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1.
Neural Regen Res ; 17(1): 217-227, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34100459

RESUMO

Our previous RNA sequencing study showed that the long non-coding RNA ischemia-related factor Vof-16 (lncRNA Vof-16) was upregulated after spinal cord injury, but its precise role in spinal cord injury remains unclear. Bioinformatics predictions have indicated that lncRNA Vof-16 may participate in the pathophysiological processes of inflammation and apoptosis. PC12 cells were transfected with a pHBLV-U6-MCS-CMV-ZsGreen-PGK-PURO vector to express an lncRNA Vof-16 knockdown lentivirus and a pHLV-CMVIE-ZsGree-Puro vector to express an lncRNA Vof-16 overexpression lentivirus. The overexpression of lncRNA Vof-16 inhibited PC12 cell survival, proliferation, migration, and neurite extension, whereas lncRNA Vof-16 knockdown lentiviral vector resulted in the opposite effects in PC12 cells. Western blot assay results showed that the overexpression of lncRNA Vof-16 increased the protein expression levels of interleukin 6, tumor necrosis factor-α, and Caspase-3 and decreased Bcl-2 expression levels in PC12 cells. Furthermore, we established rat models of spinal cord injury using the complete transection at T10. Spinal cord injury model rats were injected with the lncRNA Vof-16 knockdown or overexpression lentiviral vectors immediately after injury. At 7 days after spinal cord injury, rats treated with lncRNA Vof-16 knockdown displayed increased neuronal survival and enhanced axonal extension. At 8 weeks after spinal cord injury, rats treated with the lncRNA Vof-16 knockdown lentiviral vector displayed improved neurological function in the hind limb. Notably, lncRNA Vof-16 knockdown injection increased Bcl-2 expression and decreased tumor necrosis factor-α and Caspase-3 expression in treated animals. Rats treated with the lncRNA Vof-16 overexpression lentiviral vector displayed opposite trends. These findings suggested that lncRNA Vof-16 is associated with the regulation of inflammation and apoptosis. The inhibition of lncRNA Vof-16 may be useful for promoting nerve regeneration and functional recovery after spinal cord injury. The experiments were approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee of Guangdong Medical University, China.

2.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 283: 114714, 2022 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34624452

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Nigella glandulifera Freyn et Sint. (N. glandulifera) seeds are widely used in traditional Uyghur medicine for a variety of immuno-inflammatory diseases. The total saponins from N. glandulifera seeds (TSNGS) have been shown to have analgesic, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory effects that can alleviate joint pain and swelling. AIM OF THE STUDY: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic and progressive, debilitating autoimmune disease for which current treatments are not sufficiently effective and result in unsatisfactory side effects. This study aimed to mechanistically investigate the therapeutic effects of TSNGS on RA. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Qualitative analysis of TSNGS was performed using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-Q-Orbitrap-high-resolution mass spectrometry. Rats with collagen-induced arthritis (CIA), IL-1ß-induced HFLS-RAs, and VEGF-induced HUVECs were analyzed to determine the efficacy and mechanism of TSNGS on RA. RESULTS: Twenty-one compounds were identified in TSNGS. TSNGS (10, 50, or 250 mg/kg) reduced the severity of arthritis, indicated by a lower arthritis score, reduced paw swelling, and body weight in rats with CIA. TSNGS ameliorated histopathological changes involving inflammatory infiltration, bone degeneration, and angiogenesis in knee and ankle joints. TSNGS improved the immuno-inflammatory response by restoring the levels of the cytokines IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-17A, IL-4, and IL-10, and increasing the number of CD4+CD25+ Tregs in the peripheral circulation and Foxp3 levels in knee joints in rats with CIA. Furthermore, TSNGS increased the OPG/RANKL ratio and downregulated p-p65 in serum and joint synovia. Inhibition of angiogenesis by TSNGS was associated with recovery of the angiogenesis-related Ang/Tie-2 signaling pathway. CONCLUSIONS: It was established that TSNGS provides a therapeutic effect on RA by alleviating synovitis, bone degeneration, and angiogenesis via the OPG/RANKL/NF-κB and Ang/Tie-2 pathways and may be used for the treatment of RA.

