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1.
Appl Radiat Isot ; 157: 109042, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32063335

RESUMO

In response to the urgent requirement of material screening in rare event experiments, a new ARray of GermaniUm γ-ray Spectrometer (ARGUS) is planned to be established in China Jinping Underground Laboratory (CJPL). The spectrometer was optimized with Monte Carlo simulation using Geant4. Five HPGe detectors were combined in ARGUS for higher efficiency. Two shielding systems, one with liquid nitrogen, the other with lead plus copper were evaluated. With the combination of multiple detectors, low activity materials and the optimized design of shielding systems, the decision threshold at the level of 10µBq/kg for 238U/232Th decay chain could be achieved.

2.
Blood Purif ; : 1-10, 2020 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32050204

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Cardiac valve calcification (CVC) is frequently occurred in maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients and is associated with cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. This study aimed to evaluate the relationships between risk factors and extent of CVC and further provide the treatment target in MHD patients. METHODS: One hundred and forty-five patients who received MHD ≥3 months were enrolled. CVC was assessed by an echocardiographic, semi-quantitative manner called global cardiac calcium scoring system (GCCS), and demographic, clinical, and laboratory parameters including mineral metabolism markers were collected. RESULTS: The average age of the patients was 50 ± 12 years, and 54.5% were men. The mean GCCS was 1.8 ± 2.4; 57.2% of patients had GCCS ≥1. Age, dialysis vintage, serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and intact parathyroid hormone levels were positively correlated with CVC, whereas serum albumin levels were negatively related to CVC, based on univariate analysis. With multivariate linear regression analysis, serum ALP was the only bone-derived biomarker that showed significant correlation with CVC. Serum ALP ≥232 U/L was a robust predictor of CVC and was associated with the likelihood of GCCS ≥1 (OR 3.92, 95% CI 1.37-11.2, p = 0.011). The decision tree model was used to identify ALP ≥232 U/L and age ≥60 years as important determinative variables in the prediction of CVC in MHD patients. CONCLUSION: Serum ALP level is significantly associated with CVC in MHD patients. ALP is suggested to be a promising interventional target for cardiovascular calcification in MHD patients.

3.
DNA Cell Biol ; 2020 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32077754

RESUMO

In this study, we aimed at exploring and validating the prognostic value of PLA2G4A expression in patients with non-M3/nucleophosmin (NPM1) wildtype (WT) acute myeloid leukemia (AML) by using two independent datasets. Data from the Cancer Genome Atlas-acute myeloid leukemia (TCGA-LAML) and the therapeutically applicable research to generate effective treatments (TARGET)-AML were used to assess the prognostic value of PLA2G4A in NPM1-WT AML cases. Results showed that non-M3 AML cases had significantly increased PLA2G4A expression compared with normal peripheral blood samples. Patients with high PLA2G4A expression (separated by median gene expression) had a significantly shorter overall survival (OS) compared with the group with low PLA2G4A expression, in both TCGA-LAML and TARGET-AML. Multivariate analysis showed that high PLA2G4A expression was independently associated with shorter OS in 97 non-M3/NPM1-WT AML cases in TCGA-LAML (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.946, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.094-3.462, q = 0.036). The prognostic value was validated based on 120 primary non-M3/NPM1-WT AML cases in TARGET-AML (HR: 1.518, 95% CI: 1.037-2.223, q = 0.048). Therefore, PLA2G4A expression might serve as an independent prognostic marker in OS in patients with non-M3/NPM1 WT AML. Bioinformatic analysis identified that several proteins physically interacted with PLA2G4A, some of which have well-characterized oncogenic properties in AML, such as RUVBL2, cytoskeleton regulatory protein 1 (CAP1), signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), and MYCBP. Therefore, we hypothesized that PLA2G4A upregulation has multiple effects on the malignant phenotype of AML cells together with its partners. Future molecular studies are required to explore the detailed regulatory network involved.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32078016

