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1.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 514(3): 756-758, 2019 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31078273

RESUMO

Meiosis is a critical biological process for reproduction and genetic variation in higher plants. Gene duplication is a prominent feature of plant genomic architecture. Meiosis and gene duplication are of fundamental importance in unraveling the nature of genetics and evolution. The ideas and findings in this letter demonstrate a highly significant connection between meiosis and gene duplication, bring together these two disparate fields of study and highlight the importance of meiosis for understanding the evolutionary success of flowering plants. These insights and opinions open a new area of investigation and point to a significant way to illustrate the impact of duplicated genes on meiosis and fitness in higher plants, as well as their ultimate evolutionary, ecological, and agronomic impacts in light of challenges that have arisen due to global climate change. This study addresses novel ideas and viewpoints in plant developmental genomics and evolution.

2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(7)2019 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30987365

RESUMO

The somatic embryogenesis (SE) process of plants, as one of the typical responses to abiotic stresses with hormone, occurs through the dynamic expression of different proteins that constitute a complex regulatory network in biological activities and promotes plant totipotency. Plant SE includes two critical stages: primary embryogenic calli redifferentiation and somatic embryos development initiation, which leads to totipotency. The isobaric labels tandem mass tags (TMT) large-scale and quantitative proteomics technique was used to identify the dynamic protein expression changes in nonembryogenic calli (NEC), primary embryogenic calli (PEC) and globular embryos (GEs) of cotton. A total of 9369 proteins (6730 quantified) were identified; 805, 295 and 1242 differentially accumulated proteins (DAPs) were identified in PEC versus NEC, GEs versus PEC and GEs versus NEC, respectively. Eight hundred and five differentially abundant proteins were identified, 309 of which were upregulated and 496 down regulated in PEC compared with NEC. Of the 295 DAPs identified between GEs and PEC, 174 and 121 proteins were up- and down regulated, respectively. Of 1242 differentially abundant proteins, 584 and 658 proteins were up- and down regulated, respectively, in GEs versus NEC. We have also complemented the authenticity and accuracy of the proteomic analysis. Systematic analysis indicated that peroxidase, photosynthesis, environment stresses response processes, nitrogen metabolism, phytohormone response/signal transduction, transcription/posttranscription and modification were involved in somatic embryogenesis. The results generated in this study demonstrate a proteomic molecular basis and provide a valuable foundation for further investigation of the roles of DAPs in the process of SE transdifferentiation during cotton totipotency.


Assuntos
Transdiferenciação Celular/fisiologia , Gossypium/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteoma/metabolismo , Transdiferenciação Celular/genética , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/genética , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/fisiologia , Gossypium/embriologia , Gossypium/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteômica
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(9)2019 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31027387

RESUMO

Plant regeneration via somatic embryogenesis (SE) is a key step during genetic engineering. In the current study, integrated widely targeted metabolomics and RNA sequencing were performed to investigate the dynamic metabolic and transcriptional profiling of cotton SE. Our data revealed that a total of 581 metabolites were present in nonembryogenic staged calli (NEC), primary embryogenic calli (PEC), and initiation staged globular embryos (GE). Of the differentially accumulated metabolites (DAMs), nucleotides, and lipids were specifically accumulated during embryogenic differentiation, whereas flavones and hydroxycinnamoyl derivatives were accumulated during somatic embryo development. Additionally, metabolites related to purine metabolism were significantly enriched in PEC vs. NEC, whereas in GE vs. PEC, DAMs were remarkably associated with flavonoid biosynthesis. An association analysis of the metabolome and transcriptome data indicated that purine metabolism and flavonoid biosynthesis were co-mapped based on the Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) database. Moreover, purine metabolism-related genes associated with signal recognition, transcription, stress, and lipid binding were significantly upregulated. Moreover, several classic somatic embryogenesis (SE) genes were highly correlated with their corresponding metabolites that were involved in purine metabolism and flavonoid biosynthesis. The current study identified a series of potential metabolites and corresponding genes responsible for SE transdifferentiation, which provides a valuable foundation for a deeper understanding of the regulatory mechanisms underlying cell totipotency at the molecular and biochemical levels.