3.
Lab Invest ; 2021 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34732848

RESUMO

Cardiac hypertrophy is a common cardiovascular disease that is found worldwide and is characterized by heart enlargement, eventually resulting in heart failure. Exploring the regulatory mechanism of cardiac hypertrophy is beneficial for understanding its pathogenesis and treatment. In our study, we have showed TINCR was downregulated and miR-211-3p was upregulated in TAC- or Ang II-induced models of cardiac hypertrophy. Dual luciferase and RIP assays revealed that TINCR served as a competitive endogenous RNA (ceRNA) for miR-211-3p. Then, we observed that knockdown of miR-211-3p alleviated TAC- or Ang II-induced cardiac hypertrophy both in vivo and in vitro. Mechanistically, we demonstrated that miR-211-3p directly targeted VEGFB and thus regulated the expression of SDF-1α and CXCR4. Rescue assays further confirmed that TINCR suppressed the progression of cardiac hypertrophy by competitively binding to miR-211-3p, thereby enhancing the expression of VEGFB and activating the VEGFB-SDF-1α- CXCR4 signal. Furthermore, overexpression of TINCR suppressed TAC-induced cardiac hypertrophy in vivo by targeting miR-211-3p-VEGFB-SDF-1α- CXCR4 signalling. In conclusion, our research suggests that LncRNA TINCR improves cardiac hypertrophy by targeting miR-211-3p, thus relieving its suppressive effects on the VEGFB-SDF-1α-CXCR4 signalling axis. TINCR and miR-211-3p might act as therapeutic targets for the treatment of cardiac hypertrophy.

4.
Bioengineered ; 2021 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34787072

RESUMO

To observe the effect of fat derived pellets (FDP) on wound healing in rats. METHODS: the inguinal fat of rats was obtained, and the FDP were obtained after centrifugation. The cell activity and growth factor secretion of FDP were measured. The wounds in rats were created and FDP was used to treat the wound of rats. The phenotype of macrophages and the expression of angiogenic factors expression in wounds were measured. RESULTS: the cell viability in FDP remains in high level after centrifugation and the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and Basic Fibroblast Growth Facto (bFGF) from FDP was observed in vitro. The FDP significantly promoted the wound healing of rats compared with that in control groups. Moreover, the expression of M2 macrophages and VEGF in FDP group were significantly higher than that in the control group. CONCLUSION: FDP is a kind of stem cell product which can be obtained from adipose tissue by physical centrifugation. The cytotherapeutic effect of FDP makes it a promising product for wound healing in clinics.

5.
Intensive Crit Care Nurs ; : 103134, 2021 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34750040

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Confronted with the potentially traumatic experience of a patients intensive care unit hospitalisation, family members may show positive changes associated with growth in addition to negative impact. This study aimed to identify the level of posttraumatic growth of the family members of neurosurgical intensive care unit patients and to explore its relation to positive personality characteristics, such as gratitude, resilience and hope. DESIGN AND SETTING: A cross-sectional study involving 340 family members of patients admitted to the neurosurgical intensive care unit at a general tertiary hospital in Shanghai, China. METHODS: Before the patients' hospital discharge, the participants completed questionnaires, assessing posttraumatic growth (PTG Inventory), social support (Social Support Rating Scale), resilience (Chinese version of the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale), hope (Herth Hope Index) and gratitude (Gratitude Questionnaire Six-Item Form). RESULTS: The mean total posttraumatic growth score was 73.38 (14.02). Hope, gratitude, resilience and social support showed a positive correlation with the posttraumatic growth Inventory scores. There were significant differences in the posttraumatic growth scores of the family members of neurosurgical intensive care patients with respect to their different religious beliefs, payment methods, family relationship quality and presence of chronic diseases among family members. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that gratitude, resilience and social support were independent predictors of the posttraumatic growth Inventory score. CONCLUSION: Family members may experience some degree of posttraumatic growth during hospitalisation of patients in the neurosurgical intensive care units. Gratitude, social support and resilience are predictive factors for posttraumatic growth.