RESUMO

Tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) have been tested in various clinical trials in cancer treatment but the patterns of specific T cell response to personalized TAA immunization remains to be fully understood. We report antigen-specific T cell responses in patients immunized with dendritic cell vaccines pulsed with personalized TAA panels. Tumor samples from patients were first analyzed to identify overexpressed TAAs. Autologous DCs were then transfected with pre-manufactured mRNAs encoding the full-length TAAs, overexpressed in the patients' tumors. Patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) or advanced lung cancer received DC vaccines transfected with personalized TAA panels, in combination with low-dose cyclophosphamide, poly I:C, imiquimod and anti-PD-1 antibody. Antigen-specific T cell responses were measured. Safety and efficacy were evaluated. A total of ten patients were treated with DC vaccines transfected with personalized TAA panels containing 3-13 different TAAs. Among the seven patients tested for anti-TAA T cell responses, most of the TAAs induced antigen-specific CD4+ and/or CD8+ T cell responses, regardless of their expression levels in the tumor tissues. No Grade III/IV adverse events were observed among these patients. Furthermore, the treated patients were associated with favorable overall survival when compared to patients who received standard treatment in the same institution. Personalized TAA immunization-induced-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses without obvious autoimmune adverse events and was associated with favorable overall survival. These results support further studies on DC immunization with personalized TAA panels for combined immunotherapeutic regimens in solid tumor patients.Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02709616 (March, 2016), NCT02808364 (June 2016), NCT02808416 (June, 2016).

5.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Res ; 1867(5): 118665, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32007529

RESUMO

Eukaryotic genomes are packaged into highly condensed chromatin and this repressive chromatin barrier can be overcome by altering the chromatin structure via histone modification enzymes. Here, we report Wdr70 in Schizosaccharomyces pombe (spWdr70) plays important roles in multiple cellular processes including cell cycle progression, chromatin structure and DNA repair. Depletion of Wdr70 gene causes cell cycle delay, hypersensitivity to DNA damage reagents and quick phenotypic changes. Moreover, we observed strong genetic interaction between Wdr70 and genes regulating checkpoint and homologous recombination (HR), pinpointing the function of Wdr70 to DNA end resection. Finally, we show that the function of Wdr70 could be attributed to monoubiquitination of histone H2B (uH2B) in the vicinity of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs). Taken together, our data reveal that Wdr70 and H2B monoubiquitination-dependent chromatin modulation is required for chromatin homeostasis and genetic stability.

6.
Org Lett ; 22(4): 1331-1335, 2020 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32009417

RESUMO

Ru(II)-catalyzed direct alkylation of tertiary phosphines via hydroarylation of activated olefins promoted by mono-N-protected amino acid (MPAA) was achieved. This protocol provides a straightforward access to a large library of Buchwald-type bulky alkylated monophosphines from commercially available biaryl phosphine. Moreover, two ruthenacycle intermediates of tertiary phosphines via C-H bond cleavage were isolated to illustrate the mechanism of P(III)-directed C-H activation.

7.
Ren Fail ; 42(1): 66-76, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31928297

RESUMO

Purpose: Microwave ablation (MWA) is feasible for severe renal secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) and primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) patients ineligible for parathyroidectomy (PTX). Here we compared the clinical manifestations and characteristics of parathyroid glands in these two groups, and summarized the techniques, safety and efficacy of MWA.Methods: Baseline clinical characteristics, ablation-related techniques, adverse events/complications, and efficacy were recorded.Results: In SHPT group, malnutrition, cardiovascular/pulmonary complications, and abnormal bone metabolism were severe. SHPT patients had more hyperplastic parathyroid glands. The volume of each gland was smaller, and the time of ablation for a single parathyroid was shorter in the SHPT group, although there were no significant differences compared with patients in the PHPT group. Three patients in both groups had recurrent laryngeal nerve injuries and all recovered, except for one SHPT patient. By the end of follow-up, serum iPTH levels had decreased from 2400.26 ± 844.26 pg/mL to 429.39 ± 407.93 pg/mL (p < .01) in SHPT and from 297.73 ± 295.32 pg/mL to 72.22 ± 36.51 pg/mL in PHPT group (p < .01). Hypocalcemia was more common (p < .001) and serum iPTH levels were prone to rebound in SHPT patients after MWA.Conclusion: MWA can be reserved for those who had high surgical risks because of less invasiveness. Injuries of recurrent laryngeal nerves should be noticed. The health status, perioperative, and intraoperative procedures were more complicated and all parathyroids found by ultrasound should be ablated completely in SHPT patients.

