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1.
Environ Int ; 151: 106455, 2021 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33652252

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Given the role of exposures related to residence in the development of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) has not been well explored, present study aims to investigate the magnitude and pattern of associations for NPC with lifelong residential exposures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We carried out a multi-center, population-based case-control study with 2533 incident NPC cases and 2597 randomly selected population controls in southern China between 2010 and 2014. We performed multivariate logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the risk of NPC associated with residential exposures. RESULTS: Compared with those living in a building over lifetime, risk of NPC was higher for individuals living in a cottage (OR: 1.56; 95% CI: 1.34-1.81) or in a boat (3.87; 2.07-7.21). NPC risk was also increased in individuals using wood (1.34; 1.03-1.75), coal (1.70; 1.17-2.47), or kerosene (3.58; 1.75-7.36) vs. using gas/electricity as cooking fuel; using well water (1.57; 1.34-1.83), river water (1.80; 1.47-2.21), or spring/pond/stream water (2.03; 1.70-2.41) vs. tap water for source of drinking water; living in houses with smaller-sized vs. larger windows in the bedroom (3.08; 2.46-3.86), hall (1.89; 1.55-2.31) or kitchen (1.67; 1.34-2.08); and increasing exposure to cooking smoke [(1.53; 1.20-1.94) for high exposure)] or burned incense [(1.59; 1.31-1.95) for daily use)]. Weighted Cox regression analysis corroborated these results. CONCLUSION: Poorer residential conditions and household air pollution are associated with an increased risk of NPC. Large-scale studies in other populations or longitudinal studies are warranted to further corroborate these findings.

2.
Adv Mater ; : e2004998, 2021 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33533156

RESUMO

As the practical capacity of conventional Li-ion batteries (LIBs) approaches the theoretical limit, which is determined by the rocking-chair cycling architecture, a new cycling architecture with higher capacity is highly demanded for future development and electronic applications. Here, a deep-cycling architecture intrinsically with a higher theoretical capacity limit than conventional rocking-chair cycling architecture is developed, by introducing a follow-up cycling process to contribute more capacity. The deep-cycling architecture makes full use of movable ions in both of the electrolyte and electrodes for energy storage, rather than in either the electrolyte or the electrodes. Taking LiMn2 O4 -mesocarbon microbeads (MCMB)/Li cells as a proof-of-concept, 57.7% more capacity is obtained. Moreover, the capacity retention is as high as 84.4% after 2000 charging/discharging cycles. The deep-cycling architecture offers opportunities to break the theoretical capacity limit of conventional LIBs and makes high demands for new-type of cathode materials, which will promote the development of next-generation energy storage devices.

3.
Xenotransplantation ; : e12678, 2021 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33569837

RESUMO

Islet transplantation is poised to play an important role in the treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). However, there are several challenges limiting its widespread use, including the instant blood-mediated inflammatory reaction, hypoxic/ischemic injury, and the immune response. Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) are known to exert regenerative, immunoregulatory, angiogenic, and metabolic properties. Here, we review recent reports on the application of MSCs in islet allo- and xenotransplantation. We also document the clinical trials that have been undertaken or are currently underway, relating to the co-transplantation of islets and MSCs. Increasing evidence indicates that co-transplantation of MSCs prolongs islet graft survival by locally secreted protective factors that reduce immune reactivity and promote vascularization, cell survival, and regeneration. MSC therapy may be a promising option for islet transplantation in patients with T1DM.

4.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 6(1): 59, 2021 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33568623

RESUMO

It remains unknown for decades how some of the therapeutic fusion proteins positive in a small percentage of cancer cells account for patient outcome. Here, we report that osteosarcoma Rab22a-NeoF1 fusion protein, together with its binding partner PYK2, is sorted into exosomes by HSP90 via its KFERQ-like motif (RVLFLN142). The exosomal Rab22a-NeoF1 fusion protein facilitates the pulmonary pre-metastatic niche formation by recruiting bone marrow-derived macrophages. The exosomal PYK2 activates RhoA in its negative recipient osteosarcoma cells and induces signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 activation in its recipient macrophages to increase M2 phenotype. Consequently, lung metastases of its recipient osteosarcoma cells are promoted by this exosomal Rab22a-NeoF1 fusion protein, and this event can be targeted by disrupting its interaction with PYK2 using a designed internalizing RGD peptide.

