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1.
MAbs ; 12(1): 1764829, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32370596

RESUMO

Biologics have the potential to induce an immune response when used therapeutically. A number of in vitro assays are currently used preclinically to predict the risk of immunogenicity, but the validation of these preclinical tools suffers from the relatively small number of accessible immunogenic molecules and the limited understanding of the mechanisms underlying the immunogenicity of biologics. Here, we present the post-hoc analysis of three monoclonal antibodies with high immunogenicity in the clinic. Two of the three antibodies elicited a CD4 T cell proliferative response in multiple donors in a peripheral blood mononuclear cell assay, but required different experimental conditions to induce these responses. The third antibody did not trigger any T cell response in this assay. These distinct capacities to promote CD4 T cell responses in vitro were mirrored by different capacities to stimulate innate immune cells. Only one of the three antibodies was capable of inducing human dendritic cell (DC) maturation; the second antibody promoted monocyte activation while the third one did not induce any innate cell activation in vitro. All three antibodies exhibited a moderate to high internalization by human DCs and MHC-associated peptide proteomics analysis revealed the presence of potential T cell epitopes that were confirmed by a T-cell proliferation assay. Collectively, these findings highlight the existence of distinct immune stimulatory mechanisms for immunogenic antibodies. These findings have implications for the preclinical immunogenicity risk assessment of biologics.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32305920

RESUMO

This paper presents a new approach to recognizing vanishing-point-constrained building planes from a single image of street view. We first design a novel convolutional neural network (CNN) architecture that generates geometric segmentation of per-pixel orientations from a single street-view image. The network combines two-stream features of general visual cues and surface normals in gated convolution layers, and employs a deeply supervised loss that encapsulates multi-scale convolutional features. Our experiments on a new benchmark with fine-grained plane segmentations of real-world street views show that our network outperforms state-of-the-arts methods of both semantic and geometric segmentation. The pixel-wise segmentation exhibits coarse boundaries and discontinuities. We then propose to rectify the pixel-wise segmentation into perspectively-projected quads based on spatial proximity between the segmentation masks and exterior line segments detected through an image processing. We demonstrate how the results can be utilized to perspectively overlay images and icons on building planes in input photos, and provide visual cues for various applications.

4.
ANZ J Surg ; 2020 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32255244

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The majority of the existing evidence showing an association between diabetes and impaired fracture healing comes from basic scientific research. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to summarize the current clinical literature that investigates fracture healing in patients with diabetes. METHODS: The outcome of interest was impaired fracture healing including non-union, delayed union and malunion. Studies that compared fracture healing outcomes between patients with and without diabetes were included in this study. Subgroup analyses regarding different fracture sites, types of fracture and classifications of diabetes were performed. RESULTS: A total of 14 studies involving 695 patients with diabetes and 4937 controls fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Diabetes was associated with an increased risk of impaired fracture healing (odds ratio (OR): 2.11, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.33-3.37, P = 0.002). Subgroup analyses showed that diabetes was associated with a significantly higher incidence of impaired fracture healing in lower extremity fractures (OR 2.63, 95% CI 1.30-5.30, P = 0.007), short bone fractures (OR 2.64, 95% CI 1.35-5.20, P = 0.005), long bone fractures (OR 2.13, 95% CI 1.23-3.70, P = 0.007) and osteoporosis-unrelated fractures (OR 2.39, 95% CI 1.19-4.80, P = 0.01). Both insulin-dependent diabetes (OR 4.04, 95% CI 1.05-15.56, P = 0.04) and non-insulin-dependent diabetes (OR 5.83, 95% CI 1.73-19.58, P = 0.004) were associated with significantly higher risks of impaired fracture healing. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with diabetes have an increased risk of impaired fracture healing when compared to patients without diabetes. Fracture healing in the lower extremities, short bones and osteoporosis-unrelated fractures is affected more severely by diabetes.

