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1.
Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 44(8): 885-891, 2019 Aug 28.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570675

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of admission diagnosis on seizure outcome in patients with autoimmune epilepsy (AE).
 Methods: We conducted a retrospective study on 40 AE patients at Department of Neurology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University from Jan. 1st, 2017 to Nov. 21st, 2018. According to their admission diagnosis, these patients were further assigned into 2 groups: An AE diagnosed group and an AE undiagnosed group. Demographic data, clinical characteristics, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), electroencephalogram, and brain imaging were compared between the 2 groups. Favorable seizure outcome was defined as >50% reduction of seizure frequency at the first follow-up. The impact of admission diagnosis on seizure outcome of AE patients was analyzed.
 Results: The ages of 40 AE patients were (33.23±16.41) years, comprising 19 males and 21 females. No significant difference was found between the AE diagnosed group and the AE undiagnosed group in gender, age, central nervous system-specific Ab profile, CSF, and brain imaging. Duration of symptom onset to Ab detection was significantly longer in the AE undiagnosed group than that in the AE diagnosed group (P<0.01). Duration of symptom onset to immunotherapy was also significantly longer in the AE undiagnosed group than that in the AE diagnosed group (P<0.001). There were more patients with favorable seizure outcome in the AE diagnosed group than the AE undiagnosed group (P<0.05).
 Conclusion: Admission diagnosis for patients with AE is associated with seizure outcome after immunotherapy. For adult-onset epilepsy or epilepsy with unknown etiology, the diagnosis of AE should be considered. Early diagnosis of AE and prompt initiation of immunosuppressive treatment are crucial to increase the likelihood of achieving favorable seizure outcome.


Assuntos
Epilepsia , Adolescente , Adulto , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Convulsões , Adulto Jovem
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31597608

RESUMO

Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) have been implicated in chronic hyperglycemia and age-related diseases. Endogenous AGEs produced by humans generate oxidative stress and activation of inflammatory signaling pathways via AGE-specific receptors. The present review summarizes current knowledge on the pathogenic role of AGEs in chronic noncommunicable diseases. Although correlations exist between glycation and the pathogenesis of these diseases, uncertainties remain in light of recurrent intervention failures of apparently promising animal models to be translated into clinically useful anti-AGE strategies. Future intervention of AGEs or their receptors should embrace more carefully executed clinical trials. Nevertheless, suppressing symptoms via lifetime drug application is unlikely to eliminate the burden of chronic diseases unless deep-rooted lifestyle issues that cause these diseases are simultaneously addressed.

3.
Blood Adv ; 3(19): 2790-2799, 2019 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570490

RESUMO

An elevated level of circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA) has been associated with tumor bulk and poor prognosis in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), but the tumor-specific molecular alterations in cfDNA with prognostic significance remain unclear. We investigated the association between 5-hydroxymethylcytosines (5hmC), a mark of active demethylation and gene activation, in cfDNA from blood plasma and prognosis in newly diagnosed DLBCL patients. We used 5hmC-Seal, a highly sensitive chemical labeling technique, to profile genome-wide 5hmC in plasma cfDNA from 48 DLBCL patients at the University of Chicago Medical Center between 2010 and 2013. Patients were followed through 31 December 2017. We found a distinct genomic distribution of 5hmC in cfDNA marking tissue-specific enhancers, consistent with their putative roles in gene regulation. The 5hmC profiles in cfDNA differed by cell of origin and were associated with clinical prognostic factors, including stage and the International Prognostic Index. We developed a 29 gene-based weighted prognostic score (wp-score) for predicting event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) by applying the elastic net regularization on the Cox proportional-hazards model. The wp-scores outperformed (eg, prognostic accuracy, sensitivity, specificity) established prognostic factors in predicting EFS and OS. In multivariate Cox models, patients with high wp-scores had worse EFS (hazard ratio, 9.17; 95% confidence interval, 2.01-41.89; P = .004) compared with those in the low-risk group. Our findings suggest that the 5hmC signatures in cfDNA at the time of diagnosis are associated with clinical outcomes and may provide a novel minimally invasive prognostic approach for DLBCL.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31647967

