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1.
Cancer Res ; 2019 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31551363

RESUMO

The tumor suppressor gene ATRX is frequently mutated in a variety of tumors including gliomas and liver cancers, which are highly unresponsive to current therapies. Here, we performed a genome-wide synthetic lethal screen, using CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing, to identify potential therapeutic targets specific for ATRX-mutated cancers. In isogenic hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines engineered for ATRX loss, we identified 58 genes, including the checkpoint kinase WEE1, uniquely required for the cell growth of ATRX null cells. Treatment with the WEE1 inhibitor AZD1775 robustly inhibited the growth of several ATRX-deficient HCC cell lines in vitro, as well as xenografts in vivo. The increased sensitivity to the WEE1 inhibitor was caused by accumulated DNA damage induced apoptosis. AZD1775 also selectively inhibited the proliferation of patient-derived primary cell lines from gliomas with naturally occurring ATRX mutations, indicating that the synthetic lethal relationship between WEE1 and ATRX could be exploited in a broader spectrum of human tumors. As WEE1 inhibitors have been investigated in several phase II clinical trials, our discovery provides the basis for an easily clinically testable therapeutic strategy specific for cancers deficient in ATRX.

2.
Cancer ; 2019 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31544233

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An association between a nonmedicinal herbal diet and nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) has often been hypothesized but never thoroughly investigated. METHODS: This study enrolled a total of 2469 patients with incident NPC and 2559 population controls from parts of Guangdong and Guangxi Provinces in southern China between 2010 and 2014. Questionnaire information was collected on the intake of traditional herbal tea and herbal soup as well as the specific herbal plants used in soups and other potentially confounding lifestyle factors. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the NPC risk in association with herbal tea and soup intake. RESULTS: Ever consumption of herbal tea was not associated with NPC risk (OR, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.91-1.17). An inverse association was observed for NPC among ever drinkers of herbal soup (OR, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.67-0.90) but without any monotonic trend with an increasing frequency or duration of herbal soup consumption. Inverse associations with NPC risk were detected with 9 herbal plants used in herbal soup, including Ziziphus jujuba, Fructus lycii, Codonopsis pilosula, Astragalus membranaceus, Semen coicis, Smilax glabra, Phaseolus calcaratus, Morinda officinalis, and Atractylodes macrocephala (OR range, 0.31-0.79). CONCLUSIONS: Consuming herbal soups including specific plants, but not herbal tea, was inversely associated with NPC. If replicated, these results might provide potential for NPC prevention in endemic areas.

3.
Cancer Res ; 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484669

RESUMO

The genetic events occuring in recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma (rNPC) are poorly understood. Here, we performed whole-genome and whole-exome sequencing in 55 rNPC and 44 primarily diagnosed NPC (pNPC) patients; with 7 patients having paired rNPC and pNPC samples. Previously published pNPC exome data were integrated for analysis. rNPC and pNPC tissues had similar mutational burdens, however, the number of clonal mutations was increased in rNPC samples. TP53 and three NF-κB pathway components (TRAF3, CYLD and NFKBIA) were significantly mutated in both pNPC and rNPC. Notably, mutations in TRAF3, CYLD and NFKBIA were all clonal in rNPC, however, 55.6-57.9% of them were clonal in pNPC. In general, the number of clonal mutations in NF-κB pathway-associated genes was significantly higher in rNPC than in pNPC. The NF-κB mutational clonality was selected and/or enriched during NPC recurrence. The amount of NF-κB translocated to the nucleus in samples with clonal NF-κB mutants was significantly higher than that in samples with subclonal NF-κB mutants. Moreover, the nuclear abundance of NF-κB protein was significantly greater in pNPC samples with local regional relapse than in those without relapse. Further, high nuclear NF-κB levels were an independent negative prognostic marker for locoregional relapse-free survival in pNPC. Lastly, inhibition of NF-κB enhanced both radiosensitivity and chemosensitivity in vitro and in vivo. In conclusion, NF-κB pathway activation by clonal mutations plays an important role in promoting the recurrence of NPC. Moreover, nuclear accumulation of NF-κB is a prominent biomarker for predicting locoregional relapse-free survival.