5.
Braz J Med Biol Res ; 53(5): e8457, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32348428

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to investigate whether the conjugation of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) to 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) could enhance the anti-tumor efficiency of photodynamic therapy (PDT) in epidermoid carcinoma cells. The mRNA and protein expression levels were determined by quantitative real-time PCR and western blot, respectively. Cell viability, apoptosis, invasion, and migration were determined by MTT assay, flow cytometry, transwell invasion assay, and migration assay, respectively. Singlet oxygen generation was detected by the singlet oxygen sensor green reagent assay. Our results showed that PDT with 5-ALA and GNPs-conjugated 5-ALA (5-ALA-GNPs) significantly suppressed cell viability, increased cell apoptosis and singlet oxygen generation in both HaCat and A431 cells, and PDT with 5-ALA and 5-ALA-GNPs had more profound effects in A431 cells than that in HaCat cells. More importantly, 5-ALA-GNPs treatment potentiated the effects of PDT on cell viability, cell apoptosis, and singlet oxygen generation in A431 cells compared to 5-ALA treatment. Further in vitro assays showed that PDT with 5-ALA-GNPs significantly decreased expression of STAT3 and Bcl-2 and increased expression of Bax in A431 cells compared with PDT with 5-ALA. In addition, 5-ALA-GNPs treatment enhanced the inhibitory effects of PDT on cell invasion and migration and Wnt/ß-catenin signaling activities in A431 cells compared to 5-ALA treatment. In conclusion, our results suggested that GNPs conjugated to 5-ALA significantly enhanced the anti-tumor efficacy of PDT in A431 cells, which may represent a better strategy to improve the outcomes of patients with cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32335025

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Stomal recurrence is a troublesome complication after total laryngectomy Despite a large number of studies having been performed, there is still controversy about which risk factors are most significant for the development of stomal recurrence. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present meta-analysis was to analyze the potential factors leading to stomal recurrence after total laryngectomy. METHODS: PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and Ovid databases were systematically searched using multiple search terms. Eighteen studies with 6462 patients were identified. The quality of evidence was assessed by The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. RESULTS: The results showed that, tumor subsite (supraglottic vs. subglottic, RR=0.292, 95% CI 0.142-0.600, p=0.001; glottic vs. subglottic, RR=0.344, 95% CI 0.175-0.676, p=0.002), T stage (RR=0.461, 95% CI 0.286-0.742, p=0.001), preoperative tracheotomy (RR=1.959, 95% CI 1.500-2.558, p<0.001) were the high-risk factors associated with the development of stomal recurrence. CONCLUSION: From the results of our study, tumor subsite, T stage and preoperative tracheotomy were the significant risk factors for stomal recurrence. Methodologically high-quality comparative investigations are needed for further evaluation.

7.
Orthop Surg ; 12(2): 589-600, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32227469

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the risk of dislocation after total hip arthroplasty (THA) in patients with Crowe type IV developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) is high and to further identify the risk factors for postoperative dislocation in these patients. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study reviewed Crowe type IV DDH patients undergoing THA between January 2009 and December 2017 in our institution. Each Crowe type IV DDH patient was matched with three Crowe type I, II, or III DDH patients according to gender, side and date of operation. The primary outcome of this study was postoperative dislocation after THA. Occurrence, rate, classification, treatment and outcome of dislocation were documented in detail for all patients. The dislocation rates were compared between Crowe type IV DDH patients and Crowe type I, II, or III DDH patients. Demographic data, implant factors, and surgical factors were compared between the dislocation and no dislocation groups. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to determine the independent risk factors for dislocation in Crowe type IV hips. RESULTS: A total of 131 Crowe type IV hips were followed up for a mean of 76.5 ± 28.1 months. Three hundred and ninety-three Crowe type I, II and III hips, including 261 type I hips, 94 type II hips, and 38 type III hips, were identified as controls and followed up for a mean of 76.4 ± 28.2 months. No significant difference was observed in follow-up time between two groups (P = 0.804). One or more dislocations occurred in 22 of the 524 dysplasia hips (4.20%). Of the 22 dislocated hips, 20 hips (90.9%) were successfully managed with non-operative treatment. Two patients (9.1%, one Crowe type I and one Crowe type IV) experienced recurrent dislocation and required revision surgery. Crowe type IV hips had a significantly higher postoperative dislocation rate than type I, II, and III hips (11.45% vs 1.78%, P < 0.001). The use of a 22-mm femoral head (odds ratio [OR] = 23.55, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.901-291.788, P = 0.014), older age (OR = 1.128, 95% CI = 1.037-1.275, P = 0.031), and absence of false acetabulum (OR = 12.425, 95% CI = 1.982-77.879, P = 0.007) were identified as independent risk factors for dislocation in Crowe type IV hips. CONCLUSIONS: Crowe type IV DDH patients were at a high risk of dislocation after THA, and using large femoral heads and improving abductor muscle strength may help decrease the rate of postoperative dislocation in such patients.

