNAs (circRNAs), and long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), are proposed novel biomarkers of myocardial injury. Their release kinetics have not been explored without confounding by heparin nor has their relationship to myocardial protein biomarkers. OBJECTIVE: To compare ncRNA types in heparinase-treated samples with established and emerging protein biomarkers for myocardial injury. METHODS AND RESULTS: Screening of 158 circRNAs and 21 lncRNAs in human cardiac tissue identified 12 circRNAs and 11 lncRNAs as potential biomarkers with cardiac origin. Eleven miRNAs were included. At low spike-in concentrations of myocardial tissue, significantly higher regression coefficients were observed across ncRNA types compared with cardiac troponins and cMyBP-C (cardiac myosin-binding protein C). Heparinase treatment of serial plasma and serum samples of patients undergoing transcoronary ablation of septal hypertrophy removed spurious correlations between miRNAs in non-heparinase-treated samples. After transcoronary ablation of septal hypertrophy, muscle-enriched miRNAs (miR-1 and miR-133a) showed a steeper and earlier increase than cardiac-enriched miRNAs (miR-499 and miR-208b). Putative cardiac lncRNAs, including LIPCAR (long intergenic noncoding RNA predicting cardiac remodeling and survival), did not rise, refuting a predominant cardiac origin. Cardiac circRNAs remained largely undetectable. In a validation cohort of acute myocardial infarction, receiver operating characteristic curve analysis revealed noninferiority of cardiac-enriched miRNAs, but miRNAs failed to identify cases presenting with low troponin values. cMyBP-C was validated as a biomarker with highly sensitive properties, and the combination of muscle-enriched miRNAs with high-sensitive cardiac troponin T and cMyBP-C returned the highest area under the curve values. CONCLUSIONS: In a comparative assessment of ncRNAs and protein biomarkers for myocardial injury, cMyBP-C showed properties as the most sensitive cardiac biomarker while miRNAs emerged as promising candidates to integrate ncRNAs with protein biomarkers. Sensitivity of current miRNA detection is inferior to cardiac proteins but a multibiomarker combination of muscle-enriched miRNAs with cMyBP-C and cardiac troponins could open a new path of integrating complementary characteristics of different biomarker types.

2.
Biomarkers ; 24(6): 549-555, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31159594

RESUMO

Purpose: Established diagnostic thresholds for high-sensitivity cardiac troponins (hs-cTn) might not apply for elderly patients as they are elevated irrespective of the presence of an acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Aim of the present study was to investigate hs-cTnI in elderly patients with suspected AMI and to calculate optimized diagnostic cutoffs. Material and methods: Data from a prospective multi-centre study and from a second independent prospective single-centre cohort study were analysed. A number of 2903 patients were eligible for further analysis. Patients > 70 years were classified as elderly. hs-cTnI was measured upon admission. Results: Around 34.7% of 2903 patients were classified as elderly. Around 22.5% of elderly patients were finally diagnosed with AMI. Elderly patients had higher hs-cTnI levels at admission irrespective of the final diagnosis (p < 0.001). According to the AUROC, hs-cTnI was a strong marker for detection of AMI in elderly patients. Application of the 99th percentile cutoffs showed a substantially lower specificity in elderly. By using optimized thresholds, specificity was improved to levels as in younger patients in both cohorts but accompanied with a decrease in sensitivity. Conclusions: hs-cTnI levels have a lower specificity for detecting AMI in elderly patients. This lower specificity can be improved by using hs-cTnI thresholds optimized for elderly patients.

3.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 73(23): 2990-3002, 2019 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31196457