4.
Cancer Med ; 8(10): 4852-4866, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31241250

RESUMO

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) reactivation, reflected by aberrantly increased levels of various serological antibodies, has been suggested to be an early indicator of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) onset and progression. We have previously suggested that certain lifestyle and dietary factors were associated with elevated serological levels of the antibody against various EBV antigens namely VCA, Zta, EBNA1, and oral EBV DNA loads among healthy population. It remains unclear whether these potential environmental factors would also influence EBV serological antibodies in NPC patients. We conducted an epidemiological study to evaluate the associations between such environmental factors and EBV antibody levels among 1701 NPC patients in South China. Pretreatment serums were collected and examined for VCA-IgA and EA-IgA by immunoenzymatic assays and antienzyme rate (AER) of EBV DNase-specific neutralizing antibody. We found that consumption of Canton-style herbal tea was significantly correlated with increased serological antibody levels of VCA-IgA and EA-IgA, with adjusted ORs of 1.35 (95% CI: 1.03-1.76) and 1.32 (95% CI: 1.01-1.73), respectively, in the weekly intake frequency stratum, while not related to AER of EBV DNase-specific neutralizing antibody. Smoking was found to be not only an apparent risk factor for higher antibody levels of AER in stage III-IV patients (OR = 1.60, 95% CI: 1.11-2.30), but also associated closely with NPC stage at diagnosis (OR = 2.17, 95% CI: 1.47-3.22), with dose-response effects. In conclusion, we found consumption of Canton-style herbal tea and cigarette smoking were in positive associations with elevated EBV antibodies in NPC patients, which may be of public health significance for the primary prevention of EBV-associated diseases especially NPC.

5.
Nat Genet ; 51(7): 1131-1136, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31209392

RESUMO

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection is ubiquitous worldwide and is associated with multiple cancers, including nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). The importance of EBV viral genomic variation in NPC development and its striking epidemic in southern China has been poorly explored. Through large-scale genome sequencing of 270 EBV isolates and two-stage association study of EBV isolates from China, we identify two non-synonymous EBV variants within BALF2 that are strongly associated with the risk of NPC (odds ratio (OR) = 8.69, P = 9.69 × 10-25 for SNP 162476_C; OR = 6.14, P = 2.40 × 10-32 for SNP 163364_T). The cumulative effects of these variants contribute to 83% of the overall risk of NPC in southern China. Phylogenetic analysis of the risk variants reveals a unique origin in Asia, followed by clonal expansion in NPC-endemic regions. Our results provide novel insights into the NPC endemic in southern China and also enable the identification of high-risk individuals for NPC prevention.

6.
J Nutr ; 149(9): 1596-1605, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31127847

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chinese-style salted fish intake in early life is considered an established risk factor for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). However, results for adult intakes of salted fish and preserved foods are inconsistent. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to ascertain the relations of Chinese-style hard and soft salted fish and preserved food intakes with NPC risk. METHODS: We conducted a population-based case-control study in southern China with 2554 NPC cases identified through a rapid case ascertainment system and 2648 healthy controls, frequency-matched on age, sex, and area. Subjects (aged 20-74 y) were interviewed via a food-frequency questionnaire, including information on portion size. Data were also collected on alcohol consumption and potential confounders. Food intake was grouped into 3-5 energy-adjusted intake levels during adulthood (10 y prior) and adolescence (16-18 y). For childhood (at age 10 y), intake frequency of selected food items was collected. Multivariate-adjusted ORs with 95% CIs were estimated via logistic regression. RESULTS: We found no association between NPC and intake of hard Chinese-style salted fish during adulthood, and an increased risk at the highest level of intake during adolescence (OR: 1.19; 95% CI: 1.03, 1.39). In contrast, we found a decreased risk for the middle intake level of soft salted fish during adulthood (OR: 0.68; 95% CI: 0.57, 0.81) and adolescence (OR: 0.71; 95% CI: 0.59, 0.85). Preserved foods showed contrasting risk profiles, e.g., the highest adult intake level of salted egg (OR: 1.51; 95% CI: 1.22, 1.87) and fermented black beans (OR: 0.67; 95% CI: 0.56, 0.80). Associations with NPC were weaker than previously reported, e.g., for weekly childhood intake of salted fish (OR: 1.56; 95% CI: 1.24, 1.97). CONCLUSIONS: Hard and soft salted fish have different risk profiles. Salted fish and other preserved foods were at most weak risk factors for NPC in all periods and may play a smaller role in NPC occurrence than previously thought.