5.
IEEE Trans Image Process ; 30: 3204-3216, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33621174

RESUMO

In recent years, Salient Object Detection (SOD) has shown great success with the achievements of large-scale benchmarks and deep learning techniques. However, existing SOD methods mainly focus on natural images with low-resolutions, e.g., 400×400 or less. This drawback hinders them for advanced practical applications, which need high-resolution, detail-aware results. Besides, lacking of the boundary detail and semantic context of salient objects is also a key concern for accurate SOD. To address these issues, in this work we focus on the High-Resolution Salient Object Detection (HRSOD) task. Technically, we propose the first end-to-end learnable framework, named Dual ReFinement Network (DRFNet), for fully automatic HRSOD. More specifically, the proposed DRFNet consists of a shared feature extractor and two effective refinement heads. By decoupling the detail and context information, one refinement head adopts a global-aware feature pyramid. Without increasing too much computational burden, it can boost the spatial detail information, which narrows the gap between high-level semantics and low-level details. In parallel, the other refinement head adopts hybrid dilated convolutional blocks and group-wise upsamplings, which are very efficient in extracting contextual information. Based on the dual refinements, our approach can enlarge receptive fields and obtain more discriminative features from high-resolution images. Experimental results on high-resolution benchmarks (the public DUT-HRSOD and the proposed DAVIS-SOD) demonstrate that our method is not only efficient but also performs more accurate than other state-of-the-arts. Besides, our method generalizes well on typical low-resolution benchmarks.

6.
EMBO Rep ; : e50128, 2021 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33605073

RESUMO

N6 -methyladenosine (m6 A) modification of mRNA mediates diverse cellular and viral functions. Infection with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is causally associated with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), 10% of gastric carcinoma, and various B-cell lymphomas, in which the viral latent and lytic phases both play vital roles. Here, we show that EBV transcripts exhibit differential m6 A modification in human NPC biopsies, patient-derived xenograft tissues, and cells at different EBV infection stages. m6 A-modified EBV transcripts are recognized and destabilized by the YTHDF1 protein, which leads to the m6 A-dependent suppression of EBV infection and replication. Mechanistically, YTHDF1 hastens viral RNA decapping and mediates RNA decay by recruiting RNA degradation complexes, including ZAP, DDX17, and DCP2, thereby post-transcriptionally downregulating the expression of EBV genes. Taken together, our results reveal the critical roles of m6 A modifications and their reader YTHDF1 in EBV replication. These findings contribute novel targets for the treatment of EBV-associated cancers.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33611692

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Abnormal ion channel currents caused by myocardial electrical remodeling is one of the main causes of malignant arrhythmias. Glycogen synthase kinase 3ß (GSK-3ß) is the main therapeutic target following ischemia as it regulates nerve cell channels. However, few studies have investigated its role in myocardial electrical remodeling. The present study aimed to investigate the role of GSK-3ß in a rat myocardial infarction (MI)-induced electrical remodeling and potential effects on cardiac ionic channels including KCNJ2/Kir2.1/IK1. METHODS: Ligation of the left anterior descending artery in rats was performed to establish a MI model. The rats were randomly divided into three groups, the sham, MI, and MI + SB group. The animals in the latter group were administered SB216763 (GSK-3ß inhibitor) at a dose of 0.6 mg·kg-1·day-1. The ventricular function was assessed by echocardiography, electrocardiography, and histological analysis 7 days post-surgery. Serum was collected to measure lactate dehydrogenase and cardiac troponin I levels, and the mRNA and protein levels of the KCNJ2/Kir2.1/IK1 channel in the heart tissues were assessed. H9c2 cells were cultured to examine the effects of SB216763 on the protein expression of Kir2.1 channel under hypoxic conditions. RESULTS: The results revealed that SB216763 ameliorated acute cardiac injury and improved myocardial dysfunction. Moreover, SB216763 increased the mRNA and protein expression of Kir2.1 during MI. Furthermore, SB216763 treatment abrogated the decreased expression of Kir2.1 in H9c2 cells under hypoxic conditions. CONCLUSIONS: GSK-3ß inhibition upregulates Kir2.1 expression in a rat model of MI.