8.
Reproduction ; 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31967970

RESUMO

Maintenance of a suitable uterine milieu is important for embryo development and subsequent implantation during early pregnancy. High estrogen level in proestrous and estrous stages is essential for uterine anti-bacterial activity during preimplantation period. Lipocalin-2 is an essential molecule which prevents bacterial infection by sequestering iron. In this study, the highest expression of lipocalin-2 is observed in the endometrial epithelium on day 1 of normal pregnancy and pseudopregnancy, which exhibit a similar hormone scenario. By injecting the agonists for estrogen receptors α and estrogen receptor ß in ovariectomized mice, we found estrogen receptor α is the dominant isoform for estrogen regulation on lipocalin-2 expression. Estrogen treatment in estrogen receptor α knockout mice further confirmed the role of estrogen receptor α. Using published data from whole-genome estrogen receptor α binding site assay, significant estrogen receptor α recruitment peaks are found at the downstream of lipocalin-2 gene after estrogen treatment. Furthermore, to study the anti-bacterial activity of lipocalin-2 in uterus, Escherichia coli is injected to mimic bacterial infection. Our results showed an obvious induction of lipocalin-2 in Escherichia coli-treated group. Taken together, this study indicates estrogen regulation of lipocalin-2 in uterine epithelium is mediated by estrogen receptor , and lipocalin-2 may have anti-bacterial activity during early pregnancy.

9.
Clin Nephrol ; 93(2): 65-76, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31793871

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes of urinary kidney injury molecule-1(uKIM-1) in chronic kidney disease (CKD) at different stages, and to determine the relationships between uKIM-1 and circulating bone metabolism markers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study included CKD patients (n = 121) and controls (n = 65). CKD stages were assigned to each individual according to their estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), which was calculated with the modification of diet in renal disease (MDRD) equation. We evaluated the relationships of bone metabolism markers (including calcium, phosphorus, intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH), 25 hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), and α-Klotho), uKIM-1, and eGFR. We also compared the levels of bone metabolism markers and uKIM-1 at different CKD stages. The uKIM-1 level was standardized with urine creatinine (uCr). RESULTS: Compared with healthy controls, CKD patients had higher levels of uKIM-1/uCr, serum creatinine, urea, phosphorus, iPTH, and plasma FGF23, whereas they had lower levels of serum calcium, α-Klotho, and plasma 25(OH)D. In CKD patients, eGFR was positively correlated with levels of serum calcium, α-Klotho, and plasma 25(OH)D, whereas it was negatively correlated with serum phosphorus, iPTH, plasma FGF23, and uKIM-1/uCr. Serum calcium and α-Klotho were significantly decreased in patients with stage 5 CKD compared to those with stage 1 CKD. Serum phosphorus, iPTH, and plasma FGF23 were significantly elevated in patients with stage 4 CKD when compared to those with stage 1 CKD. UKIM-1/uCr was significantly elevated in patients with stage 5 CKD when compared to those with stage 1 CKD. In CKD patients, uKIM-1/uCr levels were positively correlated with levels of serum phosphorus and plasma FGF23, whereas they were negatively correlated with serum calcium and plasma 25(OH)D. CONCLUSION: UKIM-1/uCr levels are increased with the deterioration of CKD stage and are correlated with the development of CKD-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD).

10.
Chemistry ; 26(3): 721-728, 2020 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31633255

RESUMO

Dehydration of (S,S)-1,2-bis(1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)ethane-1,2-diol (H4 L) to (Z)-1,2-bis(1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)ethenol) (H3 L') was found to be metal-assisted, occurs under solvothermal conditions (H2 O/CH3 OH), and leads to [MnII 4 (H3 L)4 Cl2 ]Cl2 ⋅5 H2 O⋅5 CH3 OH (Mn4 L4 ) and [MnII 4 (H2 L')6 (µ3 -OH)]Cl⋅4 CH3 OH⋅H2 O (Mn4 L'6 ), respectively. Their structures were determined by single-crystal XRD. Extensive ESI-MS studies on solutions and solids of the reaction led to the proposal consisting of an initial stepwise assembly of Mn4 L4 from the reactants via [MnL] and [Mn2 L2 ] below 80 °C, and then disassembly to [MnL] and [MnL2 ] followed by ligand modification before reassembly to Mn4 L'6 via [MnL'], [MnL'2 ], and [Mn2 L'3 ] with increasing solvothermal temperature up to 140 °C. Identification of intermediates [Mn4 Lx L'6-x ] (x=5, 4, 3, 2, 1) in the process further suggested an assembly/disassembly/in situ reaction/reassembly transformation mechanism. These results not only reveal that multiple phase transformations are possible even though they were not realized in the crystalline state, but also help to better understand the complex transformation process between coordination clusters during "black-box" reactions.