7.
Cancer Med ; 8(6): 2705-2716, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30950204

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to use whole-exome sequencing to derive a molecular classifier for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and evaluate its clinical performance. We performed whole-exome sequencing on 82 primary NPC tumors from Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center (Guangzhou cohort) to obtain somatic single-nucleotide variants, indels, and copy number variants. A novel molecular classifier was then developed and validated in another NPC cohort (Hong Kong cohort, n = 99). Survival analysis was estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method and compared using the log-rank test. Cox proportional hazards model was adopted for univariate and multivariate analyses. We identified three prominent NPC genetic subtypes: RAS/PI3K/AKT (based on RAS, AKT1, and PIK3CA mutations), cell-cycle (based on CDKN2A/CDKN2B deletions, and CDKN1B and CCND1 amplifications), and unclassified (based on dominant mutations in epigenetic regulators, such as KMT2C/2D, or the Notch signaling pathway, such as NOTCH1/2). These subtypes differed in survival analysis, with good, intermediate, and poor progression-free survival in the unclassified, cell-cycle, and RAS/PI3K/AKT subgroups, respectively, among the Guangzhou, Hong Kong, and combined cohorts (n = 82, P = 0.0342; n = 99, P = 0.0372; and n = 181, P = 0.0023; log-rank test). We have uncovered genetic subtypes of NPC with distinct mutations and/or copy number changes, reflecting discrete paths of NPC tumorigenesis and providing a roadmap for developing new prognostic biomarkers and targeted therapies.

8.
Theranostics ; 9(4): 1115-1124, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30867819

RESUMO

Rationale: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with multiple malignancies with expression of viral oncogenic proteins and chronic inflammation as major mechanisms contributing to tumor development. A less well-studied mechanism is the integration of EBV into the human genome possibly at sites which may disrupt gene expression or genome stability. Methods: We sequenced tumor DNA to profile the EBV sequences by hybridization-based enrichment. Bioinformatic analysis was used to detect the breakpoints of EBV integrations in the genome of cancer cells. Results: We identified 197 breakpoints in nasopharyngeal carcinomas and other EBV-associated malignancies. EBV integrations were enriched at vulnerable regions of the human genome and were close to tumor suppressor and inflammation-related genes. We found that EBV integrations into the introns could decrease the expression of the inflammation-related genes, TNFAIP3, PARK2, and CDK15, in NPC tumors. In the EBV genome, the breakpoints were frequently at oriP or terminal repeats. These breakpoints were surrounded by microhomology sequences, consistent with a mechanism for integration involving viral genome replication and microhomology-mediated recombination. Conclusion: Our finding provides insight into the potential of EBV integration as an additional mechanism mediating tumorigenesis in EBV associated malignancies.

9.
Cell Death Differ ; 26(11): 2314-2328, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30816302

RESUMO

Stimulator of interferon genes (STING), a major adaptor protein in antiviral innate immune signaling, is considered as one of the most important regulators of antiviral and antitumor immunity. Although STING agonists are now intensively studied in clinical trials as a new class of adjuvants to boost cancer immunotherapy, the tumor-intrinsic role of the STING pathway in shaping the tumor microenvironment remains controversial. Here, we discovered that STING plays a vital role in regulation of myeloid-derived suppressor cell (MDSC) differentiation and antitumor immunity in Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Mechanistic analyses reveal that STING represses NPC-derived MDSC induction by enhancing SOCS1 expression in both tumor cells and MDSCs. SOCS1 physically interacts with STAT3 through its SH2 domain to prevent STAT3 phosphorylation and dimerization, resulting in reduced MDSC induction via inhibition of GM-CSF and IL-6 production. Notably, reduced tumoral STING expression was found to be significantly associated with a poor prognosis for NPC patients. Our findings reveal a novel mechanism linking STING to tumor microenvironmental cytokine production and MDSC induction.

