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1.
Environ Res ; 183: 109197, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32058142

RESUMO

There is a large body of evidence linking Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) exposure with impaired lung function. However, it is not known whether exposure to pets modifies this relationship. To investigate if pet ownership changes the association between ETS exposure and lung function, a population-based sample of 7326 children, 7-14 years old, were randomly recruited from 24 districts in northeast China. Lung function including forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), peak expiratory flow (PEF), and maximal mid-expiratory flow (MMEF) was measured by spirometry, while pet ownership time periods and ETS exposure were collected by questionnaire. Two-level regression analysis was done, with covariates controlled for. The results showed pet exposure in certain early lifetime windows modified the associations of ETS exposure on decreased lung function in children. Among children exposed to current ETS, those exposed to pets in utero had greater reductions in lung function (for instance: OR for reduced FVC (<85% predicted) = 10.86; 95% CI: 3.80-30.97) than those not exposed to pets in utero (OR = 2.32; 95% CI: 1.76-3.05) (pinteraction = 0.005). While, children exposed to current pet ownership reduced the lung function impairment induced by ETS exposure during the first 2 years of life and/or ETS exposure during pregnancy, especially for FVC impairment. For instance, OR (95%CI) for reduced FVC (<85% predicted) was 0.81 (0.56, 1.18) and 1.42 (1.15, 1.74), respectively, for children with or without current pet ownership exposed to ETS during the first 2 years of life (pinteraction = 0.010). Furthermore, pet type or number of pets did not significantly modify associations between ETS exposure and lung function. In conclusion, the timing of pet ownership modified associations between ETS exposure and lung function, pet ownership in utero and during the first 2 years of life significantly worsened the adverse impacts of passive smoking on lung function.

2.
Environ Int ; 137: 105555, 2020 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32059142

RESUMO

The detrimental effects of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) on several physiological systems have been reported, but the association of PFASs with eye, one of the most sensitive and exposed organ, has never been explored. To investigate the association between eye diseases including visual impairment (VI) and PFASs isomers, a cross-sectional stratified study was conducted in 1202 Chinese population, aged 22-96 years, from Shenyang, China. A standard protocol including Snellen vision chart, slit-lamp microscopy and direct ophthalmoscopy was used to examine eye diseases/conditions relating to anterior and posterior segment of eyes. In addition, we measured the blood concentrations of 19 linear and branched PFASs at one-time point. Results indicated that blood levels of PFASs were significantly higher in eye disease group than normal group. PFASs exposure were positively associated with both combined eye diseases and individual eye diseases. Among other PFASs, linear perfluorooctane sulfonate (n-PFOS; odds ratio [OR] = 3.37, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.50, 4.56), branched perfluorooctane sulfonate (Br-PFOS; OR = 2.25, 95% CI: 1.72, 2.93) and linear perfluorooctanoic acid (n-PFOA; OR = 1.79, 95% CI: 1.36, 2.37) significantly increases the odds of VI. Vitreous disorder was adversely associated with long-chain PFASs exposure. For example, perfluorotridecanoic acid (PFTrDA; OR = 1.86, 95% CI: 1.51, 2.29) and perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA; OR = 1.79, 95% CI: 1.36, 2.36) showed the most significant association. In conclusion, this study suggests higher serum PFASs levels were associated with increase odds of VI and vitreous disorder in Chinese adults.

3.
Sci Total Environ ; 715: 136859, 2020 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32014767

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known about whether exposure to pets influences the association between hypertension and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). The current study aims to examine the interaction of pet ownership on ETS exposure and the development of hypertension in children. METHODS: From 2012 to 2013, a total of 9354 children, 5 to 17 years of age, were recruited from 62 schools in seven northeastern cities. BP in children was measured and hypertension was defined as an average diastolic blood pressure (DBP) or systolic blood pressure (SBP) at or above the 95th percentile for that child's age, sex, and height. Pet ownership in three different time periods (in utero, past 2 years, and currently) and ETS exposure data were collected from parents via a questionnaire. Two-level regressions were used for the data analyses. RESULTS: The data show consistent, significant interactions between exposure to pets and effects from ETS. Children who were not exposed to pets experienced stronger effects from ETS on hypertension when compared to those exposed to pets, and the protective effect of pet ownership became stronger with a greater number of pets in the home. Exposure to in utero ETS was associated with hypertension [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.32, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.13-1.54] only for those children without pet exposure in utero but not for those with pets (aOR = 0.75; 95% CI: 0.49-1.15) (pinteraction < 0.05). Moreover, household dog ownership was related to significantly lower effects of current ETS on hypertension (aOR = 0.80, 95% CI: 0.61-1.05) compared with children without dogs (aOR = 1.26, 95% CI: 1.11-1.44) (pinteraction = 0.001). Interaction associations between ETS and pet ownership were more robust for girls than for boys and for younger than older children. CONCLUSION: This study indicates an inverse relationship between pet ownership and ETS, potentially pointing to pet ownership as protecting against the development of hypertension in children.

