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1.
Front Pediatr ; 9: 720273, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34778126

RESUMO

Objective: To evaluate the associations between childhood, parental, and grandparental asthma. Methods: We studied 59,484 children randomly selected from 94 kindergartens, elementary, and middle schools in seven Chinese cities from 2012 to 2013, using a cross-sectional survey-based study design. Information on their and their family members' (parents, paternal grandparents, and maternal grandparents) asthma status were reported by children's parents or guardians. Mixed effects logistic regressions were used to assess hereditary patterns of asthma and mediation analysis was performed to estimate the potential mediation effect of parents on the association between grandparental asthma and childhood asthma. Results: The magnitude of ORs for childhood asthma increased as the number of family members affected by asthma increased. Among children who had one family member with asthma, childhood asthma was associated with asthma in maternal grandmothers (OR: 2.08, 95% CI: 1.67-2.59), maternal grandfathers (OR: 2.08, 95% CI: 1.71-2.53), paternal grandmothers (OR: 2.40, 95% CI: 1.93-2.99), and paternal grandfathers (OR: 2.59, 95% CI: 2.14-3.13). Among children who had two family members with asthma, the highest asthma risk was found when both parents had asthma (OR: 15.92, 95% CI: 4.66-54.45). Parents had a small proportion of mediation effect (9-12%) on the association between grandparental asthma and childhood asthma. Conclusions: Grandparents with asthma were associated with childhood asthma and parents with asthma partially mediated the association.

2.
Environ Res ; : 112397, 2021 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34798120

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The widely used Air Quality Index (AQI) has been criticized due to its inaccuracy, leading to the development of the air quality health index (AQHI), an improvement on the AQI. However, there is currently no consensus on the most appropriate construction strategy for the AQHI. OBJECTIVES: In this study, we aimed to evaluate the utility of AQHIs constructed by different models and health outcomes, and determine a better strategy. METHODS: Based on the daily time-series outpatient visits and hospital admissions from 299 hospitals (January 2016-December 2018), and mortality (January 2017-December 2019) in Guangzhou, China, we utilized cumulative risk index (CRI) method, Bayesian multi-pollutant weighted (BMW) model and standard method to construct AQHIs for different health outcomes. The effectiveness of AQHIs constructed by different strategies was evaluated by a two-stage validation analysis and examined their exposure-response relationships with the cause-specific morbidity and mortality. RESULTS: Validation by different models showed that AQHI constructed with the BMW model (BMW-AQHI) had the strongest association with the health outcome either in the total population or subpopulation among air quality indexes, followed by AQHI constructed with the CRI method (CRI-AQHI), then common AQHI and AQI. Further validation by different health outcomes showed that AQHI constructed with the risk of outpatient visits generally exhibited the highest utility in presenting mortality and morbidity, followed by AQHI constructed with the risk of hospitalizations, then mortality-based AQHI and AQI. The contributions of NO2 and O3 to the final AQHI were prominent, while the contribution of SO2 and PM2.5 were relatively small. CONCLUSIONS: The BMW model is likely to be more effective for AQHI construction than CRI and standard methods. Based on the BMW model, the AQHI constructed with the outpatient data may be more effective in presenting short-term health risks associated with the co-exposure to air pollutants than the mortality-based AQHI and existing AQIs.

3.
Sci Total Environ ; 806(Pt 2): 150634, 2021 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34597565

RESUMO

Numerous epidemiological studies have investigated the lipid interference effects of legacy PFASs, however, no studies on PFAS alternatives and blood lipids have been published. In this study, we explored the association between Cl-PFESAs, a typical PFASs alternative in China, and blood lipid profiles in 1336 Guangzhou community residents using linear and non-linear regression models. The results showed a deleterious effect of Cl-PFESAs and blood lipids: adjusted estimates (ß) for TC, TG, LDL-C and HDL-C per natural log unit increase of 6:2 Cl-PFESA were 0.029 (95% CI: 0.020, 0.038), 0.075 (95% CI: 0.049, 0.101), 0.035 (95% CI: 0.021, 0.049) and -0.071 (95% CI: -0.084, -0.058), respectively. The association between Cl-PFESAs and dyslipidemia was also positively significant (P < 0.05). Furthermore, a non-linear relationship was observed in Cl-PFESAs and serum lipid levels using a restricted cubic splines (RCS) model. In summary, our research suggested a negative impact of Cl-PFESAs on blood lipid patterns and a possible non-linear association.