8.
AAPS J ; 22(3): 68, 2020 04 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32300899

RESUMO

Treatment-emergent antidrug antibodies (TE-ADA) pose a major challenge to the development of biotherapeutics. The antidrug antibody responses are highly orchestrated and involve many types of immune cells and biological processes. Biological drug internalization and processing by antigen-presenting cells (APCs) are two initial and critical steps in the cascade of events leading to T cell-dependent ADA production. The assays thus far described in literature to evaluate immunogenicity potential/risk as a function of APC activity mainly focus on internalization of labeled drug candidates in vitro. Herein, we describe a high-throughput Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET)-based assay for assessing both internalization and processing using CD14+ monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs) as APCs. Antigen-binding fragment F(ab')2 against IgG fragment crystallizable gamma (Fcγ) was labeled with the activatable FRET pair TAMRA-QSY7 as a universal probe for antibodies and proteins with a fragment crystallizable (Fc) domain. The assay was qualified using six mAbs of known clinical immunogenicity and one IgG1 isotype antibody using Design of Experiment (DoE). Correlation analysis of internalization and clinical immunogenicity data showed that this FRET-based internalization assay was able to detect clinically immunogenic antibodies. This method provides a tool for analyzing/screening the immunogenicity risk of biological candidates by assessing one of the critical components of the ADA formation process within the broader context of an immunogenicity risk assessment strategy.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32339381

RESUMO

Although accumulating evidence had revealed that NFAT1 has oncogenic characteristics, the role of this molecule in melanoma cells remains unclear. Previous studies proved that CD147 plays a crucial function in melanoma cell metastasis and invasion through matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) expression; however, the details of how CD147 regulates MMP-9 expression remain elusive. In this study, we demonstrated that CD147 and NFAT1 are overexpressed in the tissues of patients with primary and metastatic melanoma, which has shown a positive correlation. Further, we observed that CD147 regulates NFAT1 activation through the [Ca2+ ]i-calcineurin pathway. Knock down of NFAT1 significantly suppresses melanoma metastasis, and we demonstrated that CD147 affects melanoma metastasis in an NFAT1-dependent manner. Moreover, we verified that NFAT1 directly binds to MMP-9 promoter. Inhibition of CD147 expression significantly abrogates MMP-9 promoter luciferase gene reporter activity as well as NFAT1 association with MMP-9 promoter. Taken together, this study demonstrated that CD147 affects MMP-9 expression through regulating NFAT1 activity and provided a novel mechanism by which NFAT1 contributes to melanoma metastasis through the regulation of MMP-9.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32158699

RESUMO

Haemophilus parasuis (HPS), a member of the family Pasteurellaceae, is a common bacteria in the upper respiratory tract of pigs but under certain circumstances can cause serious systemic disease (Glasser's disease) characterized by severe infection of the upper respiratory tract, fibrinous polyserositis, polyarthritis, and meningitis. cAMP receptor protein (CRP) is among the most important global regulators, playing a vital role in adapting to environmental changes during the process of bacterial infection. In order to investigate the function of the crp gene in the growth characteristics of H. parasuis serovar 5 (HPS5) and its ability to overcome adverse environmental stresses, a crp mutant strain (Δcrp) was constructed and verified. In this study, we found that the crp gene was involved in growth rate, biofilm formation, stress tolerance, serum resistance, and iron utilization. Compared with the wild type, both the growth rate of the crp mutant and its resistance to osmotic pressure decreased significantly. Similar phenomena were also found in biofilm formation and iron utilization. However, the resistance to heat shock and serum complement of the crp mutant were enhanced. This study aimed to reveal the function in growth characteristics and stress resistance of the crp gene in HPS5. Whether it relates to virulence requires additional in-depth research.