4.
Environ Pollut ; 256: 113434, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31672350

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little information exists on interaction effects between air pollution and influenza vaccination on allergic respiratory diseases. We conducted a large population-based study to evaluate the interaction effects between influenza vaccination and long-term exposure to ambient air pollution on allergic respiratory diseases in children and adolescents. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was investigated during 2012-2013 in 94 schools from Seven Northeastern Cities (SNEC) in China. Questionnaires surveys were obtained from 56 137 children and adolescents aged 2-17 years. Influenza vaccination was defined as receipt of the influenza vaccine. We estimated air pollutants exposure [nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters ≤1 µm (PM1), ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5) and ≤10 µm (PM10)] using machine learning methods. We employed two-level generalized linear mix effects model to examine interactive effects between influenza vaccination and air pollution exposure on allergic respiratory diseases (asthma, asthma-related symptoms and allergic rhinitis), after controlling for important covariates. RESULTS: We found statistically significant interactions between influenza vaccination and air pollutants on allergic respiratory diseases and related symptoms (doctor-diagnosed asthma, current wheeze, wheeze, persistent phlegm and allergic rhinitis). The adjusted ORs for doctor-diagnosed asthma, current wheeze and allergic rhinitis among the unvaccinated group per interquartile range (IQR) increase in PM1 and PM2.5 were significantly higher than the corresponding ORs among the vaccinated group [For PM1, doctor-diagnosed asthma: OR: 1.89 (95%CI: 1.57-2.27) vs 1.65 (95%CI: 1.36-2.00); current wheeze: OR: 1.50 (95%CI: 1.22-1.85) vs 1.10 (95%CI: 0.89-1.37); allergic rhinitis: OR: 1.38 (95%CI: 1.15-1.66) vs 1.21 (95%CI: 1.00-1.46). For PM2.5, doctor-diagnosed asthma: OR: 1.81 (95%CI: 1.52-2.14) vs 1.57 (95%CI: 1.32-1.88); current wheeze: OR: 1.46 (95%CI: 1.21-1.76) vs 1.11 (95%CI: 0.91-1.35); allergic rhinitis: OR: 1.35 (95%CI: 1.14-1.60) vs 1.19 (95%CI: 1.00-1.42)]. The similar patterns were observed for wheeze and persistent phlegm. The corresponding p values for interactions were less than 0.05, respectively. We assessed the risks of PM1-related and PM2.5-related current wheeze were decreased by 26.67% (95%CI: 1.04%-45.66%) and 23.97% (95%CI: 0.21%-42.08%) respectively, which was attributable to influenza vaccination (both p for efficiency <0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Influenza vaccination may play an important role in mitigating the detrimental effects of long-term exposure to ambient air pollution on childhood allergic respiratory diseases. Policy targeted at increasing influenza vaccination may yield co-benefits in terms of reduced allergic respiratory diseases.

5.
Environ Pollut ; 256: 113422, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31672364

RESUMO

Evidence suggests that residential greenness may be protective of high blood pressure, but there is scarcity of evidence on the associations between greenness around schools and blood pressure among children. We aimed to investigate this association in China. Our study included 9354 children from 62 schools in the Seven Northeastern Cities Study. Greenness around each child's school was measured by NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) and SAVI (Soil-Adjusted Vegetation Index). Particulate matter ≤ 1 µm (PM1) concentrations were estimated by spatiotemporal models and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations were collected from air monitoring stations. Associations between greenness and blood pressure were determined by generalized linear and logistic mixed-effect models. Mediation by air pollution was assessed using mediation analysis. Higher greenness was consistently associated with lower blood pressure. An increase of 0.1 in NDVI corresponded to a reduction in SBP of 1.39 mmHg (95% CI: 1.86, -0.93) and lower odds of hypertension (OR = 0.76, 95% CI: 0.69, 0.82). Stronger associations were observed in children with higher BMI. Ambient PM1 and NO2 mediated 33.0% and 10.9% of the association between greenness and SBP, respectively. In summary, greater greenness near schools had a beneficial effect on blood pressure, particularly in overweight or obese children in China. The associations might be partially mediated by air pollution. These results might have implications for policy makers to incorporate more green space for both aesthetic and health benefits.

6.
Hypertension ; 75(2): 347-355, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31838909

RESUMO

Evidence on the associations between airborne particulates of diameter ≤1 µm (PM1) and airborne particulates of diameter ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5) and childhood blood pressure (BP) is scarce. To help to address this literature gap, we conducted a study to explore the associations in Chinese children. Between 2012 and 2013, we recruited 9354 children, aged 5 to 17 years, from 62 schools in 7 northeastern Chinese cities. We measured their BP with a mercury sphygmomanometer. We used a spatiotemporal model to estimate daily ambient PM1 and PM2.5 exposures, which we assigned to participants' home addresses. Associations between particulate matter exposure and BP were evaluated with generalized linear mixed regression models. The findings indicated that exposure to each 10 mg/m3 greater PM1 was significantly associated with 2.56 mm Hg (95% CI, 1.47-3.65) higher systolic BP and 61% greater odds for hypertension (odds ratio=1.61 [95% CI, 1.18-2.18]). PM1 appears to play an important role in associations reported between PM2.5 exposure and BP, and we found that the ambient PM1/PM2.5 ratio (range, 0.80-0.96) was associated with BP and with hypertension. Age and body weight modified associations between air pollutants and BP (P<0.01), with stronger associations among younger (aged ≤11 years) and overweight/obese children. This study provides the first evidence that long-term exposure to PM1 is associated with hypertension in children, and that PM1 might be a leading contributor to the hypertensive effect of PM2.5. Researchers and policy makers should pay closer attention to the potential health impacts of PM1.