11.
Oral Oncol ; 100: 104448, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31630920

RESUMO

Tubulopapillary hidradenoma-like tumor of the mandible is extremely rare, with only 3 cases published in the English-language literature. The clinicopathological characteristics and histogenesis of this tumor are unclear. Few pathologists and perhaps fewer clinicians are familiar with this entity, and it is likely underrecognized and under-reported. Herein, we present two additional cases, both misdiagnosed as malignancies preoperatively and postoperatively by different unwary pathologists. Awareness and knowledge of this enigmatic entity and its clinical and radiographic features, together with careful morphological assessment should enable the correct diagnosis and prevent unnecessary treatment.

12.
J Pharm Sci ; 109(1): 422-428, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31469998

RESUMO

Isomerization of surface-exposed aspartic acid (Asp) in the complementarity-determining regions of therapeutic proteins could potentially impact their target binding affinity because of the sensitive location, and often requires complex analytical tactics to understand its effect on structure-function and stability. Inaccurate quantitation of Asp-isomerized variants, especially the succinimide intermediate, presents major challenge in understanding Asp degradation kinetics, its stability, and consequently establishing a robust control strategy. As a practical solution to this problem, a comprehensive analytical tool kit has been developed, which provides a solution to fully characterize and accurately quantify the Asp-related product variants. The toolkit offers a combination of 2 steps, an ion-exchange chromatography method to separate and enrich the isomerized variants in the folded structure for structure-function evaluation and a novel focused peptide mapping method to quantify the individual complementarity-determining region isomerization components including the unmodified Asp, succinimide, and isoaspartate. This novel procedure allowed an accurate quantification of each Asp-related variant and a comprehensive assessment of the functional impact of Asp isomerization, which ultimately helped to establish an appropriate control strategy for this critical quality attribute.

13.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol ; 20(4): 2259-2266, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31492235

RESUMO

N-doped SnO2 nanowires were synthesized via chemical vapor deposition in the presence of NH3 gas with SnO2 nanowires as the precursor. All samples exhibited room-temperature ferromagnetism (FM). X-ray diffraction measurement showed that the FM is intrinsic. Results of vibrating sample magnetometry indicated that FM decreased along with increasing NH3 flow rate. Further analysis by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed that the N atom was substituted at the lattice site of O, and NH3 was chemisorbed in the surface of samples. The chemisorbed NH3 was the dominant ingredient and main factor causing the significant decrease in FM. However, the FM of the samples after etching was enhanced due to the doped N atoms.

14.
J Endocrinol ; 244(1): 177-187, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31600723

RESUMO

Glucocorticoids (GCs) are essential for mouse embryo implantation and decidualization. Excess GCs are harmful for mouse embryo implantation and decidualization. 11ß-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases type I and II (Hsd11b1/Hsd11b2) are main enzymes for regulating local level of GCs. Hsd11b2 acts as the placental glucocorticoid barrier to protect the fetus from excessive exposure. Although effects of GCs on the fetus and placenta in late pregnancy have been extensively studied, the effects of these adrenal corticosteroids in early pregnancy are far less well defined. Therefore, we examined the expression, regulation and function of Hsd11b1/Hsd11b2 in mouse uterus during early pregnancy. We found that Hsd11b2 is highly expressed in endometrial stromal cells on days 3 and 4 of pregnancy and mainly upregulated by progesterone (P4). In both ovariectomized mice and cultured stromal cells, P4 significantly stimulates Hsd11b2 expression. P4 stimulation of Hsd11b2 is mainly mediated by the Ihh pathway. The uterine level of corticosterone (Cort) is regulated by Hsd11b2 during preimplantation. Embryo development and the number of inner cell mass cells are suppressed by Cort treatment. These results indicate that P4 should provide a low Cort environment for the development of preimplantation mouse embryos by promoting the expression of uterine Hsd11b2.