11.
Food Chem ; 319: 126498, 2020 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32169761

RESUMO

Effect of melatonin treatment on visual quality and contents of health-promoting compounds of broccoli florets under room temperature was investigated in the present study. Broccoli florets were treated with 1 µM melatonin and then stored at room temperature. Results showed that melatonin treatment could delay the post-harvest senescence of broccoli, and performed well in maintaining higher levels of antioxidants, such as carotenoids, vitamin C and total phenols, as well as higher antioxidant capacity than the control. Besides, 1 µM melatonin treatment sustained higher content of glucosinolates, and also resulted in increased percentage of the most potent anticarcinogenic profile, glucoraphanin. Further analysis revealed that 1 µM melatonin strongly induced the expression of glucosinolate biosynthesis-related genes BoMYB28, BoMYB34, BoCYP79F1, and BoCYP79B2, as well as BoTGG1, a gene involved in glucosinolate hydrolysis. In conclusion, post-harvest treatment with 1 µM melatonin is potential in maintaining visual quality and health-promoting properties of broccoli florets.

12.
Bioresour Technol ; 306: 123108, 2020 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32169510

RESUMO

The dynamic response mechanism of Candidatus Accumulibacter clades to environmental factors in enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) was unclear. This study investigated the relationship between the transcriptional responses of Candidatus Accumulibacter clades and environmental dynamics. Results suggested that Candidatus Accumulibacter clade IIA only responded in initial 20 and 30 min of P-release and P-uptake stage, respectively, and was also the first clade to stop responding among the six Candidatus Accumulibacter clades. Clade IIC and IID responded at rising stage of P-release and P-uptake rate. Clade IA and IIB responded at decreasing stage of P-release and P-uptake rate. The transcriptional response duration of clade IIF was the longest, which constantly responded throughout anaerobic, anoxic and oxic phase. The transcriptional responses of Candidatus Accumulibacter clades to environmental dynamics revealed the microorganisms actually working in P-release and P-uptake, and gave a new insight into the transcriptional responses related to the EBPR performance.

13.
Sci Total Environ ; 722: 137892, 2020 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32199385

RESUMO

Establishing an optimal indicator to communicate health risks of multiple air pollutants to public is much important. The Air Quality Health Index (AQHI) has been developed in many countries as a communication tool of multiple air pollutants related health risks. However, the current AQHI is based on the sum of the excess health risks which are typically derived from the single-pollutant statistical models. Such a strategy may overestimate the joint effect of multiple pollutants. We proposed an improved strategy to construct the AQHI based on a Bayesian multipollutant weighted model. Using this strategy, two improved indices - Bayesian multipollutant AQHI (BMP-AQHI) and Bayesian multipollutant AQHI with seasonal specificity (SBMP-AQHI) were calculated to present the multiple pollutants related health risks to the cardiovascular system based on data collected in Chengdu, China during 2013 to 2018. The two improved indices were compared to current Air Quality Index (AQI) and AQHI to evaluate the effectiveness of the improved indices in characterizing multipollutant health risks. The AQI risk classification suggested much smaller health risks than AQHIs. Among three AQHI types, the BMP-AQHI and SBMP-AQHI suggested slightly lower health risks to the cardiovascular system than the current AQHI. In the evaluation analysis, the SBMP-AQHI had the strongest association with the mortality of cardiovascular disease (CVD) (2.66%; 95%CI, 1.57%, 3.76%). In the subgroup analysis, an interquartile increase (IQR) of the SBMP-AQHI was associated with 3.21% (95%CI, 2.06%, 4.38%), 1.34% (95%CI, -0.13%, 2.82%), and 4.20% (95%CI, 2.59%, 5.84%) increases for CVD mortality in the elderly, male, and female subgroups, respectively. The study shows that the improved AQHIs can communicate the health information of multiple air pollutants more efficiently. The study also indicates the necessity to consider seasonal specificity in the construction of the AQHI.