Assuntos
Flavonoides/metabolismo , Gossypium/metabolismo , Purinas/metabolismo , Transdiferenciação Celular , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Gossypium/genética , Metaboloma/genética , Metaboloma/fisiologia , Transcriptoma/genética
5.
J Cancer Res Ther ; 14(Supplement): S54-S59, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29578150

RESUMO

Objective: This study investigated the association between abnormal matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) expression and bladder cancer (BC) development. Materials and Methods: In a retrospective analysis, this study used tissue samples derived from 92 patients pathologically diagnosed with BC (experimental group), who were hospitalized between September 2012 and June 2014 at the Urinary Surgery of Department of Urology, Lanzhou University Second Hospital. As controls (control group), 63 normal pericancerous bladder mucosal tissues (3 cm distant form edge of BC foci) with confirmed pathology were selected from the same time period. Immunohistochemistry was employed to detect MMP-9 protein expression in the tissues and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was performed to measure MMP-9 protein levels in tissue samples of patients and control subjects. Finally, a meta-analysis was conducted to understand the overall impact of MMP-9 on BC pathogenesis. STATA 12.0 software (Stata Corp, College Station, TX, USA) was used for all statistical analyses. Results: The MMP-9 positive expression rate in tissue samples and MMP-9 levels were significantly greater in the experimental group compared to the control group (both P < 0.001). The frequency of MMP-9 positive status showed statistically significant differences between G1 (low-grade) and G3 (high-grade) (P < 0.001), between G2 and G3 (P < 0.05), and between G1/G2 and G3 (P = 0.001). Our meta-analysis findings provided further evidence that MMP-9 positive expression status and MMP-9 levels in the experimental group were significantly higher than the control group (positive expressions: Odds ratio [OR] = 18.59, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 11.63-29.71, P < 0.001; expression levels: Standard mean difference = 1.51, 95%CI = 0.63-2.39, P = 0.001). The positive expression status of MMP-9 was notably lower in G1/G2 compared to G3 (OR = 0.24, 95%CI = 0.15-0.36, P < 0.001). Conclusion: Our study demonstrated that both positive expression status in tumor tissue and expression levels of MMP-9 are significantly elevated in BC patients and correlate with disease progression. Thus, MMP-9 can serve as a biomarker to determine the degree of BC malignancy.


Assuntos
Transformação Celular Neoplásica/genética , Expressão Gênica , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz/genética , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biópsia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Masculino , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Imagem Multimodal , Gradação de Tumores , Razão de Chances , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/mortalidade
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 19(1)2018 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29342876

RESUMO

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) play an important role in nutrient cycling processes and plant stress resistance. To evaluate the effect of Rhizophagus irregularis CD1 on plant growth promotion (PGP) and Verticillium wilt disease, the symbiotic efficiency of AMF (SEA) was first investigated over a range of 3% to 94% in 17 cotton varieties. The high-SEA subgroup had significant PGP effects in a greenhouse. From these results, the highest-SEA variety of Lumian 1 was selected for a two-year field assay. Consistent with the performance from the greenhouse, the AMF-mediated PGP of Lumian 1 also produced significant results, including an increased plant height, stem diameter, number of petioles, and phosphorus content. Compared with the mock treatment, AMF colonization obviously inhibited the symptom development of Verticillium dahliae and more strongly elevated the expression of pathogenesis-related genes and lignin synthesis-related genes. These results suggest that AMF colonization could lead to the mycorrhiza-induced resistance (MIR) of Lumian 1 to V. dahliae. Interestingly, our results indicated that the AMF endosymbiont could directly inhibit the growth of phytopathogenic fungi including V. dahliae by releasing undefined volatiles. In summary, our results suggest that stronger effects of AMF application result from the high-SEA.