7.
Environ Int ; 135: 105365, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31830731

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Experimental studies show that chlorinated polyfluorinated ether sulfonic acids (Cl-PFESA 6:2 and 8:2), one of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) used as perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) alternatives, are reproductive toxicants in vivo and in vitro. However, the associations between gestational exposure to Cl-PFESAs and birth outcomes are unknown. OBJECTIVES: We investigated associations between 6:2 Cl-PFESA and 8:2 Cl-PFESA in maternal serum and birth outcomes. METHODS: We measured four PFAS, including 6:2 Cl-PFESA, 8:2 Cl-PFESA, PFOS, and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in third-trimester maternal serum collected from 372 mother-child dyads participating in the Guangzhou Birth Cohort Study. Characteristics of mothers and infants were gathered from medical records and by interviewer-administered questionnaires. RESULTS: PFOS was the most abundant PFAS in maternal serum (median: 7.15 ng/mL), followed by 6:2 Cl-PFESA (median: 2.41 ng/mL). Greater maternal serum levels of all PFAS alternatives were significantly associated with lower birth weight, adjusted for confounding variables. For example, each ln-ng/mL greater concentration of 6:2 Cl-PFESA and 8:2 Cl-PFESA was associated with a 54.44 g [95% confidence interval (CI): -95.66, -13.22] and 21.15 g (95% CI: -41.44, -0.86) lower birth weight, respectively. Greater continuous maternal serum 6:2 Cl-PFESA (OR: 2.67, 95% CI: 1.73, 4.15) and PFOS (OR: 2.03, 95% CI: 1.24, 3.32) were also associated with higher risks for preterm birth, adjusted for confounders, with a possible threshold effect at the highest quartile of 6:2 Cl-PFESA. CONCLUSIONS: For the first time, we report associations between maternal serum 6:2 Cl-PFESA and 8:2 Cl-PFESA concentrations and adverse birth outcomes. Our findings suggest that PFOS alternatives may be reproductive toxicants in human populations and should be considered with caution before widespread use. Given the preliminary nature of our results, additional epidemiological and toxicological investigations are needed to more definitively assess the risks.

8.
Environ Int ; 135: 105388, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31837524

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Residing in greener areas has several health benefits, but no study to date has examined the effects of greenness on metabolic syndrome (MetS). We aimed to assess associations between residential greenness and MetS prevalence in China, and to explore whether air pollution and physical activity mediated any observed associations. METHODS: We analyzed data from 15,477 adults who participated in the 33 Communities Chinese Health Study during 2009. We defined MetS according to standard guidelines for Chinese populations. Residential greenness was estimated using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), the Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI), and the Vegetation Continuous Field (VCF). We used generalized linear mixed models to assess the associations between greenness and MetS, and mediation analyses to explore potential mechanisms underlying the associations. RESULTS: Higher greenness levels were associated with lower odds of MetS [e.g., for every interquartile range increase of NDVI500-m, SAVI500-m, and VCF500-m, the adjusted odds ratio of MetS was 0.81 (95% confidence interval: 0.70-0.93), 0.80 (95% confidence interval: 0.69-0.93), and 0.91 (95% confidence interval: 0.83-1.00), respectively]. The direction and the magnitude of the associations persisted in several sensitivity analyses. Stratified analyses showed that age and household income modified the associations, with greater effect estimates observed in participants younger than 65 years old or those with higher household income. Particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤10 µm, nitrogen dioxide, and ozone mediated 2.1-20.3% of the associations between greenness and MetS; no evidence of mediation was observed for physical activity. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest a beneficial association for residential greenness and MetS in Chinese urban dwellers, especially for participants younger than 65 years old and those with higher household income. Particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤10 µm, nitrogen dioxide and ozone, but not physical activity, may only partially mediate the association.