14.
Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol ; 248: 156-163, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32217429

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the preventive effects of low-dose aspirin on the incidence of preeclampsia and pregnancy outcomes of women at high-risk for preeclampsia. STUDY DESIGN: This prospective randomized clinical trial was conducted at the Obstetrics Department of The International Peace Maternity and Child Health Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, China. It analyzed data from 1105 high-risk women who were divided into the control group (placebo group) and the aspirin group (including three subgroups: 25 mg, 50 mg and 75 mg). The aspirin group in this study was instructed to take aspirin daily before bedtime beginning in the 12th week of pregnancy. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome is the occurrence of preeclampsia. The secondary outcomes included maternal and neonatal outcomes (such as premature delivery, FGR etc.), maternal serum biomarkers (including d-dimers, platelet aggregation rates, etc.) and uterine arterial blood flow resistance. The onset of preeclampsia and pregnancy outcomes were recorded after all participants delivered. RESULTS: Low-dose aspirin significantly reduced the incidence of preeclampsia and early-onset preeclampsia. Aspirin also showed significant dose dependence in preeclampsia prevention. The results of Mantel-Haenszel trend test showed that there was a linear relationship between the dosage and the incidence of preeclampsia and early preeclampsia (P < 0.05). Pearson's results showed that the incidence of preeclampsia and early preeclampsia was negatively correlated with aspirin dosage. There was also a linear relationship between the dosage and the rates of postpartum hemorrhage, fetal growth restriction, premature births and cesarean section (P < 0.05). There was no evidence to suggest differences in the incidence of fetal distress, miscarriage and placental abruption among the four groups. The blood resistance S/D value of uterine artery in early pregnancy was the only independent factor affecting the efficacy of aspirin (OR = 1.405; 95 %CI,1.058-1.867; P = 0.019). CONCLUSION: Low-dose aspirin can prevent preeclampsia and early-preeclampsia. Its efficacy is dose-dependent. It can reduce the rates of postpartum hemorrhage, fetal growth restriction, premature births and cesarean section. The prophylactic effect of aspirin on preeclampsia seemed to be greater in patients with higher blood resistance S/D value of uterine artery during early pregnancy.

15.
Ultrason Sonochem ; 64: 104994, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32044681

RESUMO

Anticoagulants are the main drugs for the prevention and treatment of thromboembolism. However, most of the present anticoagulants have shortcomings and novel anticoagulants are in great demand. Marine microorganisms are an important source of new drugs. Therefore, in this study, ultrasound was applied to enhance anticoagulant accumulation by marine Bacillus subtilis ZHX. Ultrasound parameters were optimized by single-factor experiments exploring the effects of ultrasound power, duration, duty cycle and the cell growth phases. The optimum conditions were exponential prophase (5 h) with 25 kHz frequency, 140 W power, and a 40% duty cycle for 5 min. The maximum anticoagulant activity (55.36 U/mL) was 1.73 times that of the control group, and the fermentation time was shortened by 3 h. Under optimal conditions, ultrasound increased the carbon utilization by Bacillus subtilis ZHX without significant changes in morphology, favoring cell growth and anticoagulant production. However, excessive ultrasound caused intracellular damage, which inhibited biomass accumulation, decreasing anticoagulant activity and even leading to cell rupture. This is the first report on the use of ultrasound to enhance anticoagulant production by Bacillus, and it provides useful information for scaling-up the process.

16.
J Mol Model ; 26(3): 47, 2020 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32020344

RESUMO

The DFT theory is used to investigate the vibration forms of ε-CL-20 by discussing the phonon DOS and infrared and Raman spectra. By observing them, the detailed vibration forms can be obtained, and the vibrations are different in the different regions. Our calculated vibrational results are consistent with previous data. In order to deeply comprehend CL-20, we also investigate the thermodynamic properties, finding that entropy, enthalpy, Debye temperature, and heat capacity are increased with the rising temperature and the vibrational free energy decreases with the increasing temperature. The εxx, εyy, and εzz are similar, which reflects the small anisotropy among [100], [010], and [001]. Moreover, it can be noticed that the major contribution for static dielectric constants originates from the electronic contribution.