8.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 741, 2021 02 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33531485

RESUMO

The heterogeneous nature of tumour microenvironment (TME) underlying diverse treatment responses remains unclear in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Here, we profile 176,447 cells from 10 NPC tumour-blood pairs, using single-cell transcriptome coupled with T cell receptor sequencing. Our analyses reveal 53 cell subtypes, including tumour-infiltrating CD8+ T, regulatory T (Treg), and dendritic cells (DCs), as well as malignant cells with different Epstein-Barr virus infection status. Trajectory analyses reveal exhausted CD8+ T and immune-suppressive TNFRSF4+ Treg cells in tumours might derive from peripheral CX3CR1+CD8+ T and naïve Treg cells, respectively. Moreover, we identify immune-regulatory and tolerogenic LAMP3+ DCs. Noteworthily, we observe intensive inter-cell interactions among LAMP3+ DCs, Treg, exhausted CD8+ T, and malignant cells, suggesting potential cross-talks to foster an immune-suppressive niche for the TME. Collectively, our study uncovers the heterogeneity and interacting molecules of the TME in NPC at single-cell resolution, which provide insights into the mechanisms underlying NPC progression and the development of precise therapies for NPC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/imunologia , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/metabolismo , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/imunologia , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/metabolismo , Microambiente Tumoral/fisiologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/enzimologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Células Dendríticas/metabolismo , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Masculino , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/metabolismo , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia
9.
Int J Med Sci ; 18(2): 335-346, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33390802

RESUMO

Aims: We aimed to explore the crucial miRNA-mRNA axis through bioinformatics analysis and provide evidences for the development of pathophysiological mechanisms and new therapies for HBV-related HCC. Methods: MiRNA (GSE76903) and mRNA (GSE77509) dataset were used to screen differentially expressed miRNAs (DE-miRNAs) and differentially expressed mRNAs (DE-mRNAs) using R software. Overlapping genes between DE-mRNAs and target genes of DE-miRNAs were identified as candidate genes. Hub genes were obtained via cytohubba analysis. The expression at protein and mRNA levels and prognostic value of hub genes were evaluated based on The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) data. Key miRNA-mRNA axes were constructed according to predicted miRNA-mRNA pairs. MiRNA expression and prognostic role were respectively identified using starBase v3.0 and Kaplan-Meier plotter database. Real-time PCR was performed to verify the expression of crucial miRNAs and mRNAs. Coexpression of crucial miRNA and mRNA were analyzed using starBase v3.0. Results: CDK1, CCNB1, CKS2 and CCNE1 were screened as hub genes, which were significantly upregulated at protein and mRNA levels. These up-regulated hub genes were also significantly associated with poor prognosis. Hsa-mir-195-5p/CDK1, hsa-mir-5589-3p/CCNB1 and hsa-let-7c-3p/CKS2 were screened as critical miRNA-mRNA axes. Critical miRNAs were decreased in HCC, which indicates unfavourable prognosis. QPCR results showed that crucial miRNAs were decreased, whereas critical mRNAs were increased in HBV-related HCC. A reverse relationship between miRNA and mRNA in crucial axis was further verified. Conclusion: This study identified several miRNA-mRNA axes in HBV-related HCC. Hsa-mir-195-5p/CDK1, hsa-mir-5589-3p/CCNB1 and hsa-let-7c-3p/CKS2 might serve as potential prognostic biomarkers and therapeutic targets for HBV-related HCC.

