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1.
Molecules ; 27(1)2022 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35011507

RESUMO

Fungal mycelium cultures are an alternative to natural sources in order to obtain valuable research materials. They also enable constant control and adaptation of the process, thereby leading to increased biomass growth and accumulation of bioactive metabolites. The present study aims to assess the biosynthetic potential of mycelial cultures of six Ganoderma species: G. adspersum, G. applanatum, G. carnosum, G. lucidum, G. pfeifferi, and G. resinaceum. The presence of phenolic acids, amino acids, indole compounds, sterols, and kojic acid in biomass extracts was determined by HPLC. The antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of the extracts and their effects on the inhibition of selected enzymes (tyrosinase and acetylcholinesterase) were also evaluated. The total content of phenolic acids in the extracts ranged from 5.8 (G. carnosum) to 114.07 mg/100 g dry weight (d.w.) (G. pfeifferi). The total content of indole compounds in the extracts ranged from 3.03 (G. carnosum) to 11.56 mg/100 g d.w. (G. lucidum) and that of ergosterol ranged from 28.15 (G. applanatum) to 74.78 mg/100 g d.w. (G. adspersum). Kojic acid was found in the extracts of G. applanatum and G. lucidum. The tested extracts showed significant antioxidant activity. The results suggest that the analyzed mycelial cultures are promising candidates for the development of new dietary supplements or pharmaceutical preparations.

2.
Molecules ; 27(1)2022 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35011516

RESUMO

Grifolin is a volatile compound contained in essential oils of several medicinal plants. Several studies show that this substance has been the subject of numerous pharmacological investigations, which have yielded interesting results. Grifolin demonstrated beneficial effects for health via its multiple pharmacological activities. It has anti-microbial properties against bacteria, fungi, and parasites. In addition, grifolin exhibited remarkable anti-cancer effects on different human cancer cells. The anticancer action of this molecule is related to its ability to act at cellular and molecular levels on different checkpoints controlling the signaling pathways of human cancer cell lines. Grifolin can induce apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, autophagy, and senescence in these cells. Despite its major pharmacological properties, grifolin has only been investigated in vitro and in vivo. Therefore, further investigations concerning pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic tests are required for any possible pharmaceutical application of this substance. Moreover, toxicological tests and other investigations involving humans as a study model are required to validate the safety and clinical applications of grifolin.

3.
Plants (Basel) ; 11(2)2022 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35050121

RESUMO

Mentha spicata is one of the most popular species in the genus, and it is of great interest as a gastrointestinal and sedative agent in the folk medicine system. In this study, different M. spicata extracts, obtained by the use of four solvents (hexane, chloroform, acetone and acetone/water) were chemically characterized using HPLC-ESI-MS n, which allowed for identification of 27 phenolic compounds. The extracts' antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory properties were investigated. In addition, neuroprotective effects were evaluated in hypothalamic HypoE22 cells, and the ability of the extracts to prevent the hydrogen peroxide-induced degradation of dopamine and serotonin was observed. The best antioxidant effect was achieved for all the extraction methods using acetone/water as a solvent. These extracts were the richest in acacetin, eriodictyol, hesperidin, sagerinic acid, naringenin, luteolin, chlorogenic acid, chrysoeriol and apigenin. The intrinsic antioxidant and enzyme inhibition properties of the acetone/water extract could also explain, albeit partially, its efficacy in preventing prostaglandin E2 overproduction and dopamine depletion (82.9% turnover reduction) in HypoE22 cells exposed to hydrogen peroxide. Thus, our observations can provide a scientific confirmation of the neuromodulatory and neuroprotective effects of M. spicata.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35064485

RESUMO

Breast cancer (BC) is one of the most common and recurring diseases and the second leading cause of death in women. Despite prevention, diagnostics, and therapeutic options such as radiation therapy and chemotherapy, the number of occurrences increases every year. Therefore, novel therapeutic drugs targeting specifically different checkpoints should be developed against breast cancer. Among drugs that can be developed to treat breast cancer, natural products, such as plant-derived compounds, showed significant anti-breast cancer properties. These substances belong to different chemical classes such as flavonoids, terpenoids, phenolic acids, and alkaloids. They exert their in vitro and in vivo cytotoxic activities against breast cancer cell lines via different mechanisms, including the inhibition of extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways, the arrest of the cell cycle, and the activation of autophagy. Moreover, they also exhibit anti-angiogenesis and antimetastatic action. Moreover, chemoprevention effects of these bioactive compounds were signaled only for certain drugs. Therefore, the aim of this review is to highlight the pharmacological actions of medicinal plants and their bioactive compounds on breast cancer. Moreover, the role of these substances in breast cancer chemoprevention was also discussed.