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Heart failure following myocardial infarction (MI) remains one of the major causes of death worldwide, and its treatment is a crucial challenge of cardiovascular medicine. An attractive therapeutic strategy is to stimulate endogenous mechanisms of myocardial regeneration. OBJECTIVES: This study evaluates the potential therapeutic treatment with annexin A1 (AnxA1) to induce cardiac repair after MI. METHODS: AnxA1 knockout (AnxA1-/-) and wild-type mice underwent MI induced by ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery. Cardiac functionality was assessed by longitudinal echocardiographic measurements. Histological, fluorescence-activated cell sorting, dot blot analysis, and in vitro/ex vivo studies were used to assess the myocardial neovascularization, macrophage content, and activity in response to AnxA1. RESULTS: AnxA1-/- mice showed a reduced cardiac functionality and an expansion of proinflammatory macrophages in the ischemic area. Cardiac macrophages from AnxA1-/- mice exhibited a dramatically reduced ability to release the proangiogenic mediator vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A. However, AnxA1 treatment enhanced VEGF-A release from cardiac macrophages, and its delivery in vivo markedly improved cardiac performance. The positive effect of AnxA1 treatment on cardiac performance was abolished in wild-type mice transplanted with bone marrow derived from Cx3cr1creERT2Vegfflox/flox or in mice depleted of macrophages. Similarly, cardioprotective effects of AnxA1 were obtained in pigs in which full-length AnxA1 was overexpressed by use of a cardiotropic adeno-associated virus. CONCLUSIONS: AnxA1 has a direct action on cardiac macrophage polarization toward a pro-angiogenic, reparative phenotype. AnxA1 stimulated cardiac macrophages to release high amounts of VEGF-A, thus inducing neovascularization and cardiac repair.

4.
Sci Transl Med ; 11(493)2019 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31118294

RESUMO

Atrial fibrillation (AF), the most common sustained heart rhythm disorder worldwide, is linked to dysfunction of the intrinsic cardiac autonomic nervous system (ICNS). The role of ICNS damage occurring during catheter-based treatment of AF, which is the therapy of choice for many patients, remains controversial. We show here that the neuronal injury marker S100B is expressed in cardiac glia throughout the ICNS and is released specifically upon catheter ablation of AF. Patients with higher S100B release were more likely to be AF free during follow-up. Subsequent in vitro studies revealed that murine intracardiac neurons react to S100B with diminished action potential firing and increased neurite growth. This suggests that release of S100B from cardiac glia upon catheter-based treatment of AF is a hallmark of acute neural damage that contributes to nerve sprouting and can be used to assess ICNS damage.

5.
Biomolecules ; 9(5)2019 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31108918

RESUMO

(1) Background: Telomeres are repetitive DNA sequences located at the extremities of chromosomes that maintain genetic stability. Telomere biology is relevant to several human disorders and diseases, specifically cardiovascular disease. To better understand the link between cardiovascular disease and telomere length, we studied the effect of relative telomere length (RTL) on cardiovascular risk factors in a large population-based sample. (2) Methods: RTL was measured by a real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction in subjects of the population-based Gutenberg Health Study (n = 4944). We then performed an association study of RTL with known cardiovascular risk factors of smoking status as well as systolic and diastolic blood pressure, body mass index (BMI), LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides. (3) Results: A significant correlation was shown for RTL, with age as a quality control in our study (effect = -0.004, p = 3.2 × 10-47). Analysis of the relation between RTL and cardiovascular risk factors showed a significant association of RTL in patients who were current smokers (effect = -0.016, p = 0.048). No significant associations with RTL were seen for cardiovascular risk factors of LDL cholesterol (p = 0.127), HDL cholesterol (p = 0.713), triglycerides (p = 0.359), smoking (p = 0.328), diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.615), systolic blood pressure (p = 0.949), or BMI (p = 0.903). In a subsequent analysis, we calculated the tertiles of RTL. No significant difference across RTL tertiles was detectable for BMI, blood pressure, lipid levels, or smoking status. Finally, we studied the association of RTL and cardiovascular risk factors stratified by tertiles of age. We found a significant association of RTL and LDL cholesterol in the oldest tertile of age (effect = 0.0004, p = 0.006). (4) Conclusions: We determined the association of relative telomere length and cardiovascular risk factors in a population setting. An association of telomere length with age, current smoking status, as well as with LDL cholesterol in the oldest tertile of age was found, whereas no associations were observed between telomere length and triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, blood pressure, or BMI.