10.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(13): 6308-6312, 2019 03 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30858324

RESUMO

Liquid biopsies, based on cell free DNA (cfDNA) and proteins, have shown the potential to detect early stage cancers of diverse tissue types. However, most of these studies were retrospective, using individuals previously diagnosed with cancer as cases and healthy individuals as controls. Here, we developed a liquid biopsy assay, named the hepatocellular carcinoma screen (HCCscreen), to identify HCC from the surface antigen of hepatitis B virus (HBsAg) positive asymptomatic individuals in the community population. The training cohort consisted of individuals who had liver nodules and/or elevated serum α-fetoprotein (AFP) levels, and the assay robustly separated those with HCC from those who were non-HCC with a sensitivity of 85% and a specificity of 93%. We further applied this assay to 331 individuals with normal liver ultrasonography and serum AFP levels. A total of 24 positive cases were identified, and a clinical follow-up for 6-8 mo confirmed four had developed HCC. No HCC cases were diagnosed from the 307 test-negative individuals in the follow-up during the same timescale. Thus, the assay showed 100% sensitivity, 94% specificity, and 17% positive predictive value in the validation cohort. Notably, each of the four HCC cases was at the early stage (<3 cm) when diagnosed. Our study provides evidence that the use of combined detection of cfDNA alterations and protein markers is a feasible approach to identify early stage HCC from asymptomatic community populations with unknown HCC status.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/diagnóstico , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/sangue , Biópsia Líquida/métodos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/diagnóstico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/sangue , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Ácidos Nucleicos Livres , Vírus da Hepatite B , Hepatite B Crônica , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/sangue , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Ultrassonografia
11.
Biol Sex Differ ; 10(1): 13, 2019 03 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30909962

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The male predominance in the incidence of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) suggests the contribution of the X chromosome to the susceptibility of NPC. However, no X-linked susceptibility loci have been examined by genome-wide association studies (GWASs) for NPC by far. METHODS: To understand the contribution of the X chromosome in NPC susceptibility, we conducted an X chromosome-wide association analysis on 1615 NPC patients and 1025 healthy controls of Guangdong Chinese, followed by two validation analyses in Taiwan Chinese (n = 562) and Malaysian Chinese (n = 716). RESULTS: Firstly, the proportion of variance of X-linked loci over phenotypic variance was estimated in the discovery samples, which revealed that the phenotypic variance explained by X chromosome polymorphisms was estimated to be 12.63% (non-dosage compensation model) in males, as compared with 0.0001% in females. This suggested that the contribution of X chromosome to the genetic variance of NPC should not be neglected. Secondly, association analysis revealed that rs5927056 in DMD gene achieved X chromosome-wide association significance in the discovery sample (OR = 0.81, 95% CI 0.73-0.89, P = 1.49 × 10-5). Combined analysis revealed rs5927056 for DMD gene with suggestive significance (P = 9.44 × 10-5). Moreover, the female-specific association of rs5933886 in ARHGAP6 gene (OR = 0.62, 95%CI: 0.47-0.81, P = 4.37 × 10-4) was successfully replicated in Taiwan Chinese (P = 1.64 × 10-2). rs5933886 also showed nominally significant gender × SNP interaction in both Guangdong (P = 6.25 × 10-4) and Taiwan datasets (P = 2.99 × 10-2). CONCLUSION: Our finding reveals new susceptibility loci at the X chromosome conferring risk of NPC and supports the value of including the X chromosome in large-scale association studies.