5.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 11(1)2022 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35052614

RESUMO

Sartoria hedysaroides Boiss and Heldr. (Fabaceae) is an endemic plant of Turkey that has received little scientific consideration so far. In the present study, the chemical profiles of extracts from the aerial part and roots of S. hedysaroides obtained using solvents with different polarities were analyzed combining integrated NMR, LC-DAD-MSn, and LC-QTOF methods. In vitro antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory activities were evaluated, and the results were combined with chemical data using multivariate approaches. Phenolic acids, flavonoids, ellagitannins, and coumarins were identified and quantified in the extracts of aerial part and roots. Methanolic extract of S. hedysaroides aerial part showed the highest phenolic content and the highest antioxidant activity and cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity. Dichloromethane extract of S. hedysaroides roots showed the highest inhibition of butyryl cholinesterase, while methanolic extract of S. hedysaroides aerial part was the most active tyrosinase inhibitor. Multivariate data analysis allowed us to observe a good correlation between phenolic compounds, especially caffeoylquinic derivatives and flavonoids and the antioxidant activity of extracts. Acetylcholinesterase inhibition was correlated with the presence of caffeoylquinic acids and coumarins. Overall, the present study appraised the biological potential of understudied S. hedysaroides, and provided a comprehensive approach combining metabolomic characterization of plant material and multivariate data analysis for the correlation of chemical data with results from multi-target biological assays.

6.
Foods ; 11(2)2022 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35053885

RESUMO

The aim of this work was to develop innovative and sustainable extraction, concentration, and purification technologies aimed to recover target substances from corn oil, obtained as side stream product of biomass refineries. Residues of bioactive compounds such as carotenoids, phytosterols, tocopherols, and polyphenols could be extracted from this matrix and applied as ingredients for food and feeds, nutraceuticals, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetic products. These molecules are well known for their antioxidant and antiradical capacity, besides other specific biological activities, generically involved in the prevention of chronic and degenerative diseases. The project involved the development of methods for the selective extraction of these minor components, using as suitable extraction technique solid phase extraction. All the extracted and purified fractions were evaluated by NMR spectroscopic analyses and UV-Vis spectrophotometric techniques and characterized by quali-quantitative HPLC analyses. TPC (total phenolic content) and TFC (total flavonoid content) were also determined. DPPH and ABTS radical were used to evaluate radical quenching abilities. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE), amylase, glucosidase, and tyrosinase were selected as enzymes in the enzyme inhibitory assays. The obtained results showed the presence of a complex group of interesting molecules with strong potential in market applications according to circular economy principles.

7.
Food Chem ; 368: 130782, 2022 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34392121

RESUMO

In this study, the aerial parts and bulbs of nine Allium species were investigated for their functional phytochemical profile, in vitro antioxidant activities, acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), α-amylase, α-glucosidase, and tyrosinase inhibitory properties. Phenolics, alkaloids, glucosinolates and other sulfur-containing compounds were distinctively profiled in the different species. Maceration in methanol allowed recovering the highest cumulative phenolic content in A. scabrifolium (42.31 mg/g), followed by A. goekyigiti (33.15 mg/g) and A. atroviolaceum (28.35 mg/g). The aerial parts of all Allium species showed high in vitro antioxidant activity whereas methanolic extract of A. cappadocicum bulb showed the highest inhibition against AChE (2.44 mg galantamine equivalent/g) and the water extracts of A. isauricum aerial part were the best BChE inhibitors (4.31 mg galantamine equivalent/g). Bulbs were the richer source of oligosaccharides, and in vitro digestion determined an increase of oligosaccharides bioaccessibility. A promising nutraceutical potential could be highlighted in our understudied Allium species.