10.
Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi ; 35(1): 124-129, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33448210

RESUMO

Objective: To summarize research progress of change in bone mineral density (BMD) after knee arthroplasty and its diagnostic methods, influencing factors, and drug prevention and treatment. Methods: The relevant literature at home and abroad was reviewed and summarized from research status of the advantages and disadvantages of BMD assessment methods, the trend of changes in BMD after knee arthroplasty and its influencing factors, and the differences in effectiveness of drugs. Results: The central BMD and mean BMD around the prosthesis decrease after knee arthroplasty, which is closely associated with body position, age, weight, daily activities, and the fixation methods, design, and material of prosthesis. Denosumab, bisphosphonates, and teriparatide et al. can decrease BMD loss after knee arthroplasty. Conclusion: BMD after knee arthroplasty decreases, which is related to various factors, but the mechanism is unclear. At present, some inhibitors of bone resorption can decrease BMD loss after knee arthroplasty. However, its long-term efficacy remains to be further explored.


Assuntos
Artroplastia do Joelho , Conservadores da Densidade Óssea , Reabsorção Óssea , Artroplastia do Joelho/efeitos adversos , Densidade Óssea , Conservadores da Densidade Óssea/uso terapêutico , Reabsorção Óssea/etiologia , Reabsorção Óssea/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Tíbia/cirurgia
11.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 49(2): 726-744, 2021 01 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33406262

RESUMO

The establishment of the small intestinal (SI) lineage during human embryogenesis ensures functional integrity of the intestine after birth. The chromatin dynamics that drive SI lineage formation and regional patterning in humans are essentially unknown. To fill this knowledge void, we apply a cutting-edge genomic technology to a state-of-the-art human model of early SI development. Specifically, we leverage chromatin run-on sequencing (ChRO-seq) to define the landscape of active promoters, enhancers and gene bodies across distinct stages of directed differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells into SI spheroids with regional specification. Through comprehensive ChRO-seq analysis we identify candidate stage-specific chromatin activity states, novel markers and enhancer hotspots during the directed differentiation. Moreover, we propose a detailed transcriptional network associated with SI lineage formation or regional patterning. Our ChRO-seq analyses uncover a previously undescribed pattern of enhancer activity and transcription at HOX gene loci underlying SI regional patterning. We also validated this unique HOX dynamics by the analysis of single cell RNA-seq data from human fetal SI. Overall, the results lead to a new proposed working model for the regulatory underpinnings of human SI development, thereby adding a novel dimension to the literature that has relied almost exclusively on non-human models.


Assuntos
Montagem e Desmontagem da Cromatina , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Células-Tronco Embrionárias Humanas/metabolismo , Intestino Delgado/embriologia , Modelos Biológicos , Animais , Diferenciação Celular , Linhagem Celular , Linhagem da Célula , Elementos Facilitadores Genéticos , Genes Homeobox , Células-Tronco Embrionárias Humanas/citologia , Humanos , Intestino Delgado/metabolismo , Camundongos , Organoides , RNA Mensageiro/biossíntese , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Análise de Sequência de RNA/métodos , Análise de Célula Única , Transcrição Genética
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(2)2021 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33440639

RESUMO

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is a key enzyme in the folate metabolic pathway, and its loss of function through polymorphisms is often associated with human conditions, including cancer, congenital heart disease, and Down syndrome. MTHFR is also required in the maintenance of heterochromatin, a crucial determinant of genomic stability and precise chromosomal segregation. Here, we characterize the function of a fission yeast gene met11+, which encodes a protein that is highly homologous to the mammalian MTHFR. We show that, although met11+ is not essential for viability, its disruption increases chromosome missegregation and destabilizes constitutive heterochromatic regions at pericentromeric, sub-telomeric and ribosomal DNA (rDNA) loci. Transcriptional silencing at these sites were disrupted, which is accompanied by the reduction in enrichment of histone H3 lysine 9 dimethylation (H3K9me2) and binding of the heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1)-like Swi6. The met11 null mutant also dominantly disrupts meiotic fidelity, as displayed by reduced sporulation efficiency and defects in proper partitioning of the genetic material during meiosis. Interestingly, the faithful execution of these meiotic processes is synergistically ensured by cooperation among Met11, Rec8, a meiosis-specific cohesin protein, and the shugoshin protein Sgo1, which protects Rec8 from untimely cleavage. Overall, our results suggest a key role for Met11 in maintaining pericentromeric heterochromatin for precise genetic inheritance during mitosis and meiosis.