9.
Sci Total Environ ; 705: 135885, 2020 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31841927

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent studies suggest that perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) and PFAS alternatives can cross the placental barrier. However, little is known on the differential patterns of trans-placental transfer (TPT) among conventional PFAS and PFAS alternatives in epidemiological study. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to characterize comprehensive TPT patterns in conventional PFAS and PFAS alternatives using matched maternal-cord blood serum from a birth cohort. METHODS: A total of 424 mother-fetus pairs were recruited from the Maoming Birth Cohort during 2015-2018. We detected 20 PFAS in cord and maternal serum using an ultraperformance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). TPT of PFAS was calculated via cord to maternal serum concentration ratios. RESULTS: Both of PFOS alternatives (chlorinated polyfluorinated ether sulfonates, Cl-PFESAs) and PFOA short-chain alternative (perfluorobutanoic acid, PFBA) were widely detected in the cord and maternal serum. In cord serum, the predominant PFAS was PFOS (1.93 ng/mL), followed by PFBA (1.45 ng/mL), PFOA (0.75 ng/mL) and 6:2 Cl-PFESA (0.32 ng/mL). We found that the PFAS alternatives had higher TPT than PFOS and PFOA, such as PFBA vs. PFOA (median: 1.41 vs. 0.73, P < 0.001) and 8:2 Cl-PFESA vs. PFOS (median: 0.98 vs. 0.42, P < 0.001). Moreover, the TPT of 8:2 Cl-PFESA was higher than the precursor, linear and isomeric PFOS, respectively (P < 0.01). Furthermore, we found a U-shaped pattern for TPT in perfluorocarboxylic acid compounds (PFCAs) across different length of carbon chain. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that PFAS alternatives may be more easily across the placenta than conventional PFAS. Given the widespread usage of PFAS alternatives, our results indicate that more research is needed to assess the potential health risks of prenatal exposure to PFAS alternatives in children.

10.
Sci Total Environ ; 699: 134397, 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31677469

RESUMO

Children are vulnerable to air pollution-induced lung function deficits, and the prevalence of obesity has been increasing in children. To evaluate the joint effects of long-term PM1 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤ 1.0 µm) exposure and obesity on children's lung function, a cross-sectional sample of 6740 children (aged 7-14 years) was enrolled across seven northeastern Chinese cities from 2012 to 2013. Weight and lung function, including forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), peak expiratory flow (PEF), and maximal mid-expiratory flow (MMEF), were measured according to standardized protocols. Average PM1, PM2.5, PM10 and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) exposure levels were estimated using a spatiotemporal model, and sulphur dioxide (SO2) and ozone (O3) exposure were estimated using data from municipal air monitoring stations. Two-level logistic regression and general linear models were used to analyze the joint effects of body mass index (BMI) and air pollutants. The results showed that long-term air pollution exposure was associated with lung function impairment and there were significant interactions with BMI. Associations were stronger among obese and overweight than normal weight participants (the adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for PM1 and lung function impairments in three increasing BMI categories were 1.50 (1.07-2.11) to 2.55 (1.59-4.07) for FVC < 85% predicted, 1.44 (1.03-2.01) to 2.51 (1.53-4.11) for FEV1 < 85% predicted, 1.34 (0.97-1.84) to 2.04 (1.24-3.35) for PEF < 75% predicted, and 1.34 (1.01-1.78) to 1.93 (1.26-2.95) for MMEF < 75% predicted). Consistent results were detected in linear regression models for PM1, PM2.5 and SO2 on FVC and FEV1 impairments (PInteraction < 0.05). These modification effects were stronger among females and older participants. These results can provide policy makers with more comprehensive information for to develop strategies for preventing air pollution induced children's lung function deficits among children.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Cidades , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Humanos , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Sobrepeso , Ozônio/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Testes de Função Respiratória , Dióxido de Enxofre , Capacidade Vital
11.
Sci Total Environ ; 702: 135040, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31726339

RESUMO

Living in greener places may protect against obesity, but epidemiological evidence is inconsistent and mainly comes from developed nations. We aimed to investigate the association between greenness and obesity in Chinese adults and to assess air pollution and physical activity as mediators of the association. We recruited 24,845 adults from the 33 Communities Chinese Health Study in 2009. Central and peripheral obesity were defined by waist circumference (WC) and body mass index (BMI), respectively, based on international obesity standards. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) was used to quantify community greenness. Two-level logistic and generalized linear mixed regression models were used to evaluate the association between NDVI and obesity, and a conditional mediation analysis was used also performed. In the adjusted models, an interquartile range increase in NDVI500-m was significantly associated with lower odds of peripheral 0.80 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.74-0.87) and central obesity 0.88 (95% CI: 0.83-0.93). Higher NDVI values were also significantly associated with lower BMI. Age, gender, and household income significantly modified associations between greenness and obesity, with stronger associations among women, older participants, and participants with lower household incomes. Air pollution mediated 2.1-20.8% of the greenness-obesity associations, but no mediating effects were observed for physical activity. In summary, higher community greenness level was associated with lower odds of central and peripheral obesity, especially among women, older participants, and those with lower household incomes. These associations were partially mediated by air pollutants. Future well-designed longitudinal studies are needed to confirm our findings.