6.
Clin Res Cardiol ; 2019 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30989318

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early risk stratification of patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction (AMI) constitutes an unmet need in current daily clinical practice. We aimed to evaluate the predictive value of soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) levels for 1-year mortality in patients with suspected AMI. METHODS AND RESULTS: suPAR levels were determined in 1314 patients presenting to the emergency department with suspected AMI. Patients were followed up for 12 months to assess all-cause mortality. Of 1314 patients included, 308 were diagnosed with AMI. Median suPAR levels did not differ between subjects with AMI compared to non-AMI (3.5 ng/ml vs. 3.2 ng/ml, p = 0.066). suPAR levels reliably predicted all-cause mortality after 1 year. Hazard ratio for 1-year mortality was 12.6 (p < 0.001) in the quartile with the highest suPAR levels compared to the first quartile. The prognostic value for 6-month mortality was comparable to an established risk prediction model, the Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE) score, with an AUC of 0.79 (95% CI 0.72-0.86) for the GRACE score and 0.77 (95% CI 0.69-0.84) for suPAR. Addition of suPAR improved the GRACE score, as shown by integrated discrimination improvement statistics of 0.036 (p = 0.03) suggesting a further discrimination of events from non-events by the addition of suPAR. CONCLUSIONS: suPAR levels reliably predicted mortality in patients with suspected AMI. STUDY REGISTRATION: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT02355457).

7.
JACC Heart Fail ; 7(3): 204-213, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30819375

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study investigates differences between women and men in heart failure (HF) risk and mortality. BACKGROUND: Sex differences in HF epidemiology are insufficiently understood. METHODS: In 78,657 individuals (median 49.5 years of age; age range 24.1 to 98.7 years; 51.7% women) from community-based European studies (FINRISK, DanMONICA, Moli-sani, Northern Sweden) of the BiomarCaRE (Biomarker for Cardiovascular Risk Assessment in Europe) consortium, the association between incident HF and mortality, the relationship of cardiovascular risk factors, prevalent cardiovascular diseases, biomarkers (C-reactive protein [CRP]; N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide [NT-proBNP]) with incident HF, and their attributable risks were tested in women vs. men. RESULTS: Over a median follow-up of 12.7 years, fewer HF cases were observed in women (n = 2,399 [5.9%]) than in men (n = 2,771 [7.3%]). HF incidence increased markedly after 60 years of age, initially with a more rapid increase in men, whereas incidence in women exceeded that of men after 85 years of age. HF onset substantially increased mortality risk in both sexes. Multivariable-adjusted Cox models showed the following sex differences for the association with incident HF: systolic blood pressure hazard ratio (HR) according to SD in women of 1.09 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.05 to 1.14) versus HR of 1.19 (95% CI: 1.14 to 1.24) in men; heart rate HR of 0.98 (95% CI: 0.93 to 1.03) in women versus HR of 1.09 (95% CI: 1.04 to 1.13) in men; CRP HR of 1.10 (95% CI: 1.00 to 1.20) in women versus HR of 1.32 (95% CI: 1.24 to 1.41) in men; and NT-proBNP HR of 1.54 (95% CI: 1.37 to 1.74) in women versus HR of 1.89 (95% CI: 1.75 to 2.05) in men. Population-attributable risk of all risk factors combined was 59.0% in women and 62.9% in men. CONCLUSIONS: Women had a lower risk for HF than men. Sex differences were seen for systolic blood pressure, heart rate, CRP, and NT-proBNP, with a lower HF risk in women.

8.
Clin Res Cardiol ; 2019 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30820639

RESUMO

AIMS: The electrocardiographic pattern of early repolarization (ER) is related to increased cardiac mortality in the general population. The pathophysiological basis of ER is largely unknown. We investigated the association of echocardiographic structural and functional parameters of the left ventricle with the presence of ER in the community. METHODS AND RESULTS: The presence of ER (ER+) was assessed in 13,878 participants (mean age 54.6 years, 51.1% women) of the Gutenberg Health Study and related to left ventricular structure and function derived from standard echocardiography. The prevalence of ER was 5.0% (694/13,878), with higher prevalence in men than women (6.6% vs. 3.5%, p < 0.001). In men baseline characteristics differed including a lower BMI and a lower heart rate in ER+ individuals, whereas in women there were only minor differences. Multivariable-adjusted logistic regression analysis in men showed an association of ER with smaller diameters (left-ventricular end-diastolic diameter: OR 0.77 95% CI 0.69-0.86, p < 0.001; left-ventricular end-systolic diameter: OR 0.86 95% CI 0.78-0.95, p = 0.0035), and lower left-ventricular end-diastolic and end-systolic volume (OR 0.72 95% CI 0.65, 0.80, p < 0.001 and OR 0.80 95% CI 0.72, 0.89, p < 0.001). In women, the associations of ER with left ventricular diameters and volumes showed a similar direction, but were not as pronounced. CONCLUSION: In the community, the ER pattern predominantly occurs in men with a low heart rate and a slender habit. Furthermore, ER is not associated with higher left ventricular mass or size but rather with smaller left ventricular diameters and volumes with a regular systolic and diastolic function. Patterns were comparable in women, but less strong.