15.
Cell Prolif ; : e12737, 2019 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31821660

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Embryo implantation needs a reciprocal interaction between competent embryo and receptive endometrium. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) produced by stressed or injured cells acts as an important signalling molecule. This study aims to investigate whether adenosine triphosphate (ATP) plays an important role in the dialogue of human blastocyst-endometrium. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The concentration of lactate was analysed in culture medium from human embryos collected from in vitro fertilization patients. Extracellular ATP was measured by ATP Bioluminescent Assay Kit. Ishikawa cells and T-HESCs were treated with ATP, ATP receptor antagonist, ATP hydrolysis enzyme or inhibitors of ATP metabolic enzymes. The levels of gene expression were evaluated by real-time PCR and immunoassay. RESULTS: We showed that injured human endometrial epithelial cells could rapidly release ATP into the extracellular environment as an important signalling molecule. In addition, blastocyst-derived lactate induces the release of non-lytic ATP from human endometrial receptive epithelial cells via connexins. Extracellular ATP stimulates the secretion of IL8 from epithelial cells to promote the process of in vitro decidualization. Extracellular ATP could also directly promote the decidualization of human endometrial stromal cells via P2Y-purinoceptors. More importantly, the supernatants of injured epithelial cells clearly induce the decidualization of stromal cells in time-dependent manner. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that ATP should play an important role in human blastocyst-endometrium dialogue for the initiation of decidualization.

16.
Technol Cancer Res Treat ; 18: 1533033819887981, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31829099

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: PTTG3P, which maps to chromosome 8q13.1, is a novel long noncoding RNA with oncogenic properties in cancers. In this study, we aimed to investigate the prognostic value of PTTG3P in terms of overall survival and recurrence-free survival and its potential regulatory network and transcription pattern in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. PATIENTS AND METHODS: An in silico analysis was performed using data from the Cancer Genome Atlas-Liver Hepatocellular Carcinoma. RESULTS: Results showed that the high PTTG3P expression group was consistently associated with shorter overall survival and recurrence-free survival, regardless of pathological stages or tumor grade. High PTTG3P expression was an independent indicator of shorter overall survival (hazard ratio: 2.177, 95% confidence interval: 1.519-3.121, P < .001) and recurrence-free survival (hazard ratio: 2.222, 95% confidence interval: 1.503-3.283, P < .001). The genes strongly coexpressed with PTTG3P are enriched in several KEGG pathways that are closely associated with carcinogenesis and malignant transformation of hepatocellular carcinoma. CONCLUSION: Based on the findings, we infer that PTTG3P expression might serve as an independent prognostic biomarker in primary hepatocellular carcinoma.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31775384

RESUMO

By collecting the panel data of 29 regions in China from 2008 to 2017, this study used the spatial Durbin model (SDM) to explore the spatial effect of PM2.5 exposure on the health burden of residents. The most obvious findings to emerge from this study are that: health burden and PM2.5 exposure are not randomly distributed over different regions in China, but have obvious spatial correlation and spatial clustering characteristics. The maximum PM2.5 concentrations have a significant positive effect on outpatient expense and outpatient visits of residents in the current period, and the impact of PM2.5 pollution has a significant temporal lag effect on residents' health burden. PM2.5 exposure has a spatial spillover effect on the health burden of residents, and the PM2.5 concentrations in the surrounding regions or geographically close regions have a positive influence on the health burden in the particular region. The impact of PM2.5 exposure is divided into the direct effect and the indirect effect (the spatial spillover effect), and the spatial spillover effect is greater than that of the direct effect. Therefore, we conclude that PM2.5 exposure has a spatial spillover effect and temporal lag effect on the health burden of residents, and strict regulatory policies are needed to mitigate the health burden caused by air pollution.