Assuntos
Obesidade/epidemiologia , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Poluição do Ar , Índice de Massa Corporal , China/epidemiologia , Cidades/epidemiologia , Exercício , Humanos , Características de Residência , Fatores Socioeconômicos , População Urbana/tendências
12.
JAMA Netw Open ; 2(12): e1917862, 2019 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31851349

RESUMO

Importance: Few studies have investigated the association between greenness and childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Objective: To evaluate the association between greenness surrounding schools or kindergartens and symptoms of ADHD in children. Design, Setting, and Participants: This population-based cross-sectional study was performed between April 2012 and January 2013 in 7 cities in northeastern China. This analysis included 59 754 children (aged 2-17 years) from 94 schools and kindergartens, who had resided in the study area for 2 years or longer. Data were analyzed from April 15, 2019, to October 10, 2019. Exposures: Greenness surrounding each child's school or kindergarten was estimated using 2 satellite image-derived vegetation indexes: the normalized difference vegetation index and the soil-adjusted vegetation index. Main Outcomes and Measures: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fourth Edition) scales were used to measure ADHD symptoms (9 inattention symptoms and 9 hyperactivity-impulsivity symptoms). Parents or guardians rated the frequency of each of 18 ADHD symptoms during the preceding 6 months. Children with 6 or more symptoms of either inattention or hyperactivity-impulsivity were defined as having ADHD symptoms. Generalized linear mixed models were applied to estimate the association between greenness and ADHD symptoms. Results: The mean (SD) age of the 59 754 study participants was 10.3 (3.6) years, and 29 494 (49.4%) were girls. A total of 2566 participants (4.3%) had ADHD symptoms. Greenness levels differed substantially across schools and kindergartens. The normalized difference vegetation index within 500 m of a school or kindergarten ranged from -0.09 to 0.77. Greater greenness levels were associated with lower odds of ADHD symptoms. In covariate-adjusted models, a 0.1-unit increase in normalized difference vegetation index or soil-adjusted vegetation index within 500 m of a school or kindergarten was significantly associated with lower odds of ADHD symptoms (odds ratios, 0.87 [95% CI, 0.83-0.91] and 0.80 [95% CI, 0.74-0.86], respectively; P < .001 for both). The associations were robust in a series of sensitivity analyses. Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest that there may be a beneficial association between school-based greenness and ADHD symptoms in Chinese children. Future longitudinal and mechanistic studies are needed to confirm the findings of this cross-sectional analysis and further explore potential mechanisms of this association.

13.
Environ Int ; 133(Pt A): 105160, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31518937

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Greater levels of serum per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are known to be associated with higher uric acid which itself leads to a number of chronic diseases. However, whether this association varies across PFAS isomers which recently have been found to be associated with human health remains unknown. OBJECTIVES: To address this research gap, we explored isomer-specific associations between serum PFAS and uric acid in Chinese adults. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study of associations between serum PFAS isomer and serum uric acid in 1612 participants from the Isomer of C8 Health Project. We used multivariable linear and logistic regression models to analyze serum isomers of perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), and other PFASs as continuous and categorical predictors of uric acid, adjusted for confounders. The association was also stratified by kidney function stage based on estimated glomerular filtration rate (GF-1, GF-2, GF-3a, and GF-3b/4). RESULTS: We found positive associations between serum PFAS isomer concentrations and uric acid. Uric acid levels were greater for each log-unit increase in branched PFOA (ß = 0.30, 95% CI: 0.21, 0.40), linear PFOA (ß = 0.18, 95% CI: 0.09, 0.26), branched PFOS (ß = 0.09, 95% CI: 0.02, 0.17) and linear PFOS (ß = 0.06, 95% CI: -0.01, 0.14) concentration. The associations between PFAS and uric acid showed an inverted 'U' shaped pattern across kidney function stages. For example, uric acid level was greater with each log-unit increase in total-PFOA among GF-1 (ß = 0.21, 95% CI: 0.06, 0.37), this relationship was greater in GF-3a (ß = 0.49, 95% CI: 0.09, 0.89) and decreased in GF-3b/4 (ß = -0.22, 95% CI: -0.83, 0.39). We also found the odds of hyperuricemia increased linearly with increasing branched PFOA in quartiles (odds ratio = 2.67, 95% CI: 1.86, 3.85 at the highest quartile). CONCLUSION: We report novel results in which PFAS associations with uric acid varied according to isomer and adult kidney function. Besides, our findings are consistent with previous epidemiologic studies in finding a positive association between serum PFAS concentrations and serum uric acid, especially for PFOA. Our results indicate that more research is needed to more clearly assess the impact of PFAS isomers on human health, which will help to refine regulation policies for PFAS.