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The pathology of eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is characterized by eosinophil-rich inflammation, basal zone hyperplasia (BZH), dilated intercellular spaces (DIS) and the underlying processes that drive the pathological manifestations of disease remain largely unexplored. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the involvement of calcium activated chloride channel Anoctamin 1 (ANO1) in esophageal proliferation and the histopathologic features of EoE. METHODS: We examined mRNA and protein expression of ANO1 in esophageal biopsy samples from EoE individuals and in mice with EoE. We performed molecular and cellular analyses and ion transport assays on an in vitro esophageal epithelial 3-dimensional model system (EPC2-ALI) and murine models of EoE to define the relationship between expression and function of ANO1 and esophageal epithelial proliferation in EoE. RESULTS: We observed increased ANO1 expression in esophageal biopsies from patients with EoE and in mice with EoE. ANO1 was expressed within the esophageal basal zone and expression positively correlated with disease severity (Eos/HPF) and basal zone hyperplasia (BZH). Employing an in vitro esophageal epithelial 3D model system revealed that ANO1 undergoes chromatin modification and rapid upregulation of expression following IL-13 stimulation; that ANO1 is the primary apical IL-13-induced Cl- transport mechanism within the esophageal epithelium and that loss of ANO1-dependent Cl- transport abrogated esophageal epithelial proliferation. Mechanistically, ANO1-dependent regulation of basal cell proliferation was associated with modulation of TP63 expression and pCdk2 levels. CONCLUSIONS: These data identify a functional role for ANO1 in esophageal cell proliferation and BZH in EoE, and provides rationale for pharmacological intervention of ANO1 function in EoE.

5.
Clin Chem ; 65(11): 1414-1425, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31575611

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long-term complications of type 2 diabetes (T2D), such as macrovascular and microvascular events, are the major causes for T2D-related disability and mortality. A clinically convenient, noninvasive approach for monitoring the development of these complications would improve the overall life quality of patients with T2D and help reduce healthcare burden through preventive interventions. METHODS: A selective chemical labeling strategy for 5-hydroxymethylcytosines (5hmC-Seal) was used to profile genome-wide 5hmCs, an emerging class of epigenetic markers implicated in complex diseases including diabetes, in circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA) from a collection of Chinese patients (n = 62). Differentially modified 5hmC markers between patients with T2D with and without macrovascular/microvascular complications were analyzed under a case-control design. RESULTS: Statistically significant changes in 5hmC markers were associated with T2D-related macrovascular/microvascular complications, involving genes and pathways relevant to vascular biology and diabetes, including insulin resistance and inflammation. A 16-gene 5hmC marker panel accurately distinguished patients with vascular complications from those without [testing set: area under the curve (AUC) = 0.85; 95% CI, 0.73-0.96], outperforming conventional clinical variables such as urinary albumin. In addition, a separate 13-gene 5hmC marker panel could distinguish patients with single complications from those with multiple complications (testing set: AUC = 0.84; 95% CI, 0.68-0.99), showing superiority over conventional clinical variables. CONCLUSIONS: The 5hmC markers in cfDNA reflected the epigenetic changes in patients with T2D who developed macrovascular/microvascular complications. The 5hmC-Seal assay has the potential to be a clinically convenient, noninvasive approach that can be applied in the clinic to monitor the presence and severity of diabetic vascular complications.

6.
Sci Transl Med ; 11(511)2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31554739

RESUMO

Lichen planus (LP) is a chronic debilitating inflammatory disease of unknown etiology affecting the skin, nails, and mucosa with no current FDA-approved treatments. It is histologically characterized by dense infiltration of T cells and epidermal keratinocyte apoptosis. Using global transcriptomic profiling of patient skin samples, we demonstrate that LP is characterized by a type II interferon (IFN) inflammatory response. The type II IFN, IFN-γ, is demonstrated to prime keratinocytes and increase their susceptibility to CD8+ T cell-mediated cytotoxic responses through MHC class I induction in a coculture model. We show that this process is dependent on Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1), but not JAK1 or STAT2 signaling. Last, using drug prediction algorithms, we identify JAK inhibitors as promising therapeutic agents in LP and demonstrate that the JAK1/2 inhibitor baricitinib fully protects keratinocytes against cell-mediated cytotoxic responses in vitro. In summary, this work elucidates the role and mechanisms of IFN-γ in LP pathogenesis and provides evidence for the therapeutic use of JAK inhibitors to limit cell-mediated cytotoxicity in patients with LP.