4.
Innovation (N Y) ; 2(4): 100164, 2021 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34622241

RESUMO

Multiple systematic reviews on greenspace and health outcomes exist, but the overall evidence base remains unclear. Therefore, we performed an umbrella review to collect and appraise all relevant systematic reviews of epidemiological studies on greenness exposure and health. We searched PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science from inception to June 28, 2021, and screened references of relevant articles. Systematic reviews with or without meta-analyses of epidemiological studies that examined the associations of greenness with any health outcome were included. Two independent investigators performed study selection and data extraction. We also evaluated the methodological quality of the included systematic reviews using the "Assessing the Methodological Quality of Systematic Reviews 2" checklist. A total of 40 systematic reviews and meta-analyses were included, of which most were cross-sectional studies conducted in high-income countries. Greenspace exposure was estimated with various objective and subjective parameters. Beneficial associations of greenspace with all-cause and stroke-specific mortality, CVD morbidity, cardiometabolic factors, mental health, low birth weight, physical activity, sleep quality, and urban crime were observed. No consistent associations between greenspace and other health outcomes (e.g., cancers) were observed. Most of the included systematic reviews and meta-analyses had one or more limitations in methodology. Our findings provide supportive evidence regarding the beneficial effects of greenspace exposure on some aspects of human health. However, the credibility of such evidence was compromised by methodological limitations. Better performed systematic reviews and meta-analyses as well as longitudinal designed primary studies are needed to validate this conclusion.

5.
Environ Int ; 158: 106913, 2021 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34624590

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies on the associations of legacy per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) and glucose homeostasis remain discordant. Understanding of PFAS alternatives is limited, and few studies have reported joint associations of PFASs and PFAS alternatives. OBJECTIVES: To investigate associations of novel PFAS alternatives (chlorinated perfluoroalkyl ether sulfonic acids, Cl-PFESAs and perfluorobutanoic acid, PFBA) and two legacy PFASs (Perfluorooctanoic acid, PFOA and perfluorooctane sulfonate, PFOS) with glucose-homeostasis markers and explore joint associations of 13 legacy and alternative PFASs with the selected outcomes. METHODS: We used cross-sectional data of 1,038 adults from the Isomers of C8 Health Project in China. Associations of PFASs and PFAS alternatives with glucose-homeostasis were explored in single-pollutant models using generalized linear models with natural cubic splines for PFASs. Bayesian Kernel Machine Regression (BKMR) models were applied to assess joint associations of exposures and outcomes. Sex-specific analyses were also conducted to evaluate effect modification. RESULTS: After adjusting for confounders, both legacy (PFOA, PFOS) and alternative (Cl-PFESAs and PFBA) PFASs were positively associated with glucose-homeostasis markers in single-pollutant models. For example, in the total study population, estimated changes with 95% confidence intervals (CI) of fasting glucose at the 95th percentile of 6:2Cl-PFESA and PFOS against the thresholds were 0.90 (95% CI: 0.59, 1.21) and 0.44 (95% CI: 0.26, 0.62). Positive joint associations were found in BKMR models with 6:2Cl-PFESA contributing most. Sex-specific associations existed in both single- and multi-pollutant models. CONCLUSIONS: Legacy and alternative PFASs were positively associated with glucose-homeostasis markers. 6:2Cl-PFESA was the primary contributor. Sex-specific associations were also identified. These results indicate that joint associations and effect modification should be considered in risk assessment. However, further studies are recommended to strengthen our findings and to elucidate the mechanisms of action of legacy and alternative PFASs.

6.
Toxics ; 9(9)2021 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34564372

RESUMO

Numerous studies have demonstrated that exposure to ambient ozone (O3) could have adverse effects on children's respiratory health. However, previous studies mainly focused on asthma and wheezing. Evidence for allergic rhinitis and bronchitic symptoms (e.g., persistent cough and phlegm) associated with O3 is limited, and results from existing studies are inconsistent. This study included a total of 59,754 children from the seven northeastern cities study (SNEC), who were aged 2 to 17 years and from 94 kindergarten, elementary and middle schools. Information on doctor-diagnosed allergic rhinitis (AR), persistent cough, and persistent phlegm was collected during 2012-2013 using a standardized questionnaire developed by the American Thoracic Society (ATS). Information for potential confounders was also collected via questionnaire. Individuals' exposure to ambient ozone (O3) during the four years before the investigation was estimated using a satellite-based random forest model. A higher level of O3 was significantly associated with increased risk of AR and bronchitic symptoms. After controlling for potential confounders, the OR (95% CI) were 1.13 (1.07-1.18), 1.10 (1.06-1.16), and 1.12 (1.05-1.20) for AR, persistent cough, and persistent phlegm, respectively, associated with each interquartile range (IQR) rise in O3 concentration. Interaction analyses showed stronger adverse effects of O3 on AR in children aged 7-17 years than those aged 2-6 years, while the adverse association of O3 with cough was more prominent in females and children aged 7-12 years than in males and children aged 2-6 and 13-17 years. This study showed that long-term exposure to ambient O3 was significantly associated with higher risk of AR and bronchitic symptoms in children, and the association varies across age and gender. Our findings contribute additional evidence for the importance of controlling O3 pollution and protecting children from O3 exposure.