Assuntos
Allium , Antioxidantes , Acetilcolinesterase , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Butirilcolinesterase , Inibidores Enzimáticos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
8.
Environ Pollut ; 292(Pt B): 118389, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34687779

RESUMO

Arsenic (As) toxicity is a problem that needs to be solved in terms of both human health and agricultural production in the vast majority of the world. The presence of As causes biomass loss by disrupting the balance of biochemical processes in plants and preventing growth/water absorption in the roots and accumulating in the edible parts of the plant and entering the food chain. A critical method of combating As toxicity is the use of biosafe, natural, bioactive compounds such as hesperidin (HP) or chlorogenic acid (CA). To this end, in this study, the physiological and biochemical effects of HP (100 µM) and CA (50 µM) were investigated in Zea mays under arsenate stress (100 µM). Relative water content, osmotic potential, photosynthesis-related parameters were suppressed under stress. It was determined that stress decreased the activities of the antioxidant system and increased the level of saturated fatty acids and, gene expression of PHT transporters involved in the uptake and translocation of arsenate. After being exposed to stress, HP and CA improved the capacity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POX), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and then ROS accumulation (H2O2) and lipid peroxidation (TBARS) were effectively removed. These phenolic compounds contributed to maintaining the cellular redox status by regulating enzyme/non-enzyme activity/contents involved in the AsA-GSH cycle. HP and CA reversed the adverse effects of excessive metal ion accumulation by re-regulated expression of the PHT1.1 and PHT1.3 genes in response to stress. Exogenously applied HP and CA effectively maintained membrane integrity by regulating saturated/unsaturated fatty acid content. However, the combined application of HP and CA did not show a synergistic protective activity against As stress and had a negative effect on the antioxidant capacity of maize leaves. As a result, HP and CA have great potentials to provide tolerance to maize under As stress by reducing oxidative injury and preserving the biochemical reactions of photosynthesis.


Assuntos
Arsênio , Hesperidina , Antioxidantes , Arsênio/toxicidade , Catalase/metabolismo , Ácido Clorogênico , Ácidos Graxos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Oxirredução , Estresse Oxidativo , Água , Zea mays/metabolismo
9.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 282: 114570, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34480995

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The fruits of Phyllanthus emblica Linn or Emblica officinalis Gaertn (Phyllanthaceae), (FPE) commonly known as Indian gooseberry or Amla, gained immense importance in indigenous traditional medicinal systems, including Ayurveda, for its medicinal and nutritional benefits. It is used to cure several diseases such as common cold, fever, cough, asthma, bronchitis, diabetes, cephalalgia, ophthalmopathy, dyspepsia, colic, flatulence, hyperacidity, peptic ulcer, erysipelas, skin diseases, leprosy, hematogenesis, inflammation, anemia, emaciation, hepatopathy, jaundice, diarrhea, dysentery, hemorrhages, leucorrhea, menorrhagia, cardiac disorders, and premature greying of hair. AIM OF THE STUDY: In the present review, we presented a comprehensive analysis of the ethnopharmacology, bioactive composition, and toxicity of P. emblica to identify the gap between research and the current applications and to help explore the trends and perspectives for future studies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We collected the literature published before April 2021 on the phytochemistry, pharmacology, and toxicity of FPE. Literature in English from scientific databases such as PubMed, ScienceDirect, Wiley, Springer, and Google Scholar, books. These reports were analyzed and summarized to prepare this review. The plant taxonomy was verified by "The Plant List" database (http://www.theplantlist.org). RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: s: FPE have been used as a rich source of vitamin C, minerals, and amino acids. Several bioactive molecules were isolated and identified from FPE such as tannins, flavonoids, saponins, terpenoids, alkaloids, ascorbic acid etc. The in vitro and in vivo pharmacological studies on FPE revealed its antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, anticancer, radioprotective, hepatoprotective, immunomodulatory, hypolipidemic, anti-venom, wound healing, HIV-reverse transcriptase effect. Toxicological studies on fruits indicated the absence of any adverse effect even at a high dose after oral administration. CONCLUSIONS: Although FPE showed remarkable therapeutic activities against several diseases such as diabetes, cancer, inflammation, hepatitis B virus, and malaria, there were several drawbacks in some previous reports including the lack of information on the drug dose, standards, controls, and mechanism of action of the extract. Further in-depth studies are required to explain the mechanism of action of the extracts to reveal the role of the bioactive compounds in the reported activities.