6.
Transl Psychiatry ; 11(1): 568, 2021 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34744165

RESUMO

Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a serious mental illness. Increasing evidence from both animal and human studies suggested that the gut microbiota might be involved in the onset of depression via the gut-brain axis. However, the mechanism in depression remains unclear. To explore the protein changes of the gut-brain axis modulated by gut microbiota, germ-free mice were transplanted with gut microbiota from MDD patients to induce depression-like behaviors. Behavioral tests were performed following fecal microbiota transplantation. A quantitative proteomics approach was used to examine changes in protein expression in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), liver, cecum, and serum. Then differential protein analysis and weighted gene coexpression network analysis were used to identify microbiota-related protein modules. Our results suggested that gut microbiota induced the alteration of protein expression levels in multiple tissues of the gut-brain axis in mice with depression-like phenotype, and these changes of the PFC and liver were model specific compared to chronic stress models. Gene ontology enrichment analysis revealed that the protein changes of the gut-brain axis were involved in a variety of biological functions, including metabolic process and inflammatory response, in which energy metabolism is the core change of the protein network. Our data provide clues for future studies in the gut-brain axis on protein level and deepen the understanding of how gut microbiota cause depression-like behaviors.

7.
Cont Lens Anterior Eye ; : 101517, 2021 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34625345

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the relationship between myopia progression and axial length (AL) elongation in orthokeratology (ortho-k) patients. METHODS: This study investigated 184 patients (baseline age 9.0 ± 1.6 years), who underwent overnight ortho-k treatment for 12 to 72 months, and stopped lens wear for 1 to 2 months. Refractive sphere and cylinder after cycloplegia, corneal curvatures along both meridians, and AL were compared before the commencement and after discontinuation of ortho-k treatment. The effects of AL change, baseline AL, corneal curvature change, baseline age, and duration of ortho-k treatment on the change in spherical equivalent refractive error (SER) were analysed. RESULTS: Myopia significantly progressed and AL increased following 32.8 ± 13.0 months of ortho-k lens wear and 1 to 2 months washout period, as compared to baseline (all P < 0.001). Corneal curvature along the flat meridian (FK) became significantly flatter (P < 0.001) and corneal curvature along the steep meridian (SK) became steeper (P = 0.036). In the first stepwise multiple linear regression model (R2 = 0.696), the change in SER over time (ΔSER) is significantly correlated to the change in AL (ΔAL, P < 0.001), baseline AL (P < 0.001), baseline age (P = 0.028), change in SK (P = 0.002), and the duration of ortho-k lens treatment before discontinuation (P = 0.010). In a more simplified model (R2 = 0.628), the regression equation using ΔAL to predict ΔSER is: ΔSER = -0.094-1.608*ΔAL. CONCLUSIONS: The change in SER was significantly correlated to the change in AL, change in SK, baseline AL, baseline age, and the duration of treatment among children undergoing ortho-k therapy. The ratio of axial elongation to myopia progression was approximately 1:1.6 between the ages of 6 to 14 years. A simplified equation was derived for clinical use to estimate myopia progression from repeated AL measurement in ortho-k patients.

8.
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu ; 41(10): 1109-12, 2021 Oct 12.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34628743

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of moxibustion combined with Daiwenjiu plaster on mental disorder and self rating symptoms in close contacts of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) during quarantine. METHODS: A total of 240 close contacts of COVID-19 were randomized into an observation group (120 cases, 18 cases dropped off) and a control group (120 cases, 58 cases dropped off). Conventional observation was adopted in the control group. Moxibustion combined with Daiwenjiu plaster was given in the observation group, moxibustion was applied at Zusanli (ST 36), Hegu (LI 4) and Shenque (CV 8), 10 min each acupoint, once a day; Daiwenjiu plaster was applied at Dazhui (GV 14) and Feishu (BL 13) for 3 to 6 h each time, once every 2 days, the treatment was required for 2 weeks. Before and after treatment and in the follow-up of 2 weeks after treatment, self-reporting questionnaire 20 (SRQ-20), self-rating anxiety scale (SAS) scores and self rating symptoms were evaluated in the two groups. RESULTS: In the follow-up, SRQ-20 score was decreased compared before treatment (P<0.01), SAS score was decreased compared before and after treatment (P<0.01, P<0.05) in the observation group. After treatment and in the follow-up, SRQ-20 scores in the observation group were lower than those in the control group (P<0.05, P<0.01). After treatment, the case proportion of fatigue in the observation group was higher than that in the control group (P<0.05). In the follow-up, the case proportion of tension was lower than that in the control group (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: Moxibustion combined with Daiwenjiu plaster can effectively improve the mental disorder in close contacts of COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Transtornos Mentais , Moxibustão , Pontos de Acupuntura , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2
9.
J Palliat Med ; 2021 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34637349