14.
JAMA Netw Open ; 2(5): e194186, 2019 05 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31125097

RESUMO

Importance: Breastfeeding and exposure to ambient air pollutants have been found to be independently associated with respiratory health in children; however, previous studies have not examined the association of breastfeeding as a potential moderator of the association. Objective: To assess associations of breastfeeding and air pollution with lung function in children. Design, Setting, and Participants: Using a cross-sectional study design, children were recruited from 62 elementary and middle schools located in 7 Chinese cities from April 1, 2012, to October 31, 2013. Data analyses were conducted from November 1, 2018, to March 31, 2019. Exposures: Long-term concentrations of airborne particulate matter with a diameter of 1 µm or less (PM1), airborne particulate matter with a diameter of 2.5 µm or less (PM2.5), airborne particulate matter with a diameter of 10 µm or less (PM10), and nitrogen dioxide were estimated using a spatial statistical model matched to children's geocoded home addresses, and concentrations of PM10, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, and ozone were measured by local air monitoring stations. Main Outcomes and Measures: Breastfeeding was defined as maternal report of having mainly breastfed for longer than 3 months. Lung function was measured using portable electronic spirometers. Using previously published predicted spirometric values for children in Northeast China as the reference, lung impairment was defined as forced vital capacity (FVC) less than 85%, forced expiratory volume in the first second of expiration less than 85%, peak expiratory flow less than 75%, or maximum midexpiratory flow less than 75%. Results: Participants included 6740 children (mean [SD] age, 11.6 [2.1] years; 3382 boys [50.2%]). There were 4751 children (70.5%) who were breastfed. Mean (SD) particulate matter concentrations ranged from 46.8 (6.5) µg/m3 for PM1 to 95.6 (9.8) µg/m3 for PM10. The prevalence of lung function impairment ranged from 6.8% for peak expiratory flow to 11.3% for FVC. After controlling for age, sex, and other covariates, 1-interquartile range greater concentration of pollutants was associated with higher adjusted odds ratios (AORs) for lung function impairment by FVC among children who were not breastfed compared with those who were (PM1: AOR, 2.71 [95% CI, 2.02-3.63] vs 1.20 [95% CI, 0.97-1.48]; PM2.5: AOR, 2.27 [95% CI, 1.79-2.88] vs 1.26 [95% CI, 1.04-1.51]; and PM10: AOR, 1.93 [95% CI, 1.58-2.37] vs 1.46 [95% CI, 1.23-1.73]). Younger age (<12 years) was associated with lower lung function impairment among the children who had been breastfed. In children from elementary schools, 1-interquartile range greater concentration of pollutants was associated with higher AORs for lung function impairment by FVC among children who had not been breastfed compared with those who had (PM1: AOR, 6.43 [95% CI, 3.97-10.44] vs 1.89 [95% CI, 1.28-2.80]; PM2.5: AOR, 3.83 [95% CI, 2.63-5.58] vs 1.50 [95% CI, 1.12-2.01]; and PM10: AOR, 2.61 [95% CI, 1.90-3.57] vs 1.52 [95% CI, 1.19-1.95]). Results from linear regression models also showed associations of air pollution with worse lung function among children who were not breastfed compared with their counterparts who were breastfed, especially for FVC (PM1: ß, -240.46 [95% CI, -288.71 to -192.21] vs -38.21 [95% CI, -69.27 to -7.16] mL) and forced expiratory volume in the first second of expiration (PM1: ß, -201.37 [95% CI, -242.08 to -160.65] vs -30.30 [95% CI, -57.66 to -2.94] mL). Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, breastfeeding was associated with lower risk of lung function impairment among children in China exposed to air pollution, particularly among younger children.

15.
Environ Pollut ; 250: 14-22, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30981931

RESUMO

While exposure to places with higher greenness shows health benefits, evidence is scarce on its lipidemic effects. We assessed the associations between residential greenness and blood lipids and effect mediations by air pollution, physical activity, and adiposity in China. Our study included 15,477 adults from the population-based 33 Communities Chinese Health Study, conducted between April and December 2009, in Northeastern China. We measured total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). Residential greenness was estimated using two satellite-derived vegetation indices - the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and the Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI). We used both nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and particles ≤2.5 µm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) as proxies of outdoor air pollution. Associations were assessed using linear mixed effects regression models and logistic mixed effects regression models, and mediation analyses were also performed. Living in higher greenness areas was consistently associated with lower TC, TG, and LDL-C levels and higher HDL-C levels (e.g., change in TC, TG, LDL-C, and HDL-C per 0.1-unit increase in NDVI500-m was -1.52%, -3.05%, -1.91%, and 0.52%, respectively). Similar results were obtained for the corresponding dyslipidemias. These associations were generally stronger in women and older adults. While educational levels showed effect modifications, the effect pattern was inconsistent. Both outdoor air pollution and body mass index mediated 9.1-62.3% and 5.6-40.1% of the associations for greenness and blood lipids, respectively, however, physical activity did not. Our results suggest beneficial associations between residing in places with higher greenness and blood lipid levels, especially in women and the elder individuals. The associations were partly mediated by lower air pollution and adiposity.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/análise , Ambiente Construído , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Lipídeos/sangue , População Urbana , Adiposidade , Idoso , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Índice de Massa Corporal , China , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/efeitos adversos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise
16.
Environ Int ; 126: 727-734, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30878868