13.
Gene ; 775: 145447, 2021 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33482278

RESUMO

Limbal stem cells (LSCs) reside in the basal layer of limbal epithelial cells (LECs). They are crucial for maintenance of corneal epithelium homeostasis and corneal wound healing. Their stemness is determined by their gene expression pattern. Despite of several positive identifiers have been reported, the unique biomarker for LSCs still remain elusive. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between stem cells and differentiated cells affect the fate of stem cells via specific signaling pathway. In order to understand the DEGs in the LSCs, RNA-seq was firstly conducted using a mouse model. A total of 1907 up-regulated DEGs and 395 down-regulated DEGs were identified in the limbus (L) compared to central cornea (CC) and conjunctiva (Cj). Reliability of the expression of genes from RNA-seq analysis was evaluated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and immunofluorescence staining. The expression pattern of putative biomarkers was considered to be age-related. In up-regulated DEGs GO analysis, 570 gene ontology (GO) terms were significantly enriched. Five groups of genes related with biological processes from these significantly enriched GO terms comprised ionic transport, regulation of tissue development, muscle contraction, visual perception, and cell adhesion, which were clustered as a weighted similar network. Whereas, in down-regulated DEGs GO analysis, 61 GO terms were significantly enriched and only one group of ATP biosynthesis and metabolic process were clustered. Furthermore, we identified 55 signaling pathways by the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database based on up-regulated genes and 14 KEGG pathways based on down-regulated genes. In this study, we provide a landscape of the expression of putative LSCs biomarkers and stemness-related signaling pathways in a mouse model. Our findings could aid in the identification of LSC niche factors that may be related to the stemness of the LSCs.


Assuntos
Epitélio Anterior/química , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/veterinária , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Túnica Conjuntiva/química , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Camundongos , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Células-Tronco/química
14.
ACS Nano ; 15(2): 2738-2752, 2021 02 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33464829

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease pandemic of 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the novel SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus resulted in economic losses and threatened human health worldwide. The pandemic highlights an urgent need for a stable, easily produced, and effective vaccine. SARS-CoV-2 uses the spike protein receptor-binding domain (RBD) to bind its cognate receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), and initiate membrane fusion. Thus, the RBD is an ideal target for vaccine development. In this study, we designed three different RBD-conjugated nanoparticle vaccine candidates, namely, RBD-Ferritin (24-mer), RBD-mi3 (60-mer), and RBD-I53-50 (120-mer), via covalent conjugation using the SpyTag-SpyCatcher system. When mice were immunized with the RBD-conjugated nanoparticles (NPs) in conjunction with the AddaVax or Sigma Adjuvant System, the resulting antisera exhibited 8- to 120-fold greater neutralizing activity against both a pseudovirus and the authentic virus than those of mice immunized with monomeric RBD. Most importantly, sera from mice immunized with RBD-conjugated NPs more efficiently blocked the binding of RBD to ACE2 in vitro, further corroborating the promising immunization effect. Additionally, the vaccine has distinct advantages in terms of a relatively simple scale-up and flexible assembly. These results illustrate that the SARS-CoV-2 RBD-conjugated nanoparticles developed in this study are a competitive vaccine candidate and that the carrier nanoparticles could be adopted as a universal platform for a future vaccine development.