12.
Cancer Med ; 8(4): 1835-1844, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30793524

RESUMO

Whether the association between body size or shape and nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) risk exists or varies by age-specific body size indicators is unclear. In a population-based case-control study conducted in Southern China between 2010 and 2014, self-reported height, weight, and body shape at age 20 and 10 years before interview were collected from 2448 histopathologically confirmed NPC cases and 2534 population-based controls. Body mass index (BMI) was categorized according to the World Health Organization guidelines for Asian populations: underweight (<18.5 kg/m2 ), normal weight (18.5-22.9 kg/m2 ), overweight (23.0-27.4 kg/m2 ), and obese (≥27.5 kg/m2 ). Multivariate odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using logistic regression. Furthermore, restricted cubic spline analysis was employed to examine nonlinear effects of BMI and body shape as continuous covariates. Underweight vs normal weight at age 20 years was associated with a 22% decreased NPC risk (OR, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.67, 0.90), whereas obesity was not significantly associated with NPC risk. Associations with BMI 10 years before the interview were similar. Having the leanest body shape at age 20 years, compared with the mode was not significantly associated with NPC risk (OR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.62, 1.16), but having a larger body shape was associated with an elevated risk (OR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.03, 1.52). Increasing BMI revealed positive trends with NPC risk. Despite some indication of significant findings, evidence for a strong association between BMI or body shape and NPC risk is still limited.

13.
Cancer Med ; 8(2): 701-711, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30672146

RESUMO

Our study presents the genetic landscape betel quid chewing-associated tongue carcinomas (BQ-TCs). We compared the genetic landscape and mutational signatures of 15 BQ-TCs, five nonbetel quid chewing-associated tongue carcinomas (nBQ-TCs), and 82 tongue carcinomas in general population from the TCGA (TCGA-TCs) project. The highlights of this research mainly include: (a) The genetic landscape of BQ-TC was characterized with frequent mutations in RASA1 gene and in CpG islands throughout the genome. (b) The BQ-TC had a distinct mutational signature from that of nBQ-TC and tongue carcinomas in the general population, and this signature was associated with the mutations in RASA1 and in CpG islands. (c) Our study indicates that betel quid (BQ) chewing classifies a distinct group of tongue carcinoma. The BQ chewing might not contribute to the tumorigenesis of tongue carcinomas as a mutagen.

14.
Oral Oncol ; 88: 102-108, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30616779

RESUMO

OBJECTS: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) incidence exhibits a remarkable sex disparity, with higher risk among males. Whether this pattern can be partly explained by female reproductive history is unclear. METHODS: A population-based case-control study of NPC was conducted in southern China between 2010 and 2014, including 674 histopathologically verified female NPC cases and 690 female controls randomly selected from population-based registries. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using logistic regression after adjusting for potential confounders. RESULTS: Women who had 3, 4, or ≥5 pregnancies compared with 2 pregnancies were at significantly increased risk for NPC (ORs 1.56, 1.45 and 1.88, respectively). History of deliveries was similarly associated with a greater risk of NPC. These positive associations were more prominent in women who were younger than 50 years, had less than 10 years of education, or were white-collar workers. Increasing time since menopause was associated with a diminished NPC risk (Ptrend = 0.010). Women more than 15 years after menopause had a 0.35-fold (95% CI: 0.16-0.75) NPC risk compared with those 0-3 years after menopause. CONCLUSION: Contrary to our hypothesis, a history of pregnancy or delivery increased the risk of NPC and the risk decreased with increasing time since menopause. However, the non-linear relationship and no consistent risk patterns across strata indicate that the observed associations are unlikely to be causal, and may at least partially be ascribed to residual confounding by socioeconomic factors.

15.
Cell Death Dis ; 10(2): 58, 2019 01 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30683844

RESUMO

SHROOM2 is a key mediator of RhoA-ROCK pathway that regulates cell motility and actin cytoskeleton organization. However, the functions of SHROOM2 beyond RhoA/ROCK signaling remain poorly understood. Here, we report that SHROOM2 not only participates in RhoA-ROCK-induced stress fiber formation and focal adhesion, but also had an unanticipated role in suppressing epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and tumor metastasis. Depletion of SHROOM2 in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cells enhances mesenchymal characteristics and reduces epithelial markers, concomitant with increased motility, enabling the development of invasion and tumor metastasis, which are largely ROCK-independent, as ROCK inhibitor Y-27632 did not cause EMT phenotype; furthermore, combination of ROCK inhibition and SHROOM2 depletion resulted in the most robust increases in cell migration and invasion, indicating that SHROOM2 and ROCK work synergistically rather than epistatic. Analysis of clinical samples suggested that SHROOM2 is downregulated in NPC and the expression of SHROOM2 in metastatic NPC was even lower than in the primary tumors. Our findings uncover a non-canonical role of SHROOM2 as a potent antagonist for EMT and NPC metastasis.