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Living in greener areas has many health benefits, but evidence concerning the effects on blood pressure remains mixed. We sought to assess associations between community greenness and both blood pressure and hypertension in Chinese urban dwellers, and whether the associations were mediated by air pollution, body mass index, and physical activity. METHODS: We analyzed data from 24,845 adults participating in the 33 Communities Chinese Health Study, which was conducted in Northeastern China during 2009. We measured each participant's blood pressure according to a standardized protocol. We assessed community greenness using two satellite-derived vegetation indexes - the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and the Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI). Particulate matter ≤2.5 µm and nitrogen dioxide were used as proxies of ambient air pollution. We applied generalized linear mixed models to investigate the association between greenness and blood pressure. We also performed mediation analyses. RESULTS: Living in greener areas was associated with lower blood pressure and hypertension prevalence; an interquartile range increase in both NDVI500-m and SAVI500-m were significantly associated with reductions in systolic blood pressure of 0.82 mm Hg (95% CI: -1.13, -0.51) and 0.89 mm Hg (95% CI: -1.21, -0.57), respectively. The same increases in greenness were also significantly associated with a 5% (95% CI: 1%, 8%) and 5% (95% CI: 1%, 9%) lower odds of having hypertension, respectively. These associations remained consistent in sensitivity analyses. The associations were stronger among women than men. Air pollutants and body mass index partly mediated the associations, but there was no evidence of mediation effects for physical activity. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate beneficial associations between community greenness and blood pressure in Chinese adults, especially for women. Air pollution and body mass index only partly mediated the associations.


Assuntos
Adiposidade , Poluição do Ar/análise , Pressão Sanguínea , Meio Ambiente , Exercício , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
17.
JAMA Netw Open ; 2(3): e190318, 2019 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30848806

RESUMO

Importance: Which cardiometabolic risk factors (eg, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, overweight or obesity, and dyslipidemia) are more sensitive to long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and whether participants with these conditions are more susceptible to the cardiovascular effects of air pollution remain unclear. Objectives: To evaluate the associations among long-term exposure to air pollutants, cardiometabolic risk factors, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevalence. Design, Setting, and Participants: This population-based cross-sectional study was conducted from April 1 through December 31, 2009, in 3 cities in Northeastern China. Participants were adults aged 18 to 74 years who had lived in study area for 5 years or longer. Data analysis was performed from May 1 through December 31, 2018. Exposures: Long-term (2006-2008) exposure to air pollutants was measured using a spatiotemporal statistical model (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of ≤2.5 µm [PM2.5] and ≤1.0 µm [PM1.0]) and data from air monitoring stations (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of ≤10.0 µm [PM10.0], sulfur dioxide [SO2], nitrogen dioxide [NO2], and ozone [O3]). Main Outcomes and Measures: Cardiovascular disease was determined by self-report of physician-diagnosed CVD. Blood pressure, body mass index, and levels of triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were measured using standard methods. Results: Participants included 15 477 adults (47.3% women) with a mean (SD) age of 45.0 (13.5) years. The prevalence of CVD was 4.8%, and the prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors ranged from 8.6% (hyperbetalipoproteinemia) to 40.5% (overweight or obesity). Mean (SD) air pollutant concentrations ranged from 35.3 (5.5) µg/m3 (for NO2) to 123.1 (14.6) µg/m3 (for PM10.0). Associations with air pollutants were identified for individuals with hyperbetalipoproteinemia (eg, odds ratio [OR], 1.36 [95% CI, 1.03-1.78] for a 10-µg/m3 increase in PM1.0) and the weakest association for those with for overweight or obesity (eg, OR, 1.06 [95% CI, 1.02-1.09] for a 10-µg/m3 increase in PM1.0). Cardiometabolic risk factors only partially mediated associations between air pollution and CVD. However, they modified the associations such that greater associations were found in participants with these cardiometabolic conditions (eg, ORs for CVD and per 10-µg/m3 increase in PM1.0, 1.22 [95% CI, 1.12-1.33] in participants with hyperbetalipoproteinemia and 1.07 [95% CI, 0.98-1.16] in participants without hyperbetalipoproteinemia). Conclusions and Relevance: In this population-based study of Chinese adults with CVD, long-term exposure to air pollution was associated with a higher prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors, and the strongest associations were observed for hyperbetalipoproteinemia. In addition, participants with cardiometabolic risk factors may have been more vulnerable to the effects of air pollution on CVD.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II , Exposição por Inalação , Material Particulado , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Doenças Cardiovasculares/classificação , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , China/epidemiologia , Correlação de Dados , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/diagnóstico , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/epidemiologia , Exposição por Inalação/efeitos adversos , Exposição por Inalação/análise , Exposição por Inalação/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Tempo
18.
Environ Sci Technol ; 53(7): 3782-3790, 2019 04 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30831022