10.
Plants (Basel) ; 10(12)2021 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34961163

RESUMO

The essential oil industry of aromatic herbs and spices is currently producing a significant amount of by-products, such as the spent plant materials remaining after steam or hydrodistillation, that are simply discarded. The aim of this study was to comparatively investigate the phytochemical composition, antioxidant and multi-enzymatic inhibitory potential of the essential oils and spent plant material extractives obtained from cinnamon, cumin, clove, laurel, and black pepper. The essential oils were characterized by the presence of several phytochemical markers (cinnamaldehyde, cuminaldehyde, eugenol, eucalyptol, α-terpinene, limonene, ß-caryophyllene or ß-pinene). On the other hand, the LC-HRMS/MS profiling of the spent material extracts allowed the annotation of species specific and non-specific metabolites, such as organic acids, phenolic acids, flavonoids, proanthocyanidins, hydrolysable tannins, fatty acids, or piperamides. All samples exhibited very strong antioxidant effects, with the clove essential oil displaying the strongest radical scavenging (525.78 and 936.44 mg TE/g in DPPH and ABTS assays), reducing (2848.28 and 1927.98 mg TE/g in CUPRAC and FRAP), and total antioxidant capacity (68.19 mmol TE/g). With respect to the anti-acetylcholinesterase (0.73-2.95 mg GALAE/g), anti-butyrylcholinesterase (0-3.41 mg GALAE/g), anti-tyrosinase (0-76.86 mg KAE/g), anti-amylase and anti-glucosidase (both 0-1.00 mmol ACAE/g) assays, the spice samples showed a modest activity. Overall, our study reports that, not only the volatile fractions of common spices, but also their spent plant materials remaining after hydrodistillation can be regarded as rich sources of bioactive molecules with antioxidant and multi-enzymatic inhibitory effects.

11.
Chem Biodivers ; : e202100801, 2021 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34910849

RESUMO

In recent years, in all cotton production areas in Ivory Coast, whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) and jassid (Jacobiella facialis), two biting sucker insects were causing depreciation of quality of the cottonseed and fiber obtained at harvest. However, the excessive use of synthetic chemical insecticides against these pests presents a danger for the sustainability of the production system. This study aims to evaluate the insecticidal efficacy of essential oils of Ocimum gratissimum and Cymbopogon citratus on B. tabaci and J. fascialis and on the technological parameters of the cottonseed and fiber. A field experiment was conducted in which essential oils of O. gratissimum and C. citratus were applied to cotton plants every two weeks from day 45 to 115 after emergence using a backpack sprayer. The effects of these extracts were compared to those of a synthetic chemical insecticide composed of acetamiprid and alphacypermethrin known under the trade name IBIS A 52 EC (positive control). After 160 days of cultivation where entomological data were collected, the seed cotton samples were harvested, ginned and submitted for analysis. O. gratissimum essential oil at concentrations of 1 and 5 % gave to the cotton plants better protection against whiteflies and jassids. In addition to the synthetic chemical, these cotton plants received a better proportion of healthy cottonseed, fat and a fiber with very good reflectivity. The essential oil of O. gratissimum could therefore be integrated into the phytosanitary protection programs of the cotton plant.

12.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 10(12)2021 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34943106

RESUMO

Boerhavia diffusa is a great tropical plant and is widely used for various traditional purposes. In the present study, we examined the influence of solvents (dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, methanol and infusion (water)) on chemical composition and biological capabilities of B. diffusa. An UHPLC-HRMS method was used to determine the chemical characterization. The biological ability was examined for antioxidant, enzyme inhibitory and anti-cancer effects. To evaluate antioxidant effects, different chemical methods (ABTS, DPPH, CUPRAC, FRAP, metal chelating and phosphomolybdenum) were applied. With regard to enzyme inhibitory properties, cholinesterases, amylase, glucosidase and tyrosinase were used. The MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell line was chosen to determine anticancer activity. Based on the UHPLC-HRMS analysis, 37 specialized metabolites were dereplicated and identified in the studied extracts. Results revealed the presence of 15 hydroxybenzoic, hydroxycinnamic, acylquinic acids, and their glycosides, one rotenoid, seven flavonoids, 12 fatty acids and two other glycosides. Among the tested extracts, the methanol extract showed a stronger antioxidant ability compared with other extracts. The methanol extract also showed the best inhibitory effects on tyrosinase and glucosidase. In the anti-cancer evaluation, the methanol extract showed stronger anticancer effects compared with water extract. In summary, our observations can contribute to the establishment of B. diffusa as a potential candidate for functional applications in the preparation.