Assuntos
Resistência à Doença , Gossypium/imunologia , Gossypium/microbiologia , Micorrizas/fisiologia , Doenças das Plantas/imunologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Simbiose , Verticillium/fisiologia , Antifúngicos/metabolismo , Resistência à Doença/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Gossypium/genética , Gossypium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Doenças das Plantas/genética
7.
BMC Res Notes ; 10(1): 444, 2017 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28874183

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To explore and summarize the reasons why urethral calculi cause a urethral fistula. CASE PRESENTATION: We retrospectively studied 1 patient in Xiangya hospital and all relevant literature published in English between 1989 and 2015. The patients (including those reported in the literature) were characterized by age, origin, location of calculus, size of calculus, fistulous track, and etiological factors. Most of urethral calculi associated with a urethral fistula were native generated. Urethral calculi can be formed in various locations of the urethra, and the size of the calculus ranged from small (multiple) calculi to giant stones. The fistula external orifice located at the root of the penis was relatively common, and there were various etiological factors, such as urethral strictures, urethral trauma induced by long-term catheterization, lumbar fractures, and congenital anomaly factors. They were managed by the excision of the fistulous tract, retrieval of the urethral stones, and/or debridement and pus drainage operations. CONCLUSION: Some elements, such as trauma, recurrent urinary tract infections, abscess formation induced by long-term catheterization, and urethral calculus, may be the risk factors for a urethral fistula.


Assuntos
Doenças Uretrais/complicações , Cálculos Urinários/complicações , Fístula Urinária/complicações , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Doenças Uretrais/diagnóstico por imagem , Cálculos Urinários/diagnóstico por imagem , Fístula Urinária/diagnóstico por imagem
8.
Genom Data ; 13: 54-63, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28736701

RESUMO

Fungi are the causal agents of many of the world's most serious plant diseases causing disastrous consequences for large-scale agricultural production. Pathogenicity genomic basis is complex in fungi as multicellular eukaryotic pathogens. Here, we report the genome sequence of C. sojina, and comparative genome analysis with plant pathogen members of the genus Mycosphaerella (Zymoseptoria. tritici (synonyms M. graminicola), M. pini, M. populorum and M. fijiensis - pathogens of wheat, pine, poplar and banana, respectively). Synteny or collinearity was limited between genomes of major Mycosphaerella pathogens. Comparative analysis with these related pathogen genomes indicated distinct genome-wide repeat organization features. It suggests repetitive elements might be responsible for considerable evolutionary genomic changes. These results reveal the background of genomic differences and similarities between Dothideomycete species. Wide diversity as well as conservation on genome features forms the potential genomic basis of the pathogen specialization, such as pathogenicity to woody vs. herbaceous hosts. Through comparative genome analysis among five Dothideomycete species, our results have shed light on the genome features of these related fungi species. It provides insight for understanding the genomic basis of fungal pathogenicity and disease resistance in the crop hosts.