7.
Front Oncol ; 11: 707066, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34504787

RESUMO

Disturbance in the proteolytic process is one of the malignant signs of tumors. Proteolysis is highly orchestrated by cysteine cathepsin and its inhibitors. Cystatin-B (CSTB) is a general cysteine cathepsin inhibitor that prevents cysteine cathepsin from leaking from lysosomes and causing inappropriate proteolysis. Our study found that CSTB was downregulated in both oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) tissues and cells compared with normal controls. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that CSTB was mainly distributed in the epithelial structure of OSCC tissues, and its expression intensity was related to the grade classification. A correlation analysis between CSTB and clinical prognosis was performed using gene expression data and clinical information acquired from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. Patients with lower expression levels of CSTB had shorter disease-free survival times and poorer clinicopathological features (e.g., lymph node metastases, perineural invasion, low degree of differentiation, and advanced tumor stage). OSCC cell models overexpressing CSTB were constructed to assess the effects of CSTB on malignant biological behaviors and upregulation of CSTB inhibited cell proliferation, migration, and invasion in vitro. Weighted gene correlation network analysis (WGCNA) and gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) were performed based on the TCGA data to explore potential mechanisms, and CSTB appeared to correlate with squamous epithelial proliferation-differentiation processes, such as epidermal cell differentiation and keratinization. Moreover, in WGCNA, the gene module most associated with CSTB expression (i.e., the brown module) was also the one most associated with grade classification. Upregulation of CSTB promoted the expression levels of markers (LOR, IVL, KRT5/14, and KRT1/10), reflecting a tendency for differentiation and keratinization in vitro. Gene expression profile data of the overexpressed CSTB cell line were obtained by RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) technology. By comparing the GSEA enrichment results of RNA-seq data (from the OSCC models overexpressing CSTB) and existing public database data, three gene sets (i.e., apical junction, G2/M checkpoint, etc.) and six pathways (e.g., NOTCH signaling pathway, glycosaminoglycan degradation, mismatch repair, etc.) were enriched in the data from both sources. Overall, our study shows that CSTB is downregulated in OSCC and might regulate the malignant characteristics of OSCC via the epithelial proliferation/differentiation program.

8.
Environ Pollut ; 286: 117582, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34438500

RESUMO

Limitations of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) potentially contributed to the inconsistent findings of greenspace exposure and childhood asthma. The aim of this study was to use a novel greenness exposure assessment method, capable of overcoming the limitation of NDVI to determine the extent to which it was associated with asthma prevalence in Chinese children. During 2009-2013, a cross-sectional study of 59,754 children aged 2-17 years was conducted in northeast China. Tencent street view images surrounding participants' schools were segmented by a deep learning model, and streetscape greenness was extracted. The green view index (GVI) was used to assign exposure and higher value indicates more green coverage. Mixed-effects logistic regression models were used to calculate the adjusted odds of asthma per interquartile range (IQR) increase of GVI for trees and grass. Participants were further stratified to investigate whether particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter <2.5 µm (PM2.5) was a modifier. An IQR increase in GVI800m for trees was associated with lower adjusted odds of doctor-diagnosed asthma (OR: 0.76; 95%CI: 0.72-0.80) and current asthma (OR: 0.82; 95%CI: 0.75-0.89). An IQR increase in GVI800m for grass was associated with higher adjusted odds of doctor-diagnosed asthma (OR: 1.04; 95%CI: 1.00-1.08) and current asthma (OR: 1.08; 95%CI: 1.02-1.14). After stratification by PM2.5 exposure level, the negative association between trees and asthma, and the positive association between grass and asthma were observed only in low PM2.5 exposure levels (≤median: 56.23 µg/m3). Our results suggest that types of vegetation may play a role in the association between greenness exposure and childhood asthma. Exposure to trees may reduce the odds of childhood asthma, whereas exposure to grass may increase the odds. Additionally, PM2.5 may modify the associations of trees and grass with childhood asthma.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Asma , Aprendizado Profundo , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Asma/epidemiologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Exposição Ambiental , Humanos , Material Particulado/análise , Poaceae , Prevalência , Árvores
9.
Environ Res ; 202: 111641, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34252432