RESUMO

Spatiotemporal trends in pro-inflammatory (interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8) release after exposure to the water-soluble fractions of PM2.5 sampled in 10 large Chinese cities over 1 year were investigated. Chemical components (water-soluble ions, metal(loid) elements, water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), humic-like substances (HULIS), and endotoxins) in PM2.5 samples were measured, and the molecular structure of WSOC was also analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance. Changes in DNA methylation and gene expression of candidate genes were also evaluated to explore the potential mechanisms. PM2.5 from southern cities induced lower pro-inflammatory responses compared to those from northern cities. Seasonal differences in toxicity were noted among the cities. IL-6 was significantly correlated with HULIS (as the main fraction of WSOC with oxygenated carbohydrate structures characteristic), Pb, and endotoxin. Furthermore, DNA methylation and gene expression changes in RASSF2 and CYP1B1 were related to pro-inflammatory secretion. Certain components of PM2.5, rather than PM2.5 mass itself, determine the pro-inflammatory release. In particular, HULIS, which originated from primary biomass burning and residual coal combustion, and secondary organic aerosols, appear to be the key component in PM2.5 to induce human health risk.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Material Particulado , Cidades , Carvão Mineral , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Inflamação , Estações do Ano , Água
19.
Sci Total Environ ; 663: 60-67, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30708217

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are synthetic chemicals widely used in industry and for commercial products. Their immunomodulatory effects are a growing health concern in children. Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease (HFMD) is a common childhood viral infection, and increased incidence of which has parallel the rise in PFAS exposure in the Asia-Pacific region. OBJECTIVE: We conducted the first study to assess whether prenatal exposure to PFAS was associated with a reduction in HFMD virus antibodies in infants. METHODS: We enrolled 201 mother-infant pairs from the Guangzhou Birth Cohort Study from July to October 2013. High performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry was employed to determine concentrations of specific PFAS isomers in cord blood. Neutralizing antibodies titers were measured against two HFMD viruses, enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A 16 (CA16), in cord blood serum and blood serum at three months of age. RESULTS: Higher umbilical cord blood PFAS concentrations were associated with lower EV71 and CA16 antibody concentrations. A doubling in the composite sum of cord blood PFASs in three month old infants was associated with significant increase in the risk of HFMD antibody concentration below clinical protection level (≥1:8 titers) for CA16 (odds ratio, OR: 2.74 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.33, 5.61] and for EV71 (OR = 4.55, 95% CI: 1.45, 4.28). This association was higher in boys at three months of age for CA16. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that cord blood PFAS exposure is associated with lower HFMD antibody in infancy. Given the widespread nature of PFAS exposures and the high global incidence of HFMD globally, these findings have substantial public health implications and therefore, these associations need to be replicated in a larger study to more definitively address the risk.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Fluorcarbonetos/efeitos adversos , Vírus da Febre Aftosa/imunologia , Doença de Mão, Pé e Boca/imunologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/imunologia , Adulto , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , China , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Sangue Fetal/química , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/virologia , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
20.
Environ Res ; 172: 81-88, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30776734

RESUMO

Exposure to chemicals may affect liver enzyme to increase the risk of liver diseases. Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are one kind of persistent organic pollutants with hepatotoxic effect in organism. However, data is scarce to characterize the hepatotoxic effects of specific structural PFAA isomers in general population. To address this data gap, we evaluated the association between serum PFAAs concentration and liver function biomarkers in the Isomers of C8 Health Project in China. High performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) was used to measure 18 serum PFAAs, except for linear and branched isomers of PFOA/PFOS, nine perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs) and two perfluorinated sulfonic acids (PFSAs) were also included, in 1605 adult residents of Shenyang, China. Values for nine serum liver function biomarkers were determined by full-automatic blood biochemical analyzer. Linear regression was used to evaluate associations between PFAAs and continuous liver function biomarkers and logistic regression to assess markers dichotomized per clinical reference intervals. Results indicated that serum PFAAs concentrations were associated with liver biomarker levels suggestive of hepatotoxicity, especially for liver cell injury. For example, a 1 ln-unit increase in total- perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) exposure was associated with a 7.4% [95% confidence interval (CI): 3.9%, 11.0%] higher alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level in serum. Interestingly, we observed association between branched PFAA isomers and liver biomarkers. For example, one ln-unit increase in branched perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) isomers exposure was associated with a 4.3% increase in ALT level (95% CI: 1.2%, 7.4%) and a 33.0% increased odds of having abnormal ALT (95% CI: 5.0%, 67.0%). Also, we found that PFNA had positive association with ALT [(6.2%, 95% CI: 3.1%, 9.4%) and AST levels (2.5%, 95% CI: 0.5%, 4.5%)]. Logistic regression results showed that PFPeA, PFHxA, PFNA, PFDoDA, PFTrDA and PFTeDA had statistically association with abnormal prealbumin. Conclusively, our results support previous studies showing association between PFAAs exposure and liver function biomarkers. We found new evidence that branched PFAAs isomer exposure is associated with the risk of clinically relevant hepatocellular dysfunction.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos , Biomarcadores , Exposição Ambiental , Fluorcarbonetos , Hepatopatias , Adulto , Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/toxicidade , Biomarcadores/sangue , Caprilatos , China , Fluorcarbonetos/toxicidade , Humanos , Hepatopatias/sangue , Hepatopatias/etiologia , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
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