RESUMO

Background: Palliative care (PC) services expanded rapidly to meet the needs of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients, yet little is known about which patients were referred for PC consultation during the pandemic. Objective: Examine factors predictive of PC consultation for COVID-19 patients. Design: Retrospective cohort study of COVID-19 patients discharged from four hospitals (March 1-June 30, 2020). Exposures: Patient demographic, socioeconomic, and clinical factors and hospital-level characteristics. Outcome Measurement: Inpatient PC consultation. Results: Of 4319 hospitalized COVID-19 patients, 581 (14%) received PC consultation. Increasing age, serious illness (cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and dementia), greater illness severity, and admission to the quaternary hospital were associated with receipt of PC consultation. There was no association between PC consultation and race/ethnicity, household crowding, insurance status, or hospital-factors, including inpatient, emergency department, and intensive care unit census. Conclusions: Although site variation existed, the highest acuity patients were most likely to receive PC consultation without racial/ethnic or socioeconomic disparities.

10.
J Fungi (Basel) ; 7(10)2021 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34682217

RESUMO

Fusarium wilt of banana (FWB) is the main threatening factor for banana production worldwide. To explore bacterial biocontrol resources for FWB, the antagonistic effective strains were isolated from banana-producing areas in Yunnan Province, China. Two isolates (YN0904 and YN1419) displaying strong antagonism against Tropical Race 4 (TR4) were identified from a total of 813 strains of endophytic bacteria. TR4 inhibition rates of YN0904 and YN1419 were 79.6% and 81.3%, respectively. By looking at morphological, molecular, physiological and biochemical characteristics, YN0904 was identified as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, while YN1419 was identified as B. subtillis. The control effects of YN0904 and YN1419 on TR4 in greenhouse experiments were 82.6% and 85.6%, respectively. Furthermore, YN0904 obviously promoted the growth of banana plantlets. In addition, biocontrol marker genes related to the biosynthesis of antibiotics synthesized and auxin key synthetase genes could be detected in YN0904. Surprisingly, the marker gene sboA could be exclusively detected in YN1419, while other marker genes were all absent. Molecular characterization results could provide a theoretical basis for expounding the biocontrol mechanisms of these two strains. We concluded that natively antagonistic strains derived from local banana plantations could provide new biological control resources for FWB.

11.
J Genet Genomics ; 2021 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34687945

RESUMO

The soaring global prevalence of diabetes makes it urgent to explore new drugs with high efficacy and safety. Nanomaterial-derived bioactive agents are emerging as one of the most promising candidates for biomedical application. In the present study, we investigated the anti-diabetic effects of a functionalized gadofullerene (GF) using obese db/db and non-obese MKR mouse T2DM models. In both mouse models, the diabetic phenotypes including hyperglycemia, impaired glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity were ameliorated following 2 or 4 weeks of i.p. administration of GF. GF lowered blood glucose levels in a dose-dependent manner. Importantly, the restored blood glucose levels could persist 10 days after withdrawal of GF treatment. The hepatic AKT/GSK3ß/FoxO1 pathway is shown to be the main target of GF for re-balancing gluconeogenesis and glycogen synthesis in vivo and in vitro. In addition, GF treatment significantly reduced weight gain of db/db mice with reduced hepatic fat storage by the inhibition of de novo lipogenesis through mTOR/S6K/SREBP1 pathway. Our data provide compelling evidence to support the promising application of GF for the treatment of T2DM.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34707679