9.
Pathol Res Pract ; 213(7): 766-772, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28554751

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The study is performed to explore the correlations of forkhead box O3 (FoxO3) and forkhead box O4 (FoxO4) expressions with clinicopathological features and prognosis of bladder cancer. METHODS: Bladder cancer tissues and adjacent normal tissues from the recruited 222 patients were collected. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), Western blotting and immunohistochemistry were applied to determine the expressions of FoxO3 and FoxO4. Spearman correlation analysis was conducted to examine the correlation between the expressions of FoxO3 and FoxO4. All patients were followed up and overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) were recorded. Kaplan-Meier survival curve was drawn to determine the associations of FoxO3 and FoxO4 expressions and postoperative survival. Cox proportional hazards model was conducted to analyze the risk factors for poor prognosis of bladder cancer. RESULTS: The mRNA and expressions of FoxO3 and FoxO4 proteins in the bladder cancer tissues were lower than that in the adjacent normal tissues (both P<0.05). The positive rates of FoxO3 and FoxO4 were lower in the patients with lymph node metastasis than that in the patients without lymph node metastasis (P<0.05), and significantly lower in the patients with non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (Tis-T1) than in those with non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (T2-T3) in TNM staging, and remarkably lower in the patients with high grade than in those with low grade in the histological type (P<0.05). Furthermore, the expressions of FoxO3 and FoxO4 were positively correlated in the bladder cancer tissues (P<0.05). Negative expressions of FoxO3 and FoxO4 and lymph node metastasis were the risk factors for the poor prognosis of bladder cancer. CONCLUSIONS: The FoxO3 and FoxO4 expressions may potentially associate with the clinicopathological features and prognosis of bladder cancer.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Proteína Forkhead Box O3/análise , Fatores de Transcrição/análise , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/química , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Western Blotting , Cistectomia , Progressão da Doença , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Proteína Forkhead Box O3/genética , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Metástase Linfática , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Invasividade Neoplásica , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Resultado do Tratamento , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/genética , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/patologia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/cirurgia
10.
Genom Data ; 12: 79-80, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28386531

RESUMO

Fungi are the causal agents of many of the world's most serious plant diseases causing disastrous consequences for large-scale agricultural production. Pathogenicity genomic basis is complex in fungi as multicellular eukaryotic pathogens. The fungus Cercospora sojina is a plant pathogen that threatens global soybean supplies. Here, we report the genome sequence of C. sojina strain S9 and detect genome features and predicted genomic elements. The genome sequence of C. sojina is a valuable resource with potential in studying the fungal pathogenicity and soybean host resistance to frogeye leaf spot (FLS), which is caused by C. sojina. The C. sojina genome sequence has been deposited and available at DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank under the project accession number AHPQ00000000.

11.
Onco Targets Ther ; 9: 2131-41, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27110129

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) on cell proliferation, apoptosis, migration, and invasion in renal clear cell carcinoma (RCCC). METHODS: Between June 2012 and June 2015, RCCC tissues were obtained for the experimental group, and RCCC adjacent tumor-free kidney parenchyma tissues were obtained for the control group. VEGFA mRNA and protein expressions and phosphoinositide 3-kinase, serine/threonine-specific protein kinase (AKT), and phosphorylated-AKT protein expressions were detected. The chemically synthesized specific siRNA using RNA interference technology was used to inhibit VEGFA gene expression in human RCCC 786-O cells. The negative control (NC) group was transfected with NC sequence, and the blank group was transfected with no sequence. Flow cytometry, scratch test, and cell-penetrating experiment were used to detect cell proliferation, apoptosis, migration, and invasion of 786-O cells. RESULTS: Positive expression of VEGFA protein was 60.62% in RCCC tissue and 18.34% in adjacent tissue with statistically significant difference (P<0.001). VEGFA protein and mRNA expressions were higher in RCCC tissue than those in adjacent tissue (both P<0.01). VEGF expression in RCCC tissue was associated with Fuhrman grading and American Joint Committee on Cancer staging (both P<0.05). After RCCC 786-O cells transfecting the VEGFA siRNA, the VEGFA mRNA and protein expressions and phosphoinositide 3-kinase and phosphorylated-AKT protein expressions were significantly decreased, cell proliferation was remarkably inhibited, cell apoptotic ratio was obviously increased, and migration distance and invasive cell number were markedly decreased compared to those in the NC group and the blank group (all P<0.05). CONCLUSION: Inhibition of VEGFA inhibited proliferation, promoted apoptosis, and suppressed migration and invasion of RCCC 786-O cells. VEGF has a potential role in diagnosis and therapy of RCCC.