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Health effects of greenness perceived by residents at eye level has received increasing attention. However, the associations between eye-level greenness and respiratory health are unknown. The aim of the study was to investigate the associations between exposure to eye-level greenness and lung function in children. METHODS: From 2012 to 2013, a total of 6740 school children in seven cities in northeast China were recruited into this cross-sectional study. Forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), peak expiratory flow rate (PEF), and maximum mid expiratory flow rate (MMEF) were measured to evaluate lung function and to define lung impairment. Eye-level greenness was extracted from segmented Tencent Map street view images, and a corresponding green view index (GVI) was calculated. Higher GVIs mean more greenness coverage. Mixed-effects logistic regressions were used to estimate the health effects on lung impairment per interquartile range (IQR) increase in GVI. Linear regressions were used to estimate the associations between GVI and lung function. The health effects of ambient air pollutants were also assessed, including particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter <1.0 µm (PM1), <2.5 µm (PM2.5), <10 µm (PM10) as well as nitrogen dioxide (NO2). RESULTS: An increase of GVI800m was associated with lung impairment in FEV1, FVC, PEF and MMEF, with ORs ranging from 0.68 (95% CI: 0.59, 0.79) to 0.83 (95% CI: 0.74, 0.93). The associations between an IQR increase of GVI800m and FEV1 (48.15 ml, 95% CI: 30.33-65.97 ml), FVC (50.57 ml, 95% CI: 30.65-70.48 ml), PEF (149.59 ml/s, 95% CI: 109.79-189.38 ml/s), and MMEF (61.18 ml/s, 95% CI: 31.07-91.29 ml/s) were significant, and PM1, PM2.5, and PM10 were found to be mediators of this relationship. CONCLUSION: More eye-level greenness was associated with better lung function and reduced impairment. However, eye-level greenness associations with lung function became non-significant once lower particulate matter air pollution exposures were considered.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Pulmão/química , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/toxicidade , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/toxicidade
10.
Environ Res ; 200: 111434, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34087194

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Urban greenness may protect against obesity, but very few studies have assessed 'street view' (SV) greenness metrics, which may better capture people's actual exposure to greenness compared to commonly-used satellite-derived metrics. We aimed to investigate these associations further in a Chinese adult study. METHODS: Our analysis included 24,845 adults in the 33 Chinese Community Health Study in 2009. SV images from Tencent Map, segmented by machine learning algorithms, were used to determine the average proportion of green vegetation in SV images at community level in 800m road network buffer. Sensitivity analyses were performed with an alternative buffer size. Overall greenness was assessed as normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) in 800 m buffer. We used predicted PM2.5 and monitored NO2 as proxies of air pollution. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and hip circumference (HC) were regressed on SV greenness by generalized linear mixed models, with adjustment for covariates. Mediation analyses were performed to assess the mediation effects of air pollution. RESULTS: Each interquartile range (IQR = 3.6%) increase in street view greenness was associated with a 0.15 kg/m2 (95% CI: -0.22, -0.09) decrease in BMI and 0.23 cm (95% CI: -0.35, -0.11) reduction in HC, and was associated with 7% lower odds of overweight (OR = 0.93, 95% CI:0.90, 0.96) and 18% lower odds of obesity (OR = 0.82, 95% CI:0.76, 0.89). Similar effect estimation was observed compared with commonly-used NDVI measures. PM2.5 and NO2 mediated 15.5% and 6.1% of the effects of SV greenness with BMI, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest beneficial associations between community-level SV greenness and lower body weight in Chinese adults. The effects were observed in women but not in men. Air pollution may partially mediate the association. These findings may have implications to support efforts to promote greening in urban areas.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , Saúde Pública , Adulto , Poluição do Ar/análise , Índice de Massa Corporal , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade/epidemiologia
11.
Chemosphere ; 278: 130486, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34126693