15.
Small ; 17(2): e2006370, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33325632

RESUMO

The analysis of mutant nucleic acid (NA) variants can provide crucial clinical and biological insights for many diseases. Yet, existing analysis techniques are generally constrained by nonspecific "noise" signals from excessive wildtype background sequences, especially under rapid isothermal multiplexed target amplification conditions. Herein, the molecular hybridization chemistry between NA bases is manipulated to suppress noise signals and achieve ultraselective multiplexed detection of cancer gene fusion NA variants. Firstly, modified locked NA (LNA) bases are rationally introduced into oligonucleotide sequences as designed "locker probes" for high affinity hybridization to wildtype sequences, leading to enrichment of mutant variants for multiplexed isothermal amplification. Secondly, locker probes are coupled with a customized "proximity-programmed" (SERS) readout which allows precise control of hybridization-based plasmonic signaling to specifically detect multiple target amplicons within a single reaction. Moreover, the use of triple bond Raman reporters endows NA noise signal-free quantification in the Raman silent region (≈1800-2600 cm-1 ). With this dual molecular hybridization-based strategy, ultraselective multiplexed detection of gene fusion NA variants in cancer cellular models is actualized with successful noise suppression of native wildtype sequences. The distinct benefits of isothermal NA amplification and SERS multiplexing ability are simultaneously harnessed.

16.
J Formos Med Assoc ; 120(1 Pt 1): 121-129, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32855034

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To update information about the internationally accepted standards and clinical recommendations for the detection and diagnosis of primary aldosteronism (PA). METHODS: The Taiwan Society of Aldosteronism (TSA) Task Force reviewed the latest literature and reached a consensus after group meetings. The nine critical issues were recognized to provide updated information and internationally acceptable protocols. RESULTS: When screening for PA by using the plasma aldosterone concentration (PAC) to plasma renin activity (PRA) ratio (ARR), withdrawal or adjustment of antihypertensive medication is not always necessary on the first patient visit. Hypokalemia should be corrected before ARR screening. In spontaneous hypokalemia, plasma renin below detection levels, and PAC higher than 20 ng/dL (550 pmol/L), further confirmatory testing is unnecessary for PA diagnosis. Direct renin concentration (DRC) could be used for PA diagnosis if PRA is unavailable. Although additional confirmatory tests are suggested, the result of a single test is still reliable. For patient safety, discontinuation or adjustment of antihypertensive medications is indicated before adrenal venous sampling (AVS). ACTH could be beneficial for successful adrenal vein cannulation but is not necessary for determining lateralization in AVS. Simultaneous technique is preferred for AVS. Adrenal NP-59 scintigraphy integrated with SPECT/CT could guide PA management. CONCLUSION: With introduction of these new concepts to the clinicians, we expect better identification, management and treatment of PA patients.


Assuntos
Hiperaldosteronismo , Glândulas Suprarrenais , Aldosterona , Humanos , Hiperaldosteronismo/diagnóstico , Hipertensão , Renina , Taiwan
17.
Front Comput Neurosci ; 14: 576841, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33281591

RESUMO

Spiking Neural Networks (SNNs) are considered as the third generation of artificial neural networks, which are more closely with information processing in biological brains. However, it is still a challenge for how to train the non-differential SNN efficiently and robustly with the form of spikes. Here we give an alternative method to train SNNs by biologically-plausible structural and functional inspirations from the brain. Firstly, inspired by the significant top-down structural connections, a global random feedback alignment is designed to help the SNN propagate the error target from the output layer directly to the previous few layers. Then inspired by the local plasticity of the biological system in which the synapses are more tuned by the neighborhood neurons, a differential STDP is used to optimize local plasticity. Extensive experimental results on the benchmark MNIST (98.62%) and Fashion MNIST (89.05%) have shown that the proposed algorithm performs favorably against several state-of-the-art SNNs trained with backpropagation.