12.
Oncol Lett ; 11(3): 2213-2222, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26998151

RESUMO

The present study investigated the potential association between matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) expression and the pathogenesis of bladder cancer. The present study reviewed previous studies published in Chinese and English using predefined selection criteria, which identified high-quality studies concerning MMP-9 and bladder cancer. Statistical analyses of the data were conducted using Comprehensive Meta-Analysis software version 2.0. In total, 23 case-control studies were selected, which consisted of 1,040 bladder cancer patients and 244 healthy controls. The expression rates and protein levels of MMP-9 were significantly increased in bladder cancer patients compared with the healthy controls, which was demonstrated using immunohistochemistry (IHC) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-based methods. Furthermore, the expression rate of MMP-9 in histological G1/G2 grade bladder cancer tumors was significantly decreased compared with G3 tumors. Subgroup analysis based on ethnicity demonstrated that the rate of MMP-9 protein expression between bladder cancer patients and healthy controls was significantly different in African, Asian and Caucasian patients, which was identified using IHC. The MMP-9 protein levels in bladder cancer patients and healthy controls were significantly different between Asian and Caucasian patients, but not African patients. The differences between MMP-9 expression in ethnic groups were also evident in the expression rate of MMP-9 identified in histological G1/G2 grade tumors in Asian and Caucasian patients compared with G3 grade tumors, which was not evident in African patients. In conclusion, the present meta-analysis results markedly indicate that MMP-9 expression is associated with clinicopathological features of bladder cancer, suggesting that MMP-9 may be a useful biomarker in the diagnosis and clinical management of bladder cancer, and may be a valuable therapeutic target.

13.
PLoS One ; 11(2): e0148832, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26859292

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Male circumcision (MC) has been shown to reduce the risk of male genital diseases. MC is not commonly practiced among Chinese males and little is known about the factors associated with their knowledge of and willingness for MC. This study was to explore the knowledge regarding the foreskin among Chinese males and to identify factors associated with their willingness to undergo circumcision. METHODS: A total of 237 patients with redundant prepuce/phimosis were interviewed through face-to-face interviews. The items on the questionnaire included: demographics, an objective scale assessing knowledge about the foreskin, willingness to have MC, the attitudes of sexual partners and doctors toward redundant prepuce/phimosis, and the approaches that patients used to acquire knowledge regarding the prepuce. Univariate analysis and multiple logistic regression analysis were performed to identify factors that are associated with willingness to be circumcised (WTC). RESULTS: A total of 212 patients completed the interview. Multivariable logistic regression showed that three factors were significantly associated with WTC: being married (OR = 0.43), perceiving redundant prepuce/phimosis as a disease (OR = 1.93), and if a patient's partner supported MC (OR = 1.39). 58% (n = 122) had received information about the foreskin from another party: 18% (n = 37) from school, 8% (n = 17) from family, 17% (n = 36) from friends, 27% (n = 57) from health care providers. About 4% (n = 8) believed that their partners disliked their redundant prepuce/phimosis. 20% (n = 42) had received doctors' advice to undergo circumcision. CONCLUSION: Knowledge about the foreskin was low among Chinese males. Our study elucidates the factors associated with WTC and suggests that more education of the population about the foreskin can help improve the recognition of a correctible abnormality and help patients assess the potential role of MC in their health.


Assuntos
Circuncisão Masculina/psicologia , Prepúcio do Pênis , Adolescente , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Circuncisão Masculina/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fimose/psicologia , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos
14.
Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 41(12): 1317-1322, 2016 Dec 28.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28070045

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate effects of verapamil on primary cultured human urethral scar fibroblasts (USFs) and to provide basis for protecting the formation of urethra scar.
 Methods: The cell proliferation was evaluated with the cell counting kit (CCK)-8 method after USFs were incubated various verapamil concentrations (50, 100, 150, 200, or 250 µmol/L) or solvent for 12, 24, or 48 h. The protein level of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) was evaluated with ELISA after cells were incubated with verapamil (100 µmol/L) or solvent (control cells) for 24 h.
 Results: The proliferation of USFs was obviously suppressed after verapamil treatment, which was in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner. Meanwhile, the protein levels of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in the verapamil treatment group increased obviously compared with those of the control groups (P<0.05).
 Conclusion: Calcium channel blockers may prevent the excessive formation of urethra scar by inhibiting the proliferation of urethral scar fibroblasts and enhancing the activity of MMP.