16.
Gastroenterology ; 156(5): 1455-1466, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30529582

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have associated approximately 50 loci with risk of colorectal cancer (CRC)-nearly one third of these loci were initially associated with CRC in studies conducted in East Asian populations. We conducted a GWAS of East Asians to identify CRC risk loci and evaluate the generalizability of findings from GWASs of European populations to Asian populations. METHODS: We analyzed genetic data from 22,775 patients with CRC (cases) and 47,731 individuals without cancer (controls) from 14 studies in the Asia Colorectal Cancer Consortium. First, we performed a meta-analysis of 7 GWASs (10,625 cases and 34,595 controls) and identified 46,554 promising risk variants for replication by adding them to the Multi-Ethnic Global Array (MEGA) for genotype analysis in 6445 cases and 7175 controls. These data were analyzed, along with data from an additional 5705 cases and 5961 controls genotyped using the OncoArray. We also obtained data from 57,976 cases and 67,242 controls of European descent. Variants at identified risk loci were functionally annotated and evaluated in correlation with gene expression levels. RESULTS: A meta-analyses of all samples from people of Asian descent identified 13 loci and 1 new variant at a known locus (10q24.2) associated with risk of CRC at the genome-wide significance level of P < 5 × 10-8. We did not perform experiments to replicate these associations in additional individuals of Asian ancestry. However, the lead risk variant in 6 of these loci was also significantly associated with risk of CRC in European descendants. A strong association (44%-75% increase in risk per allele) was found for 2 low-frequency variants: rs201395236 at 1q44 (minor allele frequency, 1.34%) and rs77969132 at 12p11.21 (minor allele frequency, 1.53%). For 8 of the 13 associated loci, the variants with the highest levels of significant association were located inside or near the protein-coding genes L1TD1, EFCAB2, PPP1R21, SLCO2A1, HLA-G, NOTCH4, DENND5B, and GNAS. For other intergenic loci, we provided evidence for the possible involvement of the genes ALDH7A1, PRICKLE1, KLF5, WWOX, and GLP2R. We replicated findings for 41 of 52 previously reported risk loci. CONCLUSIONS: We showed that most of the risk loci previously associated with CRC risk in individuals of European descent were also associated with CRC risk in East Asians. Furthermore, we identified 13 loci significantly associated with risk for CRC in Asians. Many of these loci contained genes that regulate the immune response, Wnt signaling to ß-catenin, prostaglandin E2 catabolism, and cell pluripotency and proliferation. Further analyses of these genes and their variants is warranted, particularly for the 8 loci for which the lead CRC risk variants were not replicated in persons of European descent.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Loci Gênicos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Ásia/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/etnologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/imunologia , Frequência do Gene , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Fenótipo , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
17.
Leukemia ; 33(6): 1451-1462, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30546078

RESUMO

Extranodal natural killer T-cell lymphoma (nasal type; NKTCL) is an aggressive malignancy strongly associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. However, the role of EBV in NKTCL development is unclear, largely due to the lack of information about EBV genome and transcriptome in NKTCL. Here, using high-throughput sequencing, we obtained whole genome (n = 27) and transcriptome datasets (n = 18) of EBV derived from NKTCL tumor biopsies. We assembled 27 EBV genomes and detected an average of 1,152 single nucleotide variants and 44.8 indels (<50 bp) of EBV per sample. We also identified frequent focal EBV genome deletions and integrated EBV fragments in the host genome. Moreover, Phylogenetic analysis revealed that NKTCL-derived EBVs are closely clustered; transcriptome analysis revealed less activation of both latent and lytic genes and larger amount of T-cell epitope alterations in NKTCL, as compared with other EBV-associated cancers. Furthermore, we observed transcriptional defects of the BARTs miRNA by deletion, and the disruption of host NHEJ1 by integrated EBV fragment, implying novel pathogenic mechanisms of EBV. Taken together, we reported for the first time global mutational and transcriptional profiles of EBV in NKTCL clinical samples, revealing important somatic events of EBV and providing insights to better understanding of EBV's contribution in tumorigenesis.