9.
Biomolecules ; 9(3)2019 03 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30889909

RESUMO

The soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is a new marker for immune activation and inflammation and may provide diagnostic value on top of established biomarkers in patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Here, we evaluate the diagnostic potential of suPAR levels on top of high-sensitivity troponin I (hs-TnI) in a cohort of patients with suspected AMI. A total of 1220 patients presenting to the emergency department with suspected AMI were included, of whom 245 were diagnosed with AMI. Median suPAR levels at admission were elevated in subjects with AMI compared to non-AMI (3.8 ng/mL vs 3.3 ng/mL, p = 0.001). In C-statistics, the area under the curve (AUC) regarding the diagnosis of AMI was low (0.57 at an optimized cut-off of 3.7 ng/mL). Moreover, baseline suPAR levels on top of troponin values at admission and hour 1 reduced the number of patients who were correctly ruled-out as non-AMI, and who were correctly ruled-in as AMI. Our study shows that circulating levels of suPAR on top of high-sensitivity troponin I do not improve the early diagnosis of AMI.


Assuntos
Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Receptores de Ativador de Plasminogênio Tipo Uroquinase/análise , Troponina I/análise , Doença Aguda , Idoso , Biomarcadores/análise , Diagnóstico Precoce , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Solubilidade
10.
Cardiovasc Res ; 2019 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30924864

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inflammation is a key driver of atherosclerosis and myocardial infarction (MI), and beyond proteins and microRNAs (miRs), long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been implicated in inflammation control. To obtain further information on the possible role of lncRNAs in the context of atherosclerosis, we obtained comprehensive transcriptome maps of circulating immune cells (PBMCs) of early onset MI patients. One lncRNA significantly suppressed in post-MI patients was further investigated in a murine knockout model. METHODS AND RESULTS: Individual RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) was conducted on PBMCs from 28 post-MI patients with a history of MI at age ≤50 years and stable disease ≥3 months before study participation, and from 31 healthy individuals without manifest cardiovascular disease or family history of MI as controls. RNA-seq revealed deregulated protein-coding transcripts and lncRNAs in post-MI PBMCs, among which NEAT1 was the most highly expressed lncRNA, and the only one significantly suppressed in patients. Multivariate statistical analysis of validation cohorts of 106 post-MI patients and 85 controls indicated that the PBMC NEAT1 levels were influenced (p = 0.001) by post MI status independent of statin intake, left ventricular ejection fraction, LDL or HDL cholesterol, or age. We investigated NEAT1-/- mice as a model of NEAT1 deficiency to evaluate if NEAT1 depletion may directly and causally alter immune regulation. RNA-seq of NEAT1-/- splenocytes identified disturbed expression and regulation of chemokines/receptors, innate immunity genes, TNF and caspases, and increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) under baseline conditions. NEAT1-/- spleen displayed anomalous Treg and TH cell differentiation. NEAT1-/- bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDMs) displayed altered transcriptomes with disturbed chemokine/chemokine receptor expression, increased baseline phagocytosis (p < 0.0001), and attenuated proliferation (p = 0.0013). NEAT1-/- BMDMs responded to LPS with increased (p < 0.0001) ROS production and disturbed phagocytic activity (p = 0.0318). Monocyte-macrophage differentiation was deregulated in NEAT1-/- bone marrow and blood. NEAT1-/- mice displayed aortic wall CD68+ cell infiltration and there was evidence of myocardial inflammation which could lead to severe and potentially life-threatening structural damage in some of these animals. CONCLUSIONS: The study indicates distinctive alterations of lncRNA expression in post-MI patient PBMCs. Regarding the monocyte-enriched NEAT1 suppressed in post-MI patients, the data from NEAT1-/- mice identify NEAT1 as a novel lncRNA-type immunoregulator affecting monocyte-macrophage functions and T cell differentiation. NEAT1 is part of a molecular circuit also involving several chemokines and interleukins persistently deregulated post-MI. Individual profiling of this circuit may contribute to identify high risk patients likely to benefit from immunomodulatory therapies. It also appears reasonable to look for new therapeutic targets within this circuit.