Assuntos
Bloqueadores dos Canais de Cálcio/farmacologia , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Verapamil/farmacologia , Células Cultivadas , Cicatriz/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Metaloproteinase 2 da Matriz/efeitos dos fármacos , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores de Metaloproteinases de Matriz/farmacologia , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos , Uretra/citologia , Uretra/patologia
15.
Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 40(3): 269-75, 2015 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25832535

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the mechanisms for urinary system disorders before and after ketamine withdrawal in rats and to evaluate the recovery degree of the urinary system damage after ketamine withdrawal. METHODS: Fifteen male healthy Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: A control group, an experimental group, and a withdrawal group. The rats in the control group were given normal saline. The rats in the experimental group were given ketamine 30 mg/(kg.day) for 30 days. The rats in the withdrawal group were treated as the experimental group except for drug withdrawal for 2 weeks. In the experimental period, we randomly selected 1 rat of kidney, ureter, and bladder from each group to perform HE staining. The bladder tissues in each group were used to detect mRNA expression by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). RESULTS: 1) The behavior of ketamine-injected rats was obviously changed, but the weight of ketamine-induced rats was not changed. 2) As compared with the control group, the experimental and withdrawal groups showed infiltration of mononuclear inflammatory cells in the kidney tissues, the thinner epithelium of bladder and infiltration of submucosal mononuclear inflammatory cells under the optical microscope. 3) As compared with the control group, the expression of H1R mRNA was increased in the experimental group (P<0.05). As compared with the experimental group, H1R mRNA expression was significantly decreased in the withdrawal group (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: Ketamine abuse could induce behavior changes in rats. The infiltration of mononuclear inflammatory cells in kidney and bladder, the thinner bladder epithelial layer, and the increased H1R gene mRNA expression in bladder might be an important pathogenesis of KAUD. Ketamine withdrawal may effectively reverse the pathogenic process of KAUD.


Assuntos
Ketamina/administração & dosagem , Rim/fisiopatologia , Bexiga Urinária/fisiopatologia , Doenças Urológicas/fisiopatologia , Animais , Epitélio/fisiopatologia , Masculino , RNA Mensageiro , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
16.
Genome Res ; 25(4): 524-33, 2015 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25762551

RESUMO

Sex in papaya is controlled by a pair of nascent sex chromosomes. Females are XX, and two slightly different Y chromosomes distinguish males (XY) and hermaphrodites (XY(h)). The hermaphrodite-specific region of the Y(h) chromosome (HSY) and its X chromosome counterpart were sequenced and analyzed previously. We now report the sequence of the entire male-specific region of the Y (MSY). We used a BAC-by-BAC approach to sequence the MSY and resequence the Y regions of 24 wild males and the Y(h) regions of 12 cultivated hermaphrodites. The MSY and HSY regions have highly similar gene content and structure, and only 0.4% sequence divergence. The MSY sequences from wild males include three distinct haplotypes, associated with the populations' geographic locations, but gene flow is detected for other genomic regions. The Y(h) sequence is highly similar to one Y haplotype (MSY3) found only in wild dioecious populations from the north Pacific region of Costa Rica. The low MSY3-Y(h) divergence supports the hypothesis that hermaphrodite papaya is a product of human domestication. We estimate that Y(h) arose only ∼ 4000 yr ago, well after crop plant domestication in Mesoamerica >6200 yr ago but coinciding with the rise of the Maya civilization. The Y(h) chromosome has lower nucleotide diversity than the Y, or the genome regions that are not fully sex-linked, consistent with a domestication bottleneck. The identification of the ancestral MSY3 haplotype will expedite investigation of the mutation leading to the domestication of the hermaphrodite Y(h) chromosome. In turn, this mutation should identify the gene that was affected by the carpel-suppressing mutation that was involved in the evolution of males.