RESUMO

Premature ovarian insufficiency (POI) is characterized by the loss of ovarian function before 40 years of age and affects approximately 1% of women worldwide. Caragana sinica is a traditional Miao (a Chinese ethnic minority) medicine that improves ovarian function and follicular development. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the effect of active ingredients of C. sinica on POI and determine underlying mechanisms. Herein, the chemical composition of the C. sinica compound was analyzed using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography, which identified hyperin (HR) as one of the main ingredients in C. sinica. Then, interaction targets of HR and POI were predicted and analyzed using network pharmacology and bioinformatics. The effect of HR on triptolide (TP)-induced granulosa cell injury was evaluated, and the underlying mechanism was explored based on bioinformatic results. A total of 100 interaction targets for POI and HR were obtained. The protein-protein interaction network of identified interaction targets emphasized the topological importance of AKT1. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis revealed that HR might regulate POI by modulating the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway. In addition, the KEGG graph of the mTOR signaling pathway revealed that AKT phosphorylation inhibits the TSC1/2, while TSC1/2 activation inhibits the expression of mTORC1. The fundamental experiment revealed that HR increased proliferation, progesterone receptor levels, and estradiol levels decreased by TP in KGN cells. Additionally, HR alleviated TP-induced apoptosis and G1/G1 phase arrest in KGN cells. Western blotting demonstrated that HR increased the phosphorylation of AKT and mTORC1 and decreased TSC1 expression in TP-induced KGN cells. Collectively, our findings revealed that HR alleviates TP-induced granulosa cell injury by regulating AKT/TSC1/mTORC1 signaling, providing insight into the treatment of POI.

13.
Comput Math Methods Med ; 2021: 5799348, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34646335

RESUMO

The biological mechanism underlying the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) remains unclear. In this study, we found 21 proteins upregulated and 38 proteins downregulated by SLE relative to normal protein metabolism in our samples using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. By PPI network analysis, we identified 9 key proteins of SLE, including AHSG, VWF, IGF1, ORM2, ORM1, SERPINA1, IGF2, IGFBP3, and LEP. In addition, we identified 4569 differentially expressed metabolites in SLE sera, including 1145 reduced metabolites and 3424 induced metabolites. Bioinformatics analysis showed that protein alterations in SLE were associated with modulation of multiple immune pathways, TP53 signaling, and AMPK signaling. In addition, we found altered metabolites associated with valine, leucine, and isoleucine biosynthesis; one carbon pool by folate; tyrosine metabolism; arginine and proline metabolism; glycine, serine, and threonine metabolism; limonene and pinene degradation; tryptophan metabolism; caffeine metabolism; vitamin B6 metabolism. We also constructed differently expressed protein-metabolite network to reveal the interaction among differently expressed proteins and metabolites in SLE. A total of 481 proteins and 327 metabolites were included in this network. Although the role of altered metabolites and proteins in the diagnosis and therapy of SLE needs to be further investigated, the present study may provide new insights into the role of metabolites in SLE.

14.
J Basic Microbiol ; 2021 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34651331

RESUMO

The production and use of antibiotics are becoming increasingly common worldwide, and the problem of antibiotic resistance is increasing alarmingly. Drug-resistant infections threaten human life and health and impose a heavy burden on the global economy. The origin and molecular basis of bacterial resistance is the presence of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). Investigations on ARGs mostly focus on the environments in which antibiotics are frequently used, such as hospitals and farms. This literature review summarizes the current knowledge of the occurrence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in nonclinical environments, such as air, aircraft wastewater, migratory bird feces, and sea areas in-depth, which have rarely been involved in previous studies. Furthermore, the mechanism of action of plasmid and phage during horizontal gene transfer was analyzed, and the transmission mechanism of ARGs was summarized. This review highlights the new mechanisms that enhance antibiotic resistance and the evolutionary background of multidrug resistance; in addition, some promising points for controlling or reducing the occurrence and spread of antimicrobial resistance are also proposed.