11.
Stroke ; 50(3): 610-617, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30786848

RESUMO

Background and Purpose- NT-proBNP (N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide) is a risk factor for atrial fibrillation and a marker of cardiac function used in the detection of heart failure. Given the link between cardiac dysfunction and stroke, NT-proBNP is a candidate marker of stroke risk. Our aim was to evaluate the association of NT-proBNP with stroke and to determine the predictive value beyond a panel of established risk factors. Methods- Based on the Biomarkers for Cardiovascular Risk Assessment in Europe-Consortium, we analyzed data of 58 173 participants (50% men; mean age 52 y) free of stroke from 6 community-based cohorts. NT-proBNP measurements were performed in the central Biomarkers for Cardiovascular Risk Assessment in Europe laboratory. The outcomes considered were total stroke and subtypes of stroke (ischemic/hemorrhagic). Results- During a median follow-up time of 7.9 years, we observed 1550 stroke events (1176 ischemic). Increasing quarters of the NT-proBNP distribution were associated with increasing risk of stroke ( P for trend <0.0001; multivariable Cox regression analysis adjusted for risk factors and cardiac diseases). Individuals in the highest NT-proBNP quarter (NT-proBNP >82.2 pg/mL) had 2-fold (95% CI, 75%-151%) greater risk of stroke than individuals in the lowest quarter (NT-proBNP <20.4 pg/mL). The association remained unchanged when adjusted for interim coronary events during follow-up, and though it was somewhat heterogeneous across cohorts, it was highly homogenous according to cardiovascular risk profile or subtypes of stroke. The addition of NT-proBNP to a reference model increased the C-index discrimination measure by 0.006 ( P=0.0005), yielded a categorical net reclassification improvement of 2.0% in events and 1.4% in nonevents and an integrated discrimination improvement of 0.007. Conclusions- In European individuals free of stroke, levels of NT-proBNP are positively associated with risk of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, independently from several other risk factors and conditions. The addition of NT-proBNP to variables of established risk scores improves prediction of stroke, with a medium effect size.

15.
Int J Cardiol ; 283: 35-40, 2019 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30528623

RESUMO

AIMS: Troponin is the gold-standard for diagnostic evaluation of patients with suspected myocardial infarction (MI). We aimed to evaluate the diagnostic and prognostic performance of a new ultra-sensitivity troponin I (us-TnI) assay in patients with suspected MI. METHODS AND RESULTS: 1534 patients with suspected MI were included. Us-TnI measurements were performed directly on admission and after one hour. One-year rates of mortality and incident MI were assessed. For diagnostic evaluation the negative and positive predictive value (NPV/PPV) using admission us-TnI concentrations and 0/1h delta were calculated. For rule-out an NPV > 99.5% (100% for single-admission-value) and for rule-in a PPV > 80% was targeted. Internal derivation/validation was used. In the derivation dataset 155/767 (20.2%) patients were diagnosed with having non-ST-elevation MI (NSTEMI). For rule-out of NSTEMI an us-TnI < 1 ng/L directly on admission resulted in an NPV of 100.0% (CI 98.2-100.0). Using serial sampling an admission us-TnI < 2 ng/L and a 0/1h delta < 1 ng/L resulted in an NPV of 99.7% (CI 98.4-100.0) and ruled-out NSTEMI in 46.8% of all patients. The respective one-year rate of death or MI was 0.6%. For rule-in of NSTEMI an us-TnI ≥ 25 ng/L on admission or a 0/1h delta ≥ 6 ng/L resulted in a PPV of 81.3% (CI 73.7-87.5) and ruled-in NSTEMI in 18.5% of all patients. The one-year event rate was 12.7%. Results were similar in 767 patients from the validation cohort. CONCLUSION: Application of an us-TnI assay allows the accurate triage of a large proportion of patients with suspected MI using a 0/1h algorithm. TRIAL REGISTRATION: www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT02355457).