13.
Foods ; 10(11)2021 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34828960

RESUMO

Stryphnodendron rotundifolium Mart., popularly known as "barbatimão", is a plant species traditionally used by topical and oral routes for the treatment of infectious and inflammatory diseases. Considering the well-described antioxidant properties of this species, this study investigated the protective effects of its keto-aqueous extract using an in vitro model of iron overload. Phenolic compounds were quantified and identified by Ultra-Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled with quadrupole Time-Of-Flight Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-qTOF-MS/MS) in positive and negative ions mode analysis. Antioxidant activity was analyzed following the iron-chelating-reducing capacity and deoxyribose degradation (2-DR) protection methods. The analysis identified condensed tannins (54.8 mg catechin/g dry fraction (DF), polyphenols (25 mg gallic acid/g DF), and hydrolyzable tannins (28.8 mg tannic acid/g DF). Among the constituents, prodelphinidin, procyanidin, and prorobinetinidine were isolated and identified. The extract significantly protected 2-DR degradation induced by Fe2+ (72% protection) or •OH (43% protection). The ortho-phenanthroline test revealed Fe2+-chelating and Fe3+-reducing activities of 93% and 84%, respectively. A preliminary toxicological analysis using Artemia salina revealed mortality below 10%, at a concentration of 0.25 mg/mL, indicating low toxicity under the present experimental conditions. In conclusion, the findings of the present study indicate that Stryphnodendron rotundifolium is a source of antioxidant compounds with the potential to be used in drug development in the context of iron overload disorders, which remains to be further investigated in vivo.

14.
Molecules ; 26(21)2021 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34770739

RESUMO

The antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory potential of fifteen cycloartane-type triterpenes' potentials were investigated using different assays. In the phosphomolybdenum method, cycloalpioside D (6) (4.05 mmol TEs/g) showed the highest activity. In 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH*) radical and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline)-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) cation radical scavenging assays, cycloorbicoside A-7-monoacetate (2) (5.03 mg TE/g) and cycloorbicoside B (10) (10.60 mg TE/g) displayed the highest activities, respectively. Oleanolic acid (14) (51.45 mg TE/g) and 3-O-ß-d-xylopyranoside-(23R,24S)-16ß,23;16α,24-diepoxycycloart-25(26)-en-3ß,7ß-diol 7-monoacetate (4) (13.25 mg TE/g) revealed the highest reducing power in cupric ion-reducing activity (CUPRAC) and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays, respectively. In metal-chelating activity on ferrous ions, compound 2 displayed the highest activity estimated by 41.00 mg EDTAE/g (EDTA equivalents/g). The tested triterpenes showed promising AChE and BChE inhibitory potential with 3-O-ß-d-xylopyranoside-(23R,24S)-16ß,23;16α,24-diepoxycycloart-25(26)-en-3ß,7ß-diol 2',3',4',7-tetraacetate (3), exhibiting the highest inhibitory activity as estimated from 5.64 and 5.19 mg GALAE/g (galantamine equivalent/g), respectively. Compound 2 displayed the most potent tyrosinase inhibitory activity (113.24 mg KAE/g (mg kojic acid equivalent/g)). Regarding α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibition, 3-O-ß-d-xylopyranoside-(23R,24S)-16ß,23;16α,24-diepoxycycloart-25(26)-en-3ß,7ß-diol (5) (0.55 mmol ACAE/g) and compound 3 (25.18 mmol ACAE/g) exerted the highest activities, respectively. In silico studies focused on compounds 2, 6, and 7 as inhibitors of tyrosinase revealed that compound 2 displayed a good ranking score (-7.069 kcal/mole) and also that the ΔG free-binding energy was the highest among the three selected compounds. From the ADMET/TOPKAT prediction, it can be concluded that compounds 4 and 5 displayed the best pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic behavior, with considerable activity in most of the examined assays.

15.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 10(11)2021 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34829574

RESUMO

Grape pomace is commonly considered a waste product of monovarietal red wine production. Methods: HPLC-DAD analysis was performed to determine the polyphenol and flavonoid contents of all the extracts obtained from Montepulciano d'Abruzzo red wine and grape skins whereas, GC-MS was applied to the determination of fatty acid composition in grape seeds oil. Biological characterization involves antioxidant and antimicrobial assays for all the extracts and seeds oil; Their ability to inhibit α-glucosidase, α-amylase, α-tyrosinase, and ChE enzymes was also detected, together with anti-inflammatory activity on wine, grape skin extracts, and seeds oil by lipoxygenase (5-LOX) and LPS-stimulated macrophage release assays. Data indicate significative polyphenols content (199.31 ± 7.21 mgGAE/g), antioxidant (CUPRAC assay (1036.98 mgTE/g)), enzymatic inhibition (α-tyrosinase: 151.30 ± 1.20 mgKAE/g) and anti-inflammatory activities for wine-organic extract 2, while the antimicrobial activity of grape skin decoction is higher than those reported by wine extracts on three bacterial strains. Interestingly only dealcoholized wine and wine-aqueous extract exerts inhibitory effects on α-glucosidase (20.62 ± 0.23 mmolACAE/g and 19.81 ± 0.03 mmolACAE/g, respectively), while seeds oil is rich in oleic and linoleic acids. These results confirm the strong antioxidant properties of Montepulciano d'Abruzzo grape pomace, suggesting the potential use of this waste product as functional food supplements in the human diet and in cosmeceutics.