15.
Opt Express ; 29(18): 29228-29241, 2021 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34615037

RESUMO

This paper shows a strategy to realize ultra-broadband absorption of multi-spectral coverage. A vertical cascaded plasmonic absorber constructed by multilayer helical metallic nanostructure wrapped in a pyramid-shaped dielectric jacket is presented and investigated by numerical simulations. By premeditated planning of the scale proportions of the spirals and the dimension size of the pyramid-shaped dielectric, more than 90% of absorption is realized in 189-3896 nm, an ultra-wide spectral range that basically covers the bands of near-ultraviolet, visible light, and near-infrared. The excitation mechanism of electromagnetic resonance and the formation process of light trapping are both included in the investigation through the analysis of electromagnetic field distribution. The localized surface plasmon mode in the metallic nano-spiral and the Fabry-Perot cavity mode with the gap plasmon resonance in the dielectric gap cooperatively make a significant contribution to reduce the reflection and form the ultra-broadband absorption. The simulation results show that the proposed absorber is basically insensitive to the incident angle and polarization angle, which basically keeps more than 90% absorption within the incident angle of ± 80 °. Such a specific implementation idea can also be applied to the terahertz region by modifying the geometrical size of the structure. This presented design implies new viability to develop the broadband photodetectors, solar cells, and thermal emitters.

16.
New Phytol ; 2021 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34651321

RESUMO

Exogenous application of CLAVATA3 (CLV3)/EMBRYO SURROUNDING REGION (CLE) peptides suppresses protophloem differentiation and leads to the consumption of the proximal root meristem. However, the exact CLE peptides and the corresponding receptor complex regulating protophloem differentiation have not yet been clarified. Through expression pattern and phylogenetic analyses, CLE25/26/45 were identified as candidate peptides. Further genetic analyses, physiological assays and specific protophloem marker observations indicated that CLE25/26/45, BARELY ANY MERISTEM1/3 (BAM1/3) and CLV3 INSENSITIVE KINASEs (CIKs) are involved in regulating protophloem differentiation. The cle25 26 45 and cik2 3 4 5 6 mutation can greatly rescue the root defects of brevis radix (brx) and octopus (ops) mutants. The protophloem differentiation and proximal root meristem consumption of clv1 bam1 3 and cik2 3 4 5 6 were insensitive to CLE25/26/45 treatments. cle25 26 45, clv1 bam1 3 and cik2 3 4 5 6 displayed similar premature protophloem. In addition, CLE25/26/45 induced the interactions between BAMs and CIKs in vivo. Furthermore, CLE25/26/45 enhanced the phosphorylation levels of CIKs, which were greatly impaired in clv1 bam1 3 mutant. Our work clarifies that the CLE25/26/45-BAM1/3-CIK2/3/4/5/6 signalling module genetically acts downstream of BRX and OPS to suppress protophloem differentiation.

17.
J Sci Food Agric ; 2021 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34708426

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Excessive dietary salt intake is related to an increased risk of hypertension. Dietary functional foods probably could help to improve salt-induced hypertension. In this study, Dahl salt-sensitive (DSS) rats were used to investigate their metabolic differences from those of salt-resistant SS.13BN rats and determine whether dietary protein-rich almonds could ameliorate salt-induced elevation of blood pressure in DSS rats. RESULTS: After high-salt intake, the systolic blood pressure and mean arterial pressure of the DSS rats increased dramatically. Metabolomics analysis indicated abnormal amino acid metabolism in their kidneys. Their renal nitric oxide (NO) content and nitric oxide synthase activity decreased significantly after high-salt diet. Oxidative stress also occurred in DSS rats. After the DSS rats received almond supplementation, the levels of various amino acids in their kidney increased, and renal arginine and NO contents were upregulated. Their renal hydrogen peroxide and malonaldehyde levels decreased, whereas renal catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities and glutathione levels increased. CONCLUSION: The renal abnormal amino acid metabolism of DSS rats contributed to the impaired NO production in response to high-salt intake. Together with salt-induced oxidative stress, high-salt diet intake ultimately led to an increase in the blood pressure of DSS rats. Protein-rich almond supplementation might prevent the development of salt-induced hypertension by restoring arginine and NO regeneration and alleviating salt-induced oxidative stress. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.