16.
J Hypertens ; 2018 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30444837

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Arterial stiffness is a strong predictor of atrial fibrillation in the community. Whether noninvasively measured conduit artery function and peripheral vascular reactivity are related to atrial fibrillation remains unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: In 15 010 individuals of the population-based Gutenberg Health Study, mean age 55 ±â€Š11 years, 50.5% men, we determined noninvasive vascular function by flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and peripheral arterial tonometry (PAT) in relation to manifest atrial fibrillation (N = 466). Patients with atrial fibrillation exhibited a higher mean brachial artery diameter [4.81 mm (4.17, 5.33) in atrial fibrillation vs. 4.31 mm (3.67, 4.93)] and baseline pulse amplitude in arbitrary units [6.35 (5.76, 6.78) in atrial fibrillation vs. 6.09 (5.36, 6.71)] as well as a reduced FMD in arbitrary units [1.29 (1.26, 1.33) in atrial fibrillation vs. (1.31 (1.26, 1.37)] and PAT ratio [0.42 (0.19, 0.77) in atrial fibrillation vs. 0.67 (0.33, 0.94)] compared with individuals without atrial fibrillation (all PWilcoxon rank-sum test). In age-adjusted and sex-adjusted logistic regression analyses, only baseline brachial artery diameter [odds ratio (OR) per standard deviation 1.19; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.04-1.37; P = 0.012] and PAT ratio (OR 0.83; 0.74-0.94; P = 0.0029) were associated with atrial fibrillation. In risk factor and heart rate-adjusted models, there was no statistically significant correlation of atrial fibrillation and brachial artery diameter, FMD and PAT ratio while baseline pulse amplitude was reduced in individuals with atrial fibrillation (OR 0.81; 95% CI 0.71-0.93; P = 0.0034). CONCLUSION: In our large contemporary cohort, peripheral vascular function was compromised in individuals with atrial fibrillation. However, observed associations were mediated by age and classical risk factors. Noninvasive vascular function measures did not improve discriminatory ability for atrial fibrillation.This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially without permission from the journal. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0.

17.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 7(19): e008032, 2018 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30371308

RESUMO

Background Patients with chronic kidney disease ( CKD ) are at high risk of myocardial infarction. Cardiac troponins are the biomarkers of choice for the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction ( AMI ) without ST -segment elevation ( NSTE ). In patients with CKD , troponin levels are often chronically elevated, which reduces their diagnostic utility when NSTE - AMI is suspected. The aim of this study was to derive a diagnostic algorithm for serial troponin measurements in patients with CKD and suspected NSTE - AMI . Methods and Results Two cohorts, 1494 patients from a prospective cohort study with high-sensitivity troponin I (hs- cTnI ) measurements and 7059 cases from a clinical registry with high-sensitivity troponin T (hs- cTnT ) measurements, were analyzed. The prospective cohort comprised 280 CKD patients (estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/min/1.73 m2). The registry data set contained 1581 CKD patients. In both cohorts, CKD patients were more likely to have adjudicated NSTE - AMI than non- CKD patients. The specificities of hs- cTnI and hs- cTnT to detect NSTE - AMI were reduced with CKD (0.82 versus 0.91 for hs- cTnI and 0.26 versus 0.73 for hs- cTnT ) but could be restored by applying optimized cutoffs to either the first or a second measurement after 3 hours. The best diagnostic performance was achieved with an algorithm that incorporates serial measurements and rules in or out AMI in 69% (hs- cTnI ) and 55% (hs- cTnT ) of CKD patients. Conclusions The diagnostic performance of high-sensitivity cardiac troponins in patients with CKD with suspected NSTE - AMI is improved by use of an algorithm based on admission troponin and dynamic changes in troponin concentration.