18.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 7: 587222, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33282919

RESUMO

Background and Objectives: Prior studies suggested that residential proximity to major roadways was associated with increased risks of cardiovascular diseases in developed countries, for which one explanation is that road proximity could heighten the risks of hypertension. However, the association of residential distance to major roadways with hypertension is still unclear in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) with levels of air pollution and socioeconomic development distinctively different from developed countries. Methods: We derived data from the eighth wave of the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey, a nationwide prospective cohort. The present study included 12,881 individuals older than 65 years (mean age, 85.2 ± 11.7 years) with 55.8% of them being female. We ascertained the residential proximity to major roadways based on self-reports and hypertension was defined as systolic blood pressure ≥140 mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mm Hg. We then used logistic regression to examine the association between residential distance to major roadways and hypertension. Results: The odds ratios (ORs) of hypertension for participants living 50 to 100, 101 to 200, and ≥200 meters from major roads were 1.17 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) = 1.02-1.33], 1.21 (95% CI = 1.05-1.41), and 1.22 (95% CI = 1.10-1.34), respectively, compared to those living within 50 m (P for trend < 0.001). Significant effects of modifications from socioeconomic status and accessibility to health care resources were observed (Ps for interaction < 0.05). Compared to living within 50 m from a major roadway, the ORs of hypertension for living ≥50 m were higher in manual/agricultural workers, low-education groups, participants without household ventilation, and participants lacking in health education and health care resources. We observed considerable variations across geographic regions with the association in question attenuating in Eastern China but remaining significant in other regions. Conclusion: Residential proximity to major roadways was associated with lower odds of hypertension among older adults in China. The utility of residential proximity to major roadways as a marker of increased risks of hypertension and cardiovascular diseases may need to be revisited in LMICs.

19.
Micromachines (Basel) ; 11(12)2020 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33291618

RESUMO

The hydrogen production reaction of the proton exchange membrane (PEM) water electrolysis cell stack is the reverse reaction of the fuel cell, but the water electrolysis operation requires high pressure, and the high pressure decomposes hydrogen molecules, thus aging or causing failure in the water electrolysis cell stack. In addition, there are five important physical parameters (current, voltage, flow, pressure and temperature) inside the water electrolysis cell stack, which can change the performance and shorten the life of the cell stack. However, the present techniques obtain data only by external simulation or single measurement; they cannot collect the internal real data in operation instantly and accurately. This study discusses the causes for aging or failure, and develops an internal real-time microscopic diagnosis tool for accelerated aging of the PEM water electrolysis cell stack. A flexible integrated (current, voltage, flow, pressure and temperature) microsensor applicable to the inside (high voltage and electrochemical environment) of the PEM water electrolysis cell stack is developed by using micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) technology; it is embedded in the PEM water electrolysis cell stack for microscopic diagnosis of accelerated aging, and 100-h durability and reliability tests are performed. The distribution of important physical parameters inside the PEM water electrolysis cell stack can be measured instantly and accurately, so as to adjust it to the optimal operating conditions, and the local aging and failure problems are discussed.

20.
Zhongguo Gu Shang ; 33(11): 1022-6, 2020 Nov 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33269851

RESUMO

Periprosthetic infection after hip replacement is a clinical catastrophic disease, which often leads to the failure of the prosthesis. It needs the combination of systemic antibiotics to cure the infection, which brings huge burden to doctors and patients. There are strict indications for debridement and one-stage revision of the prosthesis, and few cases meet the requirements. The second revision is still the gold standard for the treatment of periprosthetic infection. It is suitable for all infection conditions and has a high success rate. On the second phase of renovation, the antibiotic sustained release system plays a key role, and the carrier of antibiotic sustained-release system is the focus of current research, including classic bone cement and absorbable biomaterials. Bone cement has strong mechanical strength, but the antibiotic release shows a sharp decline trend; the absorbable biomaterials can continuously release antibiotics with high concentration, but the mechanical strength is poor, so it could not use alone. The combination of bone cement and absorbable biomaterials will be an ideal antibiotic carrier. PMMA is the most commonly used antibiotic carrier, but the antibiotic release concentration is decreased sharply after 24 hours. It will be difficult to control the infection and increase the risk of bacterial resistance if it is lower than the minimum inhibitory concentration. The biodegradable materials can release antibiotics completely, with long release time and high concentration, but low mechanical strength. Antibiotic spacer plays an important role in the control of infection. In the future, how to further extend the antibiotic release time of antibiotic sustained-release system, increase the amount of antibiotic release and maintain the mechanical strength of the material will be studied.

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