Assuntos
Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/genética , Genoma Viral , Herpesvirus Humano 4/genética , Linfoma Extranodal de Células T-NK/genética , Células T Matadoras Naturais/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Proteínas Virais/genética , Adulto , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/complicações , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/virologia , Feminino , Regulação Viral da Expressão Gênica , Genômica/métodos , Humanos , Linfoma Extranodal de Células T-NK/epidemiologia , Linfoma Extranodal de Células T-NK/virologia , Masculino , Mutação , Células T Matadoras Naturais/virologia , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
18.
Mol Cell ; 72(4): 650-660.e8, 2018 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30392930

RESUMO

DNA replication is initiated by assembly of the kinase cell division cycle 7 (CDC7) with its regulatory activation subunit, activator of S-phase kinase (ASK), to activate DNA helicase. However, the mechanism underlying regulation of CDC7-ASK complex is unclear. Here, we show that ADP generated from CDC7-mediated MCM phosphorylation binds to an allosteric region of CDC7, disrupts CDC7-ASK interaction, and inhibits CDC7-ASK activity in a feedback way. EGFR- and ERK-activated casein kinase 2α (CK2α) phosphorylates nuclear phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) 1 at S256, resulting in interaction of PGK1 with CDC7. CDC7-bound PGK1 converts ADP to ATP, thereby abrogating the inhibitory effect of ADP on CDC7-ASK activity, promoting the recruitment of DNA helicase to replication origins, DNA replication, cell proliferation, and brain tumorigenesis. These findings reveal an instrumental self-regulatory mechanism of CDC7-ASK activity by its kinase reaction product ADP and a nonglycolytic role for PGK1 in abrogating this negative feedback in promoting tumor development.

19.
Cancer Med ; 2018 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30378292

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified strong associations between genetic variants in the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) region and nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). However, given the complex LD pattern in this region, the causal variants and the underlying mechanism of how genetic variants in HLA contribute to NPC development is yet to be understood. METHODS: To systematically characterize the HLA variants and their relationship to NPC susceptibility, we fine-mapped the HLA genes based on the GWAS data of 1583 NPC cases and 972 healthy controls, using SNP2HLA with the Pan-Asian panel as references. Stepwise conditional regression was used to identify independent association loci. RESULTS: Interestingly, the most significant association was the presence of Gln in HLA-A amino acid position 62 (OR = 0.57, P = 1.41 × 10-16 ). The G allele of rs2894207 located between HLA-B and HLA-C showed protective effect of NPC development (OR = 0.52, P = 2.23 × 10-13 ). Additionally, amino acid Phe-67 located in the peptide-binding pocket of HLA-DRB1 was identified as a novel functional variant with OR = 0.64 and P = 9.64 × 10-11 . Another novel variant, Glu-45 in HLA-B pocket B, conferred a protective effect on NPC susceptibility (OR = 0.64, P = 5.23 × 10-8 ). These four variants explained 2.07% of the phenotypic variance for NPC risk. CONCLUSION: In summary, by fine-mapping the HLA region in south Chinese population, we reported additional loci missed in the GWAS studies and provided a better understanding of the relationship between HLA and NPC susceptibility.

20.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 5009, 2018 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30479336

RESUMO

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated epithelial cancers, including nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and approximately 10% of gastric cancers, termed EBVaGC, represent 80% of all EBV-related malignancies. However, the exact role of EBV in epithelial cancers remains elusive. Here, we report that EBV functions in vasculogenic mimicry (VM). Epithelial cancer cells infected with EBV develop tumor vascular networks that correlate with tumor growth, which is different from endothelial-derived angiogenic vessels and is VEGF-independent. Mechanistically, activation of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR/HIF-1α signaling cascade, which is partly mediated by LMP2A, is responsible for EBV-induced VM formation. Both xenografts and clinical samples of NPC and EBVaGC exhibit VM histologically, which are correlated with AKT and HIF-1α activation. Furthermore, although anti-VEGF monotherapy shows limited effects, potent synergistic antitumor activities are achieved by combination therapy with VEGF and HIF-1α-targeted agents. Our findings suggest that EBV creates plasticity in epithelial cells to express endothelial phenotype and provides a novel EBV-targeted antitumor strategy.

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