18.
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson ; 20(1): 68, 2018 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30244673

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this work is to describe the objectives and design of cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging in the single center, prospective, population-based Hamburg City Health study (HCHS). The HCHS aims at improving risk stratification for coronary artery disease (CAD), atrial fibrillation (AF) and heart failure (HF). METHODS: The HCHS will finally include 45,000 inhabitants of the city of Hamburg (Germany) between 45 and 74 years who undergo an extensive cardiovascular evaluation and collection of biomaterials. Risk-scores for CAD, AF and HF are used to create enriched subpopulations who are invited for CMR. A total number of approximately 12,362 subjects will undergo CMR and incident CAD, AF and HF will be assessed after 6 years follow-up. The standard CMR protocol includes cine-CMR, T1 and T2 mapping, aortic/mitral valve flow measurements, Late gadolinium enhancement, angiographies and measurements of aortic distensibility. A stress-perfusion scan is added in individuals at risk for CAD. The workflow of CMR data acquisition and analyses was evaluated in a pilot cohort of 200 unselected subjects. RESULTS: The obtained CMR findings in the pilot cohort agree with current reference values and demonstrate the ability of the established workflow to accomplish the objectives of HCHS. CONCLUSIONS: CMR in HCHS promises novel insights into major cardiovascular diseases, their subclinical precursors and the prognostic value of novel imaging biomarkers. The HCHS database will facilitate combined analyses of imaging, clinical and molecular data ("Radiomics").

19.
Biomolecules ; 8(3)2018 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30200232

RESUMO

Homoarginine has come into the focus of interest as a biomarker for cardiovascular disease. Atrial fibrillation (AF) causes a substantial increase in morbidity and mortality. Whether circulating homoarginine is associated with occurrence or persistence of AF and may serve as a new predictive biomarker remains unknown. We measured plasma levels of homoarginine in the population-based Gutenberg health study (3761 patients included, of them 51.7% males), mean age 55.6 ± 10.9 years-old. Associations between homoarginine and intermediate electrocardiographic and echocardiographic phenotypes and manifest AF were examined. Patients with AF (124 patients, of them 73.4% males) had a mean age 64.8 ± 8.6 years-old compared to a mean age of 55.3 ± 10.9 in the population without AF (p-value < 0.001) and showed a less beneficial risk factor profile. The median homoarginine levels in individuals with and without AF were 1.9 µmol/L (interquartile range (IQR) 1.5⁻2.5) and 2.0 µmol/L (IQR 1.5⁻2.5), respectively, p = 0.56. In multivariable-adjusted regression analyses homoarginine was not statistically significantly related to electrocardiographic variables. Among echocardiographic variables beta per standard deviation increase was -0.12 (95% confidence interval (CI) -0.23⁻(-0.02); p = 0.024) for left atrial area and -0.01 (95% CI -0.02⁻(-0.003); p = 0.013) for E/A ratio. The odds ratio between homoarginine and AF was 0.91 (95% CI 0.70⁻1.16; p = 0.45). In our large, population-based cross-sectional study, we did not find statistically significant correlations between lower homoarginine levels and occurrence or persistence of AF or most standard electrocardiographic phenotypes, but some moderate inverse associations with echocardiographic left atrial size and E/A. Homoarginine may not represent a strong biomarker to identify individuals at increased risk for AF. Further investigations will be needed to elucidate the role of homoarginine and cardiac function.

20.
Basic Res Cardiol ; 113(5): 41, 2018 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30178427

RESUMO

Engineered heart tissue (EHT) from rat cells is a useful tool to study ventricular biology and cardiac drug safety. Since atrial and ventricular cells differ significantly, EHT and other 3D cell culture formats generated from ventricular cells have been of limited value to study atrial biology. To date, reliable in vitro models that reflect atrial physiology are lacking. Therefore, we established a novel EHT model using rat atrial cells (atrial EHT, aEHT) to assess atrial physiology, contractility and drug response. The tissue constructs were characterized with regard to gene expression, histology, electrophysiology, and the response to atrial-specific drugs. We observed typical functional properties of atrial tissue in our model such as more regular spontaneous beating with lower force, shorter action potential duration, and faster contraction and relaxation compared to ventricular EHT (vEHT). The expression of atrial-specific genes and proteins was high, whereas ventricle-specific transcripts were virtually absent. The atrial-selective drug carbachol had a strong negative inotropic and chronotropic effect on aEHT only. Taken together, the results demonstrate the feasibility of aEHT as a novel atrial 3D model and as a benchmark for tissue engineering with human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived atrial-like cardiomyocytes. Atrial EHT faithfully recapitulates atrial physiology and shall be useful to study atrial molecular physiology in health and disease as well as drug response.

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