RESUMO

Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) exposure has been linked to diabetes, but evidence on the association of isomers of PFAS with type 2 diabetes (T2D) remains scant. This population based cross-sectional study aimed to investigate associations between serum PFAS isomers, glucose-homeostasis markers and T2D, adjusted for multiple potential confounders. We used data from "Isomers of C8 Health Project in China" from July 2015 to October 2016. A total of 10 PFAS including isomers of PFOS and PFOA were measured in serum of 1045 Chinese adults. Fasting blood glucose, fasting insulin, homeostasis model of insulin (HOMA-IR) and beta cell function (HOMA-ß) were considered as markers of glucose-homeostasis. We found significant positive associations between serum PFAS isomers and glucose-homeostasis markers, namely, fasting blood glucose, fasting insulin and HOMA-IR. Per log-unit increase in branched (br)-PFOS concentration was associated with increased fasting blood glucose (ß = 0.25, 95% CI: 0.18, 0.33), fasting insulin (ß = 2.19, 95% CI: 1.44, 2.93) and HOMA-IR (ß = 0.69, 95% CI: 0.50, 0.89). As compared to br-PFOS, linear (n)-PFOS and -PFOA showed lesser significant associations with glucose-homeostasis makers. Further, exposure to all PFAS including isomeric PFOS, PFOA and PFHxS increased the risk of T2D with br-PFOS exhibiting the highest risk (OR = 5.41, 95% CI: 3.68-7.96). The associations were stronger among women than men. In conclusion, chronic exposure to PFAS isomers was associated with impaired glucose-homeostasis and may increase the prevalence of T2D in Chinese adults. Given the ubiquity of PFAS in the environment and the public health burden of T2D, future studies are warranted to corroborate the findings.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Poluentes Ambientais , Fluorcarbonetos , Adulto , Caprilatos , China , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/induzido quimicamente , Feminino , Glucose , Homeostase , Humanos , Masculino
12.
Environ Int ; 155: 106596, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33940391

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chlorinated polyfluorinated ether sulfonic acids (Cl-PFESAs), a group of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) alternatives, can be widely observed in humans and environmental matrices. However, associations between exposure to Cl-PFESAs and serum lipid levels in adults are unknown. OBJECTIVE: To explore the relationships between Cl-PFESA levels and serum lipid levels in adults. METHODS: We analyzed 1238 adults from the Isomers of C8 Health Project, a cross-sectional study conducted in China from July 2015 to October 2016. The average age of the participants was 61.98 ± 14.40 years. We quantified two select legacy per- and perfluoroalkyl substances [perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and PFOS] and their alternatives (6:2 and 8:2 Cl-PFESAs). We also measured four serum lipids: low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), total cholesterol (TC), and triglycerides (TG). We used generalized linear models to estimate the associations between PFASs and serum lipids, with PFASs defined as either a categorical variable divided into quartiles or as a continuous variable. RESULTS: We found that 6:2 Cl-PFESA was positively associated with serum TC and LDL-C. For instance, LDL-C levels in the highest quartile of 6:2 Cl-PFESA exposure (Q4) were significantly higher than those in the lowest quartile (Q1) [ß: 0.19, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.08, 0.30]. Further analysis showed that one ln-ng/mL increase in 6:2 Cl-PFESA exposure corresponded to a 0.10 mmol/L (95% CI: 0.05, 0.16) LDL-C increase, and that exposure to 8:2 Cl-PFESA was negatively correlated with HDL-C (ß: -0.03, 95% CI: -0.05, -0.01). TC had a similar relationship with both 6:2 Cl-PFESA and legacy PFASs. Participants with a BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 exhibited a stronger association between 6:2 Cl-PFESA and TC. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings make the novel suggestion that exposure to Cl-PFESAs are adversely associated with serum lipid levels, and that such associations are also observed in legacy PFASs. Increased investigation into the effects of Cl-PFESAs exposure on human health is warranted.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos , Fluorcarbonetos , Adulto , Idoso , China , Estudos Transversais , Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
13.
J Clin Periodontol ; 48(8): 1137-1148, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33998036