7.
Biomolecules ; 9(9)2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31480517

RESUMO

Post-thawed sperm quality parameters vary across different species after cryopreservation. To date, the molecular mechanism of sperm cryoinjury, freeze-tolerance and other influential factors are largely unknown. In this study, significantly dysregulated microRNAs (miRNAs) and mRNAs in boar and giant panda sperm with different cryo-resistance capacity were evaluated. From the result of miRNA profile of fresh and frozen-thawed giant panda sperm, a total of 899 mature, novel miRNAs were identified, and 284 miRNAs were found to be significantly dysregulated (195 up-regulated and 89 down-regulated). Combined analysis of miRNA profiling of giant panda sperm and our previously published data on boar sperm, 46, 21 and 4 differentially expressed (DE) mRNAs in boar sperm were believed to be related to apoptosis, glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation, respectively. Meanwhile, 87, 17 and 7 DE mRNAs in giant panda were associated with apoptosis, glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation, respectively. Gene ontology (GO) analysis of the targets of DE miRNAs showed that they were mainly distributed on membrane related pathway in giant panda sperm, while cell components and cell processes were tied to the targets of DE miRNAs in boar sperm. Finally, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis of DE mRNAs indicated that most of these DE mRNAs were distributed in membrane signal transduction-related pathways in giant panda sperm, while those in boar sperm were mainly distributed in the cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction pathway and inflammatory related pathways. In conclusion, although the different freezing extenders and programs were used, the DE miRNAs and mRNAs involved in apoptosis, energy metabolism, olfactory transduction pathway, inflammatory response and cytokine-cytokine interactions, could be the possible molecular mechanism of sperm cryoinjury and freeze tolerance.

8.
Cancer Res ; 79(20): 5288-5301, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31462429

RESUMO

Misregulated alternative RNA splicing (AS) contributes to the tumorigenesis and progression of human cancers, including glioblastoma (GBM). Here, we showed that a major splicing factor, serine and arginine rich splicing factor 3 (SRSF3), was frequently upregulated in clinical glioma specimens and that elevated SRSF3 was associated with tumor progression and a poor prognosis for patients with glioma. In patient-derived glioma stem-like cells (GSC), SRSF3 expression promoted cell proliferation, self-renewal, and tumorigenesis. Transcriptomic profiling identified more than 1,000 SRSF3-affected AS events, with a preference for exon skipping in genes involved with cell mitosis. Motif analysis identified the sequence of CA(G/C/A)CC(C/A) as a potential exonic splicing enhancer for these SRSF3-regulated exons. To evaluate the biological impact of SRSF3-affected AS events, four candidates were selected whose AS correlated with SRSF3 expression in glioma tissues, and their splicing pattern was modified using a CRISPR/Cas9 approach. Two functionally validated AS candidates were further investigated for the mechanisms underlying their isoform-specific functions. Specifically, following knockout of SRSF3, transcription factor ETS variant 1 (ETV1) gene showed exon skipping at exon 7, while nudE neurodevelopment protein 1 (NDE1) gene showed replacement of terminal exon 9 with a mutually exclusive exon 9'. SRSF3-regulated AS of these two genes markedly increased their oncogenic activity in GSCs. Taken together, our data demonstrate that SRSF3 is a key regulator of AS in GBM and that understanding mechanisms of misregulated AS could provide critical insights for developing effective therapeutic strategies against GBMs. SIGNIFICANCE: SRSF3 is a significant regulator of glioma-associated alternative splicing, implicating SRSF3 as an oncogenic factor that contributes to the tumor biology of GBM.