17.
Food Chem ; 315: 126275, 2020 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32004982

RESUMO

The effects of individual epi-brassinolide (eBL) and NaCl, as well as their combination on contents of main phytochemicals and antioxidant capacity of Chinese kale sprouts were investigated. Our results showed that the application of 100 nM eBL decreased the contents of individual and total glucosinolates, while treatments of 160 mM NaCl both alone and combined with 100 nM eBL enhanced the glucosinolates accumulation by promoting the expression of genes involved in glucosinolate biosynthesis in Chinese kale sprouts and the combined treatment led to significantly higher content of most glucosinolate profiles. Moreover, it also elevated the contents of ascorbic acid and total carotenoids, whereas did not influence the total phenolics and antioxidant capacity. These findings indicated that the combined treatment of 100 nM eBL plus 160 mM NaCl could provide a new strategy to improve the main health promoting compounds in Chinese kale sprouts.

18.
Nanoscale ; 2020 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32100778

RESUMO

A CoCrFeNiMn high entropy alloy with a novel nanostructure consisting of ultrafine grains, TiO(C) nanoparticles and nanotwins has been fabricated. It achieves an ultrahigh tensile yield strength of 1507 MPa by coupling multiple strengthening mechanisms, including grain boundary strengthening, twin boundary strengthening, nanoparticle strengthening and dislocation strengthening. The work hardening ability is also improved by coupling the interactions of dislocations with nanoparticles and nanotwins during plastic deformation, leading to a good tensile ductility with a uniform elongation of 4.7%.

19.
NPJ Biofilms Microbiomes ; 6(1): 8, 2020 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32060424

RESUMO

The microbiota colonizing the root endophytic compartment and surrounding rhizosphere soils contribute to plant growth and health. However, the key members of plant soil and endophytic microbial communities involved in inhibiting or assisting pathogen invasion remain elusive. By utilizing 16S high-throughput sequencing and a molecular ecological network (MEN) approach, we systematically studied the interactions within bacterial communities in plant endophytic compartments (stem and root) and the surrounding soil (bulk and rhizosphere) during bacterial wilt invasion. The endophytic communities were found to be strongly influenced by pathogen invasion according to analysis of microbial diversity and community structure and composition. Endophytic communities of the infected plants were primarily derived from soil communities, as assessed by the SourceTracker program, but with rare migration from soil communities to endophytic communities observed in healthy plants. Soil and endophytic microbiomes from infected plants showed modular topology and greater complexity in network analysis, and a higher number of interactions than those in healthy plants. Furthermore, interactions among microbial members revealed that pathogenic Ralstonia members were positively correlated with several bacterial genera, including Delftia, Stenotrophomonas, Bacillus, Clostridium XlVa, Fontibacillus, Acidovorax, Herminiimonas, and three unclassified bacterial genera, in infected plant roots. Our findings indicated that the pathogen invasion in the rhizosphere and endophytic compartments may be highly associated with bacteria that are normally not detrimental, and sometimes even beneficial, to plants.

20.
J Mech Behav Biomed Mater ; 103: 103609, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32090936

RESUMO

Mollusk shells have highly complex hierarchical structures and unique mechanical properties, which have been widely studied, especially in fresh shells. However, few studies have revealed differences in the structure-property correlations of shells during the permineralization process, which occurs after organism death. To better understand the effect of permineralization on the microstructure and mechanical properties of shells, this study investigated and compared the compositions, microstructures, and mechanical properties of Tridacna gigas and permineralized J-Tridacna gigas. The results showed that permineralized J-Tridacna gigas possessed coarsened aragonite minerals, less anisotropy and organic matter, and higher hardness and strength than Tridacna gigas. The toughening mechanisms of Tridacna gigas, including crack deflection, aragonite platelet pull-out, and mineral bridges, were discovered during Vickers hardness tests. Moreover, the permineralization mechanism comprised three main steps: organic matter dissolution, aragonite plate compaction, and recrystallization. This work further elaborates the permineralization mechanism, which can help increase the crystal size and improve the strength and hardness of materials. Moreover, this study provides valuable insights into the design of bioinspired advanced materials with outstanding hardness and strength.

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