RESUMO

AIM: To characterize gingival metabolome in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity in mice with/without periodontitis. METHODS: HFD-induced obesity mouse model was established by 16-week feeding, and a lean control group was fed with low-fat diet (n = 21/group). Both models were induced for periodontitis on the left sides by molar ligation for 10 days, whereas the right sides were used as controls. Gingival metabolome and arginine metabolism were analysed by non-targeted/targeted liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. RESULTS: Of 2247 reference features, presence of periodontitis altered 165 in lean versus 885 in HFD mice; and HFD altered 525 in absence versus 1435 in presence of periodontitis. Compared with healthy condition, periodontitis and HFD had distinct effects on gingival metabolome. Metabolomic impacts of periodontitis were generally greater in HFD mice versus lean controls. K-medoids clustering showed that HFD amplified the impacts of periodontitis on gingival metabolome in both intensity and extensity. Ten metabolic pathways were enriched, including 2 specific to periodontitis, 5 specific to HFD and 3 shared ones. Targeted validation on arginine metabolism confirmed the additive effects between HFD and periodontitis. CONCLUSION: The obese population consuming excessive HFD display amplified metabolic response to periodontitis, presenting a metabolic susceptibility to exacerbated periodontal destruction.


Assuntos
Dieta Hiperlipídica , Periodontite , Animais , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Metaboloma , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Obesidade/complicações , Periodontite/etiologia , Roedores
14.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(10): e019063, 2021 05 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33942624

RESUMO

Background Although several studies have focused on the associations between particle size and constituents and blood pressure, results have been inconsistent. Methods and Results We conducted a panel study, between December 2017 and January 2018, in 88 healthy university students in Guangzhou, China. Weekly systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure were measured for each participant for 5 consecutive weeks, resulting in a total of 440 visits. Mass concentrations of particles with an aerodynamic diameter of ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5), ≤1.0 µm (PM1.0), ≤0.5 µm (PM0.5), ≤0.2 µm (PM0.2), and number concentrations of airborne particulates of diameter ≤0.1 µm were measured. Linear mixed-effect models were used to estimate the associations between blood pressure and particles and PM2.5 constituents 0 to 48 hours before blood pressure measurement. PM of all the fractions in the 0.2- to 2.5-µm range were positively associated with systolic blood pressure in the first 24 hours, with the percent changes of effect estimates ranging from 3.5% to 8.8% for an interquartile range increment of PM. PM0.2 was also positively associated with diastolic blood pressure, with an increase of 5.9% (95% CI, 1.0%-11.0%) for an interquartile range increment (5.8 µg/m3) at lag 0 to 24 hours. For PM2.5 constituents, we found positive associations between chloride and diastolic blood pressure (1.7% [95% CI, 0.1%-3.3%]), and negative associations between vanadium and diastolic blood pressure (-1.6% [95% CI, -3.0% to -0.1%]). Conclusions Both particle size and constituent exposure are significantly associated with blood pressure in the first 24 hours following exposure in healthy Chinese adults.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Adulto , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Morbidade/tendências , Tamanho da Partícula , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
15.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(5): e2110931, 2021 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34014325

RESUMO

Importance: Few studies have investigated the association between the exposure window (prenatal, early postnatal, and current period) of secondhand smoke (SHS) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and subtypes in children. Objective: To evaluate the associations of prenatal, early postnatal, or current SHS exposure with ADHD symptoms and subtypes among school-aged children. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this cross-sectional study, 48 612 children aged 6 to 18 years from elementary and middle schools in Liaoning province, China, between April 2012 and January 2013 were eligible for participation. Data on SHS exposure and ADHD symptoms and subtypes for each child were collected via questionnaires administered to parents or guardians by school teachers. Data were analyzed from September 14 to December 2, 2020. Main Outcomes and Measures: The ADHD symptoms and subtypes (inattention, hyperactivity-impulsivity, and combined) were measured based on a validated tool developed from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fourth Edition). Generalized linear mixed models were evaluated to estimate the association of SHS exposure with ADHD symptoms and subtypes. Results: A total of 45 562 participants completed the questionnaires and were included in this study (22 905 girls [50.3%]; mean [SD] age, 11.0 [2.6] years; 2170 [4.8%] with ADHD symptoms). Compared with their unexposed counterparts, children who were ever exposed (odds ratio [OR], 1.50; 95% CI, 1.36-1.66) or always exposed to SHS (OR, 2.88; 95% CI, 2.55-3.25) from pregnancy to childhood had higher odds of having ADHD symptoms and subtypes (ORs ranged from 1.46 [95% CI, 1.31-1.62] to 2.94 [95% CI, 2.09-4.13]). Compared with their unexposed counterparts, children with SHS exposure had higher odds of having ADHD symptoms when exposed in the prenatal period (OR, 2.28; 95% CI, 2.07-2.51), early postnatal period (OR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.29-1.68), or current period (OR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.09-1.31). Compared with their unexposed counterparts, children whose fathers smoked 10 or more cigarettes/d on both weekdays and weekends had higher odds of having ADHD symptoms and subtypes (ORs ranged from 1.48 [95% CI, 1.28-1.70] to 2.25 [95% CI, 1.29-3.93]). Conclusions and Relevance: Being exposed to SHS from pregnancy to childhood was associated with higher odds of having ADHD symptoms and subtypes among school-aged children, and the associations were somewhat stronger for SHS exposure during prenatal and early postnatal periods. Our findings highlight the important public health implications of reducing SHS exposure, which may decrease the health and economic burdens of individuals with ADHD.