9.
Gut ; 68(12): 2195-2205, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31358576

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The lack of highly sensitive and specific diagnostic biomarkers is a major contributor to the poor outcomes of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We sought to develop a non-invasive diagnostic approach using circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA) for the early detection of HCC. DESIGN: Applying the 5hmC-Seal technique, we obtained genome-wide 5-hydroxymethylcytosines (5hmC) in cfDNA samples from 2554 Chinese subjects: 1204 patients with HCC, 392 patients with chronic hepatitis B virus infection (CHB) or liver cirrhosis (LC) and 958 healthy individuals and patients with benign liver lesions. A diagnostic model for early HCC was developed through case-control analyses using the elastic net regularisation for feature selection. RESULTS: The 5hmC-Seal data from patients with HCC showed a genome-wide distribution enriched with liver-derived enhancer marks. We developed a 32-gene diagnostic model that accurately distinguished early HCC (stage 0/A) based on the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer staging system from non-HCC (validation set: area under curve (AUC)=88.4%; (95% CI 85.8% to 91.1%)), showing superior performance over α-fetoprotein (AFP). Besides detecting patients with early stage or small tumours (eg, ≤2.0 cm) from non-HCC, the 5hmC model showed high capacity for distinguishing early HCC from high risk subjects with CHB or LC history (validation set: AUC=84.6%; (95% CI 80.6% to 88.7%)), also significantly outperforming AFP. Furthermore, the 5hmC diagnostic model appeared to be independent from potential confounders (eg, smoking/alcohol intake history). CONCLUSION: We have developed and validated a non-invasive approach with clinical application potential for the early detection of HCC that are still surgically resectable in high risk individuals.

10.
Neuroreport ; 30(12): 842-846, 2019 08 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31283708

RESUMO

A known cause of seizure-induced respiratory arrest is the deficiency in serotonergic neurotransmission. Tryptophan hydroxylase-2 (TPH2) is the rate-limiting enzyme of central serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine) synthesis which converts l-tryptophan to 5-hydroxytryptophan. A recent study revealed a reduction in TPH2 protein expression in the brainstems of DBA/1 mice that developed recurrent seizure-induced respiratory arrest, whereas the activity of this protein was unexplored. Thus this study aims to investigate the association between intrinsic 5-hydroxytryptamine synthesis in the brainstem and the susceptibility for sudden unexpected death in epilepsy in DBA/1 mice. The effect of LY393558, a potent 5-hydroxytryptamine reuptake inhibitor with 5-HT1B/1D receptor antagonist properties, on seizure-induced respiratory arrest evoked by acoustic stimulation was also examined in DBA/1 mice. ELISA results showed significantly decreased TPH2 activity in the brainstems of untreated DBA/1 mice than that of C57BL/6J mice. Moreover, the concentrations of 5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-hydroxytryptophan and 5-HIAA in the brainstems of DBA/1 mice with or without acoustic stimulation were significantly lower than that of C57BL/6J mice. Acute administration of LY393558 also significantly reduced seizure-induced respiratory arrest in DBA/1 mice. These observations provide novel evidences for the hypothesis that 5-hydroxytryptamine deficiency might be a potential cause of seizure-induced respiratory arrest.

11.
JCI Insight ; 4(8)2019 Apr 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30996136

RESUMO

Autoimmune disease is 4 times more common in women than men. This bias is largely unexplained. Female skin is "autoimmunity prone," showing upregulation of many proinflammatory genes, even in healthy women. We previously identified VGLL3 as a putative transcription cofactor enriched in female skin. Here, we demonstrate that skin-directed overexpression of murine VGLL3 causes a severe lupus-like rash and systemic autoimmune disease that involves B cell expansion, autoantibody production, immune complex deposition, and end-organ damage. Excess epidermal VGLL3 drives a proinflammatory gene expression program that overlaps with both female skin and cutaneous lupus. This includes increased B cell-activating factor (BAFF), the only current biologic target in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE); IFN-κ, a key inflammatory mediator in cutaneous lupus; and CXCL13, a biomarker of early-onset SLE and renal involvement. Our results demonstrate that skin-targeted overexpression of the female-biased factor VGLL3 is sufficient to drive cutaneous and systemic autoimmune disease that is strikingly similar to SLE. This work strongly implicates VGLL3 as a pivotal orchestrator of sex-biased autoimmunity.