Assuntos
Carica/genética , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Cromossomos Sexuais/genética , Processos de Determinação Sexual/genética , Sequência de Bases , Fluxo Gênico/genética , Haplótipos/genética , Organismos Hermafroditas/genética , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Melhoramento Vegetal , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Sexo
17.
Genome Biol ; 14(5): R41, 2013 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23663246

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sacred lotus is a basal eudicot with agricultural, medicinal, cultural and religious importance. It was domesticated in Asia about 7,000 years ago, and cultivated for its rhizomes and seeds as a food crop. It is particularly noted for its 1,300-year seed longevity and exceptional water repellency, known as the lotus effect. The latter property is due to the nanoscopic closely packed protuberances of its self-cleaning leaf surface, which have been adapted for the manufacture of a self-cleaning industrial paint, Lotusan. RESULTS: The genome of the China Antique variety of the sacred lotus was sequenced with Illumina and 454 technologies, at respective depths of 101× and 5.2×. The final assembly has a contig N50 of 38.8 kbp and a scaffold N50 of 3.4 Mbp, and covers 86.5% of the estimated 929 Mbp total genome size. The genome notably lacks the paleo-triplication observed in other eudicots, but reveals a lineage-specific duplication. The genome has evidence of slow evolution, with a 30% slower nucleotide mutation rate than observed in grape. Comparisons of the available sequenced genomes suggest a minimum gene set for vascular plants of 4,223 genes. Strikingly, the sacred lotus has 16 COG2132 multi-copper oxidase family proteins with root-specific expression; these are involved in root meristem phosphate starvation, reflecting adaptation to limited nutrient availability in an aquatic environment. CONCLUSIONS: The slow nucleotide substitution rate makes the sacred lotus a better resource than the current standard, grape, for reconstructing the pan-eudicot genome, and should therefore accelerate comparative analysis between eudicots and monocots.


Assuntos
Genoma de Planta , Nelumbo/genética , Adaptação Biológica , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Evolução Molecular , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Taxa de Mutação , Nelumbo/classificação , Nelumbo/fisiologia , Filogenia , Vitis/genética
18.
Plant Cell ; 24(9): 3630-48, 2012 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22960910

RESUMO

In plants, a population of non-cell-autonomous proteins (NCAPs), including numerous transcription factors, move cell to cell through plasmodesmata (PD). In many cases, the intercellular trafficking of these NCAPs is regulated by their interaction with specific PD components. To gain further insight into the functions of this NCAP pathway, coimmunoprecipitation experiments were performed on a tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plasmodesmal-enriched cell wall protein preparation using as bait the NCAP, pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) PHLOEM PROTEIN16 (Cm-PP16). A Cm-PP16 interaction partner, Nt-PLASMODESMAL GERMIN-LIKE PROTEIN1 (Nt-PDGLP1) was identified and shown to be a PD-located component. Arabidopsis thaliana putative orthologs, PDGLP1 and PDGLP2, were identified; expression studies indicated that, postgermination, these proteins were preferentially expressed in the root system. The PDGLP1 signal peptide was shown to function in localization to the PD by a novel mechanism involving the endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi secretory pathway. Overexpression of various tagged versions altered root meristem function, leading to reduced primary root but enhanced lateral root growth. This effect on root growth was corrected with an inability of these chimeric proteins to form stable PD-localized complexes. PDGLP1 and PDGLP2 appear to be involved in regulating primary root growth by controlling phloem-mediated allocation of resources between the primary and lateral root meristems.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Glicoproteínas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plasmodesmos/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/ultraestrutura , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/isolamento & purificação , Parede Celular , Cucurbita/genética , Cucurbita/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Glicoproteínas/genética , Glicoproteínas/isolamento & purificação , Gravitropismo , Imunoprecipitação , Especificidade de Órgãos , Fenótipo , Floema/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Floema/metabolismo , Filogenia , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/ultraestrutura , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Mapeamento de Interação de Proteínas , Sinais Direcionadores de Proteínas , Transporte Proteico , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão , Tabaco/genética , Tabaco/metabolismo
19.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 109(34): 13716-21, 2012 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22869742