16.
Environ Int ; 153: 106548, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33838617

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence of maternal exposure to ambient air pollution on congenital heart defects (CHD) has been mixed and are still relatively limited in developing countries. We aimed to investigate the association between maternal exposure to air pollution and CHD in China. METHOD: This longitudinal, population-based, case-control study consecutively recruited fetuses with CHD and healthy volunteers from 21 cities, Southern China, between January 2006 and December 2016. Residential address at delivery was linked to random forests models to estimate maternal exposure to particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of ≤ 1 µm (PM1), ≤2.5 µm, and ≤10 µm as well as nitrogen dioxides, in three trimesters. The CHD cases were evaluated by obstetrician, pediatrician, or cardiologist, and confirmed by cardia ultrasound. The CHD subtypes were coded using the International Classification Diseases. Adjusted logistic regression models were used to assess the associations between air pollutants and CHD and its subtypes. RESULTS: A total of 7055 isolated CHD and 6423 controls were included in the current analysis. Maternal air pollution exposures were consistently higher among cases than those among controls. Logistic regression analyses showed that maternal exposure to all air pollutants during the first trimester was associated with an increased odds of CHD (e.g., an interquartile range [13.3 µg/m3] increase in PM1 was associated with 1.09-fold ([95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.18]) greater odds of CHD). No significant associations were observed for maternal air pollution exposures during the second trimester and the third trimester. The pattern of the associations between air pollutants and different CHD subtypes was mixed. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal exposure to greater levels of air pollutants during the pregnancy, especially the first trimester, is associated with higher odds of CHD in offspring. Further longitudinal well-designed studies are warranted to confirm our findings.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Cardiopatias Congênitas , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Cardiopatias Congênitas/epidemiologia , Cardiopatias Congênitas/etiologia , Humanos , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Gravidez
17.
Environ Pollut ; 283: 117078, 2021 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33839621

RESUMO

Chlorinated polyfluoroalkyl ether sulfonates (Cl-PFESAs), are ubiquitous alternatives to perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), a widely used poly- and perfluoroalkyl substance (PFAS). Despite in vivo and in vitro evidence of metabolic toxicity, no study has explored associations of Cl-PFESAs concentrations with metabolic syndrome (MetS) in a human population. To help address this data gap, we quantified 32 PFAS, including 2 PFOS alternative Cl-PFESAs (6:2 and 8:2 Cl-PFESAs) in serum from 1228 adults participating in the cross-sectional Isomers of C8 Health Project in China study. The odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of MetS and its various components were estimated using individual PFAS as a continuous or categorical predictor in multivariate regression models. The association between the overall mixture of PFAS and MetS was examined using probit Bayesian Kernel Machine Regression (BKMR-P). Greater serum PFAS concentrations were associated with higher odds of MetS and demonstrated a statistically significant dose-response trend (P for trend < 0.001). For example, each ln-unit (ng/mL) increase in serum 6:2 Cl-PFESA was associated with a higher prevalence of MetS (OR = 1.52, 95% CI: 1.25, 1.85). MetS was also 2.26 (95% CI: 1.59, 3.23) times more common in the highest quartile of serum 6:2 Cl-PFESA concentration than the lowest, and particularly high among women (OR = 6.41, 95% CI: 3.65, 11.24). The BKMR-P analysis showed a positive association between the overall mixture of measured PFAS and the odds of MetS, but was only limited to women. While our results suggest that exposure to Cl-PFESAs was associated with MetS, additional longitudinal studies are needed to more definitively address the potential health concerns of these PFOS alternatives.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos , Fluorcarbonetos , Síndrome Metabólica , Adulto , Teorema de Bayes , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Humanos , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia
18.
Clin Transl Allergy ; 11(1): e12005, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33900047