18.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 2021 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34665571

RESUMO

Backgrounds: Azithromycin mass drug administration (MDA) is a key part of the strategy for controlling trachoma. This systematic review aimed to comprehensively summarize the present studies of azithromycin MDA on trachoma; provide an overview of the impact of azithromycin MDA on trachoma in different districts; and explore the possible methods to enhance the effectiveness of azithromycin MDA in hyperendemic districts. Methods: PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Web of Science, and ClinicalTrials.gov were searched up to February 2021 with no language restriction. Studies reporting the effect of azithromycin MDA on trachoma were included. Mathematical modeling studies, animal studies, case reports, and reviews were excluded. The trachomatous inflammation-follicular (TF) <5.0% was used to judge the effect of azithromycin MDA on eliminating trachoma as a public health problem. Two researchers independently conducted the selection process and risk of bias assessment. Results: A total of 1543 studies were screened, of which 67 studies including 13 cluster-randomized controlled trials and 54 non-randomized studies were included. The effect of azithromycin MDA on trachoma was closely related to the baseline prevalence in districts. For the districts with baseline prevalence between 5.0% and 9.9%, a single round of MDA achieved a TF <5.0%. For the districts with baseline between 10.0% and 29.9%, annual MDA for 3 to 5 years reduced TF <5.0%. However, for the districts with high level of baseline prevalence (TF >30.0%), especially with baseline TF >50.0%, annual MDA was unable to achieve the TF <5.0% even after 5 to 7 years of treatment. Quarterly MDA is more effective in controlling trachoma in these hyperendemic districts. Conclusions: Azithromycin MDA for controlling trachoma depends on the baseline prevalence. The recommendation by the World Health Organization that annual MDA for 3 to 5 years in the districts with TF baseline >10.0% is not appropriate for all eligible districts.

19.
Life Sci ; 286: 120005, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34606850

RESUMO

Renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) is a leading cause of acute kidney injury (AKI) and may influence renal graft survival. In this study, we investigate the involvement of SIRT3 and DRP1 in mitochondrial autophagy and AKI in a mouse model of IRI. Autophagy was detected in the absence of SIRT3, and hypoxic reoxygenation (H/R) experiments using renal tubular epithelial cells NRK52E were performed in vitro to validate these results. We found that autophagosomes increased following IRI and that the expression of autophagy-related genes was up-regulated. The inhibition of autophagy with 3-methyladenine exacerbated IRI, whereas the DRP1 inhibitor Mdivi-1 reversed this inhibition. Mdivi-1 did not reverse the inhibition of autophagy in the absence of SIRT3. During IRI, Mdivi-1 reduced autophagy and DRP1 expression, whereas SIRT3 overexpression attenuated this condition. Rescue experiment showed that autophagy was increased when both SIRT3 or DRP1 were over- or under-expressed or just DRP1 was under-expressed but expression was reduced when just SIRT3 was under-expressed. However, the expression of DRP1-related molecules was reduced when SIRT3 was overexpressed and when DRP1 was under-expressed. Taken together, these findings indicate that SIRT3 protects against kidney damage from IRI by modulating the DRP1 pathway to induce mitochondrial autophagy.

20.
Langmuir ; 37(39): 11637-11645, 2021 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34550696

RESUMO

To enable area-selective atomic layer deposition (AS-ALD), self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) have been used as the surface inhibitor to block a variety of ALD processes. The integrity of the SAM throughout the ALD process is critical to AS-ALD. Despite the demonstrated effectiveness of inhibition by SAMs, nucleation during ALD eventually occurs on SAM-protected surfaces, but its impact on SAM structures is still not fully understood. In this study, we chose the octadecyltrichlorosilane (ODTS) SAM as a model system to investigate the evolution of crystallinity and structure of SAMs before and after ALD. The breakdown behavior of SAMs when exposed to ZnO and Al2O3 ALD was systematically studied by combining synchrotron X-ray techniques and electron microscopy. We show that the crystallinity and structure of ODTS SAMs grown on Si substrates remain intact until a significant amount of material deposition takes place. In addition, the undesired ALD materials that grow on ODTS SAMs present contrasting morphologies: dispersed nanoparticles for ZnO while relatively continuous film for Al2O3. Lastly, substrate dependency was explored by comparing a Si substrate to single-crystal sapphire. Similar results in the evolution of SAM crystallinity and formation of ALD nuclei on top of SAM are observed in the ODTS-sapphire system. This study provides an in-depth view of the influence of ALD processes on the SAM structure and the nucleation behavior of ALD on SAM-protected surfaces.

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