12.
Cancer Commun (Lond) ; 39(1): 12, 2019 03 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30922396

RESUMO

Robust and clinically convenient biomarkers for cancer diagnosis, early detection, and prognosis have great potential to improve patient survival and are the key to precision medicine. The advent of next-generation sequencing technologies enables a more sensitive and comprehensive profiling of genetic and epigenetic information in tumor-derived materials. Researchers are now able to monitor the dynamics of tumorigenesis in new dimensions, such as using circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA) and tumor DNA (ctDNA). Mutation-based assays in liquid biopsy cannot always provide consistent results across studies due partly to intra- and inter-tumoral heterogeneity as well as technical limitations. In contrast, epigenetic analysis of patient-derived cfDNA is a promising alternative, especially for early detection and disease surveillance, because epigenetic modifications are tissue-specific and reflect the dynamic process of cancer progression. Therefore, cfDNA-based epigenetic assays are emerging to be a highly sensitive, minimally invasive tool for cancer diagnosis and prognosis with great potential in future precise care of cancer patients. The major obstacle for applying epigenetic analysis of cfDNA, however, has been the lack of enabling techniques with high sensitivity and technical robustness. In this review, we summarized the advances in epigenome-wide profiling of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) in cfDNA, focusing on the detection approaches and potential role as biomarkers in different cancer types.


Assuntos
5-Metilcitosina/análogos & derivados , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Ácidos Nucleicos Livres , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Animais , Epigenômica , Humanos , Biópsia Líquida , Neoplasias/genética , Medicina de Precisão
13.
Pharm Biol ; 57(1): 238-244, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30922159

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Osthole is a natural coumarin compound most frequently extracted from plants of the Apiaceae family such as Cnidium monnieri (L.) Cusson, Angelica pubescens Maxin.f., and Peucedanum ostruthium (L.). Osthole is considered to have potential therapeutic applications for the treatment of diseases including epilepsy. However, the mechanism of osthole induced-apoptosis in BV-2 microglia cells is not yet clear. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the effect of osthole on PI3K/AKt/mTOR expression in kainic acid (KA)-activated BV-2 microglia cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Optimal culture concentration and time of osthole were investigated by MTT assay. The concentration of osthole was tested from 10 to 400 µM and the culture time was tested from 2 to 72 h. Ultrastructure difference among control, KA and osthole group was analyzed under transmission electron microscope. The mRNA expression of PI3K/AKt/mTOR was investigated using reverse transcription (RT)-PCR and the protein expression was investigated using western blotting and immunofluorescence assay. Apoptosis rate of BV-2 cells between each group was measured by flow cytometry. RESULTS: IC50 for cell viability of BV-2 cells by osthole was 157.7 µM. Treated with osthole (140 µM) for 24 h significantly increased the inhibition rate. Pretreatment with osthole inhibited the KA-induced PI3K/AKt/mTOR mRNA and protein expression. The results of flow cytometry analysis showed that the apoptotic rate of osthole group was obviously higher than KA group. CONCLUSIONS: Date showed that osthole may be useful in the treatment of epilepsy and other neurodegenerative diseases that are characterized by over expression of PI3K/Akt/mTOR.


Assuntos
Cumarínicos/farmacologia , Microglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Ácido Caínico/farmacologia , Camundongos , Microglia/citologia , Microglia/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(4)2019 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30781801

RESUMO

Due to lower farrowing rate and reduced litter size with frozen-thawed semen, over 90% of artificial insemination (AI) is conducted using liquid stored boar semen. Although substantial progress has been made towards optimizing the cryopreservation protocols for boar sperm, the influencing factors and underlying mechanisms related to cryoinjury and freeze tolerance of boar sperm remain largely unknown. In this study, we report the differential expression of mRNAs and miRNAs between fresh and frozen-thawed boar sperm using high-throughput RNA sequencing. Our results showed that 567 mRNAs and 135 miRNAs were differentially expressed (DE) in fresh and frozen-thawed boar sperm. Gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment analyses revealed that the majority of DE mRNAs were enriched in environmental information processing such as cytokine-cytokine receptor interactions, PI3K-Akt signaling, cell adhesion, MAPK, and calcium signaling pathways. Moreover, the targets of DE miRNAs were enriched in significant GO terms such as cell process, protein binding, and response to stimuli. In conclusion, we speculate that DE mRNAs and miRNAs are heavily involved in boar sperm response to environment stimuli, apoptosis, and metabolic activities. The differences in expression also reflect the various structural and functional changes in sperm during cryopreservation.