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent studies suggest that household endotoxin and allergens can modify the impact of air pollutants on development of asthma; however, epidemiological evidence is limited and conflicting. OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether pet ownership modified the association between ambient air pollution and asthma in children. METHODS: We conducted a population-based cross-sectional study, the Seven Northeast Cities Study in China and recruited a total of 59,754 children from 94 schools during 2012-2013. Long-term air pollutant concentrations, including airborne particulate matter with a diameter of 1 µm or less (PM1 ), PM2.5 , PM10 , and nitrogen dioxide (NO2 ) from 2009 to 2012 were estimated using a random forest model. We collected information of respiratory health in children using the Epidemiologic Standardization Project Questionnaire of the American Thoracic Society (ATS-DLD-78-A). Regression models were used to evaluate associations between pet ownership and air pollution on asthma after adjusting for potential covariates. RESULTS: Exposure to increasing levels of air pollutants was associated with higher prevalence of asthma, but associations were significantly attenuated in children who owned pets. For example, compared to children without pets, those who owned pets did not have an increased risk of symptoms of asthma (odds ratio, 1.01, 95% confidence interval: 0.78, 1.30), wheeze (0.96, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.76, 1.21), and cough (1.01, 95% CI: 0.87, 1.18) for each 10 µg/m3 increase in PM1 (P-int  < 0.05). Similar trends were observed for other air pollutants. Dog and bird ownership decreased the associations of asthma and cough with air pollutant exposure. The main findings were consistent with a series of sensitivity analyses. CONCLUSION: Current pet ownership may reduce the adverse impact of long-term air pollution on childhood asthma. Longitudinal studies are needed to confirm this finding which could have important implications for public health.

19.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(9): 5636-5647, 2021 05 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33822602

RESUMO

Evidence of the effects of various particle sizes and constituents on blood biomarkers is limited. We performed a panel study with five repeated measurements in 88 healthy college students in Guangzhou, China between December 2017 and January 2018. Mass concentrations of particles with aerodynamic diameters ≤ 2.5 µm (PM2.5), PM1, and PM0.5 and number concentrations of particles with aerodynamic diameters ≤ 200 nm (PN0.2) and PN0.1 were measured. We used linear mixed-effect models to explore the associations of size-fractionated particulate matter and PM2.5 constituents with five blood biomarkers 0-5 days prior to blood collection. We found that an interquartile range (45.9 µg/m3) increase in PM2.5 concentration was significantly associated with increments of 16.6, 3.4, 12.3, and 8.8% in C-reactive protein (CRP), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1), and endothelin-1(ET-1) at a 5-day lag, respectively. Similar estimates were observed for PM1, PM0.5, PN0.2, and PN0.1. For PM2.5 constituents, consistent positive associations were observed between F- and sVCAM-1 and CRP and between NH4+ and MCP-1, and negative associations were found between Na+ and MCP-1 and ET-1, between Cl- and MCP-1, and between Mg2+ and sVCAM-1. Our results suggested that both particle size and constituent exposure are significantly associated with circulating biomarkers among healthy Chinese adults. Particularly, PN0.1 at a 5-day lag and F- and NH4+ are the most associated with these blood biomarkers.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Biomarcadores , China , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Tamanho da Partícula , Material Particulado/análise , Adulto Jovem
20.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(8): 5065-5075, 2021 04 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33764049

RESUMO

Existing evidence is scarce concerning the various effects of different PM sizes and chemical constituents on blood lipids. A panel study that involved 88 healthy college students with five repeated measurements (440 blood samples in total) was performed. We measured mass concentrations of particulate matter with diameters ≤ 2.5 µm (PM2.5), ≤1.0 µm (PM1.0), and ≤0.5 µm (PM0.5) as well as number concentrations of particulate matter with diameters ≤ 0.2 µm (PN0.2) and ≤0.1 µm (PN0.1). We applied linear mixed-effect models to assess the associations between short-term exposure to different PM size fractions and PM2.5 constituents and seven lipid metrics. We found significant associations of greater concentrations of PM in different size fractions within 5 days before blood collection with lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and apolipoprotein A (ApoA1) levels, higher apolipoprotein B (ApoB) levels, and lower ApoA1/ApoB ratios. Among the PM2.5 constituents, we observed that higher concentrations of tin and lead were significantly associated with decreased HDL-C levels, and higher concentrations of nickel were associated with higher HDL-C levels. Our results suggest that short-term exposure to PM in different sizes was deleteriously associated with blood lipids. Some constituents, especially metals, might be the major contributors to the detrimental effects.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , China , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Lipídeos , Material Particulado/análise
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