18.
J Mol Neurosci ; 2019 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31760579

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the functions and mechanisms of methylprednisolone (MP) through endothelin receptor B (EDNRB) on the cell proliferation of neural progenitor cells (NPCs) to regulate spinal cord injury. METHODS: Primary NPCs were isolated from fetal mice and subjected to treatments with MP and IRL-1620 (EDNRB agonist). The cell viability was determined using the MTS assay. Total RNA was extracted from the cells, and RNA-seq was performed to screen for lncRNAs. The targets of the candidate lncRNAs were predicted by GO and KEGG analyses, and the expressions of lncRNAs were validated via qPCR. Furthermore, protein levels of the PI3K-AKT pathway were determined via Western blotting, and the expression of lncRNAs was detected after inhibiting the pathway with AKT inhibitor. RESULTS: MTS assays revealed that MP decreased the cell viability of NPCs, whereas the EDNRB agonist reversed this effect of MP. NPCs were used for RNA-seq in the following three groups: normal control (NC), MP, and MP combined with EDNRB agonist (MP + EDNRB). Our results suggested that the NONRATT030699.2, NONRATT004088.2, and NONRATT005601.2 lncRNAs might be involved in the signaling pathway that is correlated to MP and the EDNRB agonist. GO and KEGG pathway analyses revealed that this was the PI3K/AKT pathway. The relevant genes involved in the pathway were validated by Western blotting. The EDNRB agonist promoted cell proliferation mainly via the activation of the PI3K/AKT pathway; however, it suppressed the expression of p-ERK, thereby increasing the expression of cyclin D1 and attenuating the effect of MP in suppressing cell proliferation. Meanwhile, after the AKT signal pathway was inhibited, these lncRNA expressions were consistent with those in the MP + EDNRB group. CONCLUSION: MP inhibits NPC proliferation, whereas EDNRB activation reverses the effect of MP via lncRNA.

19.
Cell Death Dis ; 10(11): 831, 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31685803

RESUMO

Embryo implantation is essential to the successful establishment of pregnancy. A previous study has demonstrated that actinomycin D (ActD) could initiate the activation of mouse delayed implantation. However, the mechanism underlying this activation remains to be elucidated. A low dose of ActD is an inducer of nucleolar stress. This study was to examine whether nucleolar stress is involved in embryo implantation. We showed that nucleolar stress occurred when delayed implantation was activated by ActD in mice. ActD treatment also stimulated the Lif-STAT3 pathway. During early pregnancy, nucleolar stress was detected in the luminal epithelial cells during the receptive phase. Blastocyst-derived lactate could induce nucleolar stress in cultured luminal epithelial cells. The inhibition of nucleophosmin1 (NPM1), which was a marker of nucleolar stress, compromised uterine receptivity and decreased the implantation rates in pregnant mice. To translate these mouse data into humans, we examined nucleolar stress in human endometrium. Our data demonstrated that ActD-induced nucleolar stress had positive effects on the embryo attachment by upregulating IL32 expression in non-receptive epithelial cells rather than receptive epithelial cells. Our data should be the first to demonstrate that nucleolar stress is present during early pregnancy and is able to induce embryo implantation in both mice and humans.

20.
Front Cell Neurosci ; 13: 478, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31708749

RESUMO

Airway vagal nerves play a predominant role in the neural control of the airway, and augmented airway vagal activity is known to play important roles in the pathogenesis of some chronic inflammatory airway diseases. Several lines of evidence indicate that dysfunctional central orexinergic system is closely related to the severity of airway diseases, however, whether orexins affect airway vagal activity is unknown. This study investigates whether and how orexin-A regulates the activity of medullary airway vagal preganglionic neurons (AVPNs). The expression of orexin receptor type 1 (OX1R) and type 2 (OX2R) was examined using immunofluorescent staining. The effects of orexin-A on functionally identified inspiratory-activated AVPNs (IA-AVPNs), which are critical in the control of airway smooth muscle, were examined using patch-clamp in medullary slices of neonatal rats. Airway vagal response to injection of orexin-A into the magna cisterna was examined using plethysmography in juvenile rats. The results show that retrogradely labeled AVPNs were immunoreactive to anti-OX1R antibody and anti-OX2R antibody. Orexin-A dose-dependently depolarized IA-AVPNs and increased their firing rate. In synaptically isolated IA-AVPNs, the depolarization induced by orexin-A was blocked partially by OX1R antagonist SB-334867 or OX2R antagonist TCS OX2 29 alone, and completely by co-application of both antagonists. The orexin-A-induced depolarization was also mostly blocked by Na+/Ca2+ exchanger inhibitor KB-R7943. Orexin-A facilitated the glutamatergic, glycinergic and GABAergic inputs to IA-AVPNs, and the facilitation of each type of input was blocked partially by SB-334867 or TCS OX2 29 alone, and completely by co-application of both antagonists. Injection of orexin-A into the magna cisterna of juvenile rats significantly increased the inspiratory and expiratory resistance of the airway and consequently decreased the dynamic compliance of the lungs, all of which were prevented by atropine sulfate or bilateral vagotomy. These results demonstrate that orexin-A excites IA-AVPNs via activation of both OX1R and OX2R, and suggest that increased central synthesis/release of orexins might participate in the pathogenesis of airway diseases via over-activation of AVPNs.

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