Assuntos
MicroRNAs/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Preservação do Sêmen , Análise de Sequência de RNA/métodos , Espermatozoides/metabolismo , Suínos/genética , Transcriptoma/genética , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Análise por Conglomerados , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Ontologia Genética , Masculino , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo
15.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 143(6): 2131-2146, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30578870

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The incidence of eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is greater in male than female subjects, and the underlying molecular basis for this sex bias remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: We sought to delineate the contribution of the sex hormone estrogen to the EoE phenotype and esophageal epithelial barrier function and remodeling. METHODS: We performed demographic and incidence analyses of EoE in male and female subjects from a single-center pediatric cohort. Estrogen-responsive gene expression analyses and estrogen receptor (ESR) immunofluorescence staining of esophageal biopsy specimens from patients with EoE and control subjects were performed. The effect of 17ß-estradiol (E2) on IL-13-induced signaling pathways, gene expression, and esophageal epithelial architecture and barrier function in a primary human esophageal keratinocyte cell (EPC2) culture system (EPC2-air-liquid interface) was examined. RESULTS: We observed a male predominance in patients with EoE. Analyses of RNA sequencing data sets revealed a significant dysregulation of the estrogen-responsive gene network and expression of ESR1 and ESR2 in esophageal biopsy specimens from patients with EoE compared with control subjects. IL-13 stimulation of EPC2-air-liquid interface cells led to altered cellular architecture with induced dilation of intercellular spaces and barrier dysfunction. Pretreatment of EPC2s with E2 prior to IL-13 exposure abrogated IL-13-induced architectural changes and esophageal barrier dysfunction. Mechanistically, E2-protective effects were dependent on ESR2 and associated with diminishing of IL-13-induced tyrosine kinase 2 and signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 phosphorylation and EoE-dysregulated gene expression. CONCLUSIONS: Estrogen-responsive genes are modified in patients with EoE compared with control subjects. E2 attenuated IL-13-induced architectural changes and esophageal epithelial barrier dysfunction through inhibition of the IL-13/tyrosine kinase 2/signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 pathway via ESR2-dependent process. Estrogen hormone signaling may protect against development of EoE in female subjects.

16.
Molecules ; 23(12)2018 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30469536

RESUMO

Selenium (Se) is an essential micronutrient that has several important functions in animal and human health. The biological functions of Se are carried out by selenoproteins (encoded by twenty-five genes in human and twenty-four in mice), which are reportedly present in all three domains of life. As a component of selenoproteins, Se has structural and enzymatic functions; in the latter context it is best recognized for its catalytic and antioxidant activities. In this review, we highlight the biological functions of Se and selenoproteins followed by an elaborated review of the relationship between Se and female reproductive function. Data pertaining to Se status and female fertility and reproduction are sparse, with most such studies focusing on the role of Se in pregnancy. Only recently has some light been shed on its potential role in ovarian physiology. The exact underlying molecular and biochemical mechanisms through which Se or selenoproteins modulate female reproduction are largely unknown; their role in human pregnancy and related complications is not yet sufficiently understood. Properly powered, randomized, controlled trials (intervention vs. control) in populations of relatively low Se status will be essential to clarify their role. In the meantime, studies elucidating the potential effect of Se supplementation and selenoproteins (i.e., GPX1, SELENOP, and SELENOS) in ovarian function and overall female reproductive efficiency would be of great value.

17.
BMC Genomics ; 19(1): 736, 2018 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30305024

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Capacitation, a prerequisite for oocyte fertilization, is a complex process involving series of structural and functional changes in sperms such as membrane modifications, modulation of enzyme activities, and protein phosphorylation. In order to penetrate and fertilize an oocyte, mammalian sperms must undergo capacitation. Nevertheless, the process of sperm capacitation remains poorly understood and requires further elucidation. In the current study, via high throughput sequencing, we identified and explored the differentially expressed microRNAs (miRNAs) and mRNAs involved in boar sperm capacitation. RESULTS: We identified a total of 5342 mRNAs and 204 miRNAs that were differentially expressed in fresh and capacitated boar sperms. From these, 12 miRNAs (8 known and 4 newly identified miRNAs) and their differentially expressed target mRNAs were found to be involved in sperm capacitation-related PI3K-Akt, MAPK, cAMP-PKA and Ca2+signaling pathways. CONCLUSIONS: Our study is first to provide the complete miRNA and transcriptome profiles of boar sperm. Our findings provide important insights for the understanding of the RNA profile in boar sperm and future elucidation of the underlying molecular mechanism relevant to mammalian sperm capacitation.