RESUMO

X chromosomes have long been thought to conserve the structure and gene content of the ancestral autosome from which the sex chromosomes evolved. We compared the recently evolved papaya sex chromosomes with a homologous autosome of a close relative, the monoecious Vasconcellea monoica, to infer changes since recombination stopped between the papaya sex chromosomes. We sequenced 12 V. monoica bacterial artificial chromosomes, 11 corresponding to the papaya X-specific region, and 1 to a papaya autosomal region. The combined V. monoica X-orthologous sequences are much shorter (1.10 Mb) than the corresponding papaya region (2.56 Mb). Given that the V. monoica genome is 41% larger than that of papaya, this finding suggests considerable expansion of the papaya X; expansion is supported by a higher repetitive sequence content of the X compared with the papaya autosomal sequence. The alignable regions include 27 transcript-encoding sequences, only 6 of which are functional X/V. monoica gene pairs. Sequence divergence from the V. monoica orthologs is almost identical for papaya X and Y alleles; the Carica-Vasconcellea split therefore occurred before the papaya sex chromosomes stopped recombining, making V. monoica a suitable outgroup for inferring changes in papaya sex chromosomes. The papaya X and the hermaphrodite-specific region of the Y(h) chromosome and V. monoica have all gained and lost genes, including a surprising amount of changes in the X.


Assuntos
Carica/genética , Cromossomos Sexuais , Alelos , Centrômero/ultraestrutura , Cromossomos Artificiais Bacterianos , Cromossomos de Plantas , Elementos de DNA Transponíveis , Genes de Plantas , Modelos Genéticos , Recombinação Genética , Sequências Repetitivas de Ácido Nucleico , Transcrição Genética
20.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 109(34): 13710-5, 2012 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22869747

RESUMO

Sex determination in papaya is controlled by a recently evolved XY chromosome pair, with two slightly different Y chromosomes controlling the development of males (Y) and hermaphrodites (Y(h)). To study the events of early sex chromosome evolution, we sequenced the hermaphrodite-specific region of the Y(h) chromosome (HSY) and its X counterpart, yielding an 8.1-megabase (Mb) HSY pseudomolecule, and a 3.5-Mb sequence for the corresponding X region. The HSY is larger than the X region, mostly due to retrotransposon insertions. The papaya HSY differs from the X region by two large-scale inversions, the first of which likely caused the recombination suppression between the X and Y(h) chromosomes, followed by numerous additional chromosomal rearrangements. Altogether, including the X and/or HSY regions, 124 transcription units were annotated, including 50 functional pairs present in both the X and HSY. Ten HSY genes had functional homologs elsewhere in the papaya autosomal regions, suggesting movement of genes onto the HSY, whereas the X region had none. Sequence divergence between 70 transcripts shared by the X and HSY revealed two evolutionary strata in the X chromosome, corresponding to the two inversions on the HSY, the older of which evolved about 7.0 million years ago. Gene content differences between the HSY and X are greatest in the older stratum, whereas the gene content and order of the collinear regions are identical. Our findings support theoretical models of early sex chromosome evolution.


Assuntos
Carica/genética , Cromossomos Sexuais , Duplicação Cromossômica , Inversão Cromossômica , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Cromossomos Artificiais Bacterianos , Cromossomos de Plantas , Evolução Molecular , Modelos Genéticos , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Sequências Repetitivas de Ácido Nucleico , Retroelementos , Análise de Sequência de DNA
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