18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 19(10)2018 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30297640

RESUMO

Sperm cryopreservation and artificial insemination are important methods for giant panda breeding and preservation of extant genetic diversity. Lower conception rates limit the use of artificial insemination with frozen-thawed giant panda sperm, due to the lack of understanding of the cryodamaging or cryoinjuring mechanisms in cryopreservation. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are involved in regulating spermatogenesis. However, their roles during cryopreservation remain largely unexplored. Therefore, this study aimed to identify differentially expressed lncRNAs and mRNAs associated with cryodamage or freeze tolerance in frozen-thawed sperm through high throughput sequencing. A total of 61.05 Gb clean reads and 22,774 lncRNA transcripts were obtained. From the sequencing results, 1477 significantly up-regulated and 1,396 significantly down-regulated lncRNA transcripts from fresh and frozen-thawed sperm of giant panda were identified. GO and KEGG showed that the significantly dysregulated lncRNAs and mRNAs were mainly involved in regulating responses to cold stress and apoptosis, such as the integral component of membrane, calcium transport, and various signaling pathways including PI3K-Akt, p53 and cAMP. Our work is the first systematic profiling of lncRNA and mRNA in fresh and frozen-thawed giant panda sperm, and provides valuableinsights into the potential mechanism of cryodamage in sperm.

19.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 108: 734-740, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30248541

RESUMO

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been reported to exert important effects on the initiation, progression and metastasis of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). In this study, we aimed to explore the regulation role of miR-1271 on the development of GBM. We found that miR-1271 was a Bcl-2-targeting miRNA, and the levels of miR-1271was decreased in samples from patients with GBM, compared with those from corresponding normal tissue samples. On the other hand, the levels of miR-1271 were inversely related to the levels of Bcl-2, which have been significantly increased in GBM samples. The overall survival was poorer in patients with low levels of miR-1271, compared to those with high levels of miR-1271. In vitro, the chemo-resistant cell survival mediated with Bcl-2 was inhibited by overexpression of miR-1271 and was enhanced by depletion of miR-1271. Thus, the chemo-resistance of GBM cells may be promoted after suppressing miR-1271 through cell survival mediated with Bcl-2. The prognosis of patients with GBM receiving chemotherapy may be improved by overexpressing miR-1271 in cancerous cells.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29849718

RESUMO

To study the antitumor effect of Xihuang pill (XHP) on the number of Treg cells in the tumor microenvironment of 4T1 breast tumor-bearing mice by PI3K/AKT/AP-1 pathway, a mouse model was established. Flow cytometry (FCM) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) were used to detect the number of Treg cells in the tumor microenvironment; terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) was used to detect the apoptosis of Treg cells in tumor microenvironment. Quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) was used to detect the mRNA expression of PI3K, AKT, and AP-1 in Treg cells in tumor microenvironment; immunofluorescence (IF) and Western Blot (WB) were used to detect the protein expression of PI3K, AKT, and AP-1 in Treg cells in tumor microenvironment. Compared with the naive control group, the tumor weight in XHP groups decreased significantly (P < 0.05); FCM and IHC results showed that the number of Treg cells in the tumor microenvironment decreased with the dose of XHP groups (P < 0.05); TUNEL staining showed that the number of Treg cells in tumor microenvironment increased with the dose of XHP groups (P < 0.05); RT-qPCR results showed that the mRNA expression of PI3K and AKT in Treg cells decreased with the dose of XHP groups, while RNA expression of AP-1 increased with the dose of XHP groups (P < 0.05); IF and WB results showed that the protein expression of PI3K and AKT in Treg cells decreased with the dose of XHP groups and the protein expression of AP-1 increased with the dose of XHP groups (P < 0.05). The results suggested that XHP decreased the number of Treg cells via inhibiting PI3K and AKT expression and upregulating AP-1 expression in Treg cells and then promoting the apoptosis of Treg cells. Thus, XHP could improve the immunosuppressive state of tumor microenvironment and reverse the immune escape to inhibit tumor growth.

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