16.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 10(11)2021 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34829642

RESUMO

Spondias species have been used in traditional medicine for different human ailments. In this study, the effect of different solvents (ethyl acetate, methanol, and water) and extraction methods (infusion, maceration, and Soxhlet extraction) on the enzyme inhibitory activity against acetylcholinesterase, butyrylcholinesterase, tyrosinase, α-amylase, α-glucosidase, and antioxidant properties of S. mombin and S. dulcis leaves and stem bark were evaluated. Ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS) yield in the identification and/or annotation of 98 compounds showing that the main secondary metabolites of the plant are gallic and ellagic acids and their derivatives, ellagitannins, hydroxybenzoic, hydroxycinnamic, acylquinic acids and flavonols, flavanones, and flavanonols. The leaves infusion of both Spondias species showed highest inhibition against acetylcholinesterase (AChE) (10.10 and 10.45 mg galantamine equivalent (GALAE)/g, for S. dulcis and S. mombin, respectively). The ethyl acetate extracts of the stem bark of S. mombin and S. dulcis actively inhibited α-glucosidase. Methanolic extracts of the leaves and stem bark exhibited highest tyrosinase inhibitory action. Antioxidant activity and higher levels of phenolics were observed for the methanolic extracts of Spondias. The results suggested that the Spondias species could be considered as natural phyto-therapeutic agents in medicinal and cosmeceutical applications.

17.
Chem Biodivers ; : e2100706, 2021 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34636484

RESUMO

The present work describes medicinal potential and secondary metabolic picture of the methanol extract (PP-M) of Polygonum plebeium R.Br. and its fractions; hexane (PP-H), ethyl acetate (PP-E) and water (PP-W). In total bioactive component estimation, highest contents of phenolic (89.38±0.27 mgGAE/g extract) and flavonoid (51.21±0.43 mgQE/g extract) were observed in PP-E, and the same fraction exhibited the highest antioxidant potential in DPPH (324.80±4.09 mgTE/g extract), ABTS (563.18±11.39 mgTE/g extract), CUPRAC (411.33±15.49 mgTE/g extract) and FRAC (369.54±1.70 mgTE/g extract) assays. In Phosphomolybdenum activity assay, PP-H and PP-E showed nearly similar potential, however, PP-H was the most active (13.54±0.24 mgEDTAE/g extract) in metal chelating activity assay. PP-W was the stronger inhibitor (4.03±0.05 mgGALAE/g extract) of the enzyme AChE, while PP-H was potent inhibitor of BChE (5.62±0.27 mg GALAE/g extract). Interestingly, PP-E was inactive against BChE. Against tyrosinase activity, PP-E was again the most active fraction with inhibitory value of 71.89±1.44 mg KAE/g extract, followed by the activity of PP-M and PP-W. Antidiabetic potential was almost equally distributed among PP-M, PP-H and PP-E. For mapping the chemodiversity of P. plebeium, PP-M was analyzed through UHPLC/MS, which led to the identification of more than 50 compounds. Flavonoids were the main components derived from isovitexin, kaempferol and luteolin however, gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, gingerols and lyoniresinol 9'-sulfate were among important bioactive phenols. These findings prompted to conclude that Polygonum plebeium can be a significant source to offer new ingredient for nutraceuticals and functional foods.

18.
Molecules ; 26(20)2021 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684872

RESUMO

Recent studies in the agronomic field indicate that the exogenous application of polyphenols can provide tolerance against various stresses in plants. However, the molecular processes underlying stress mitigation remain unclear, and little is known about the impact of exogenously applied phenolics, especially in combination with salinity. In this work, the impacts of exogenously applied chlorogenic acid (CA), hesperidin (HES), and their combination (HES + CA) have been investigated in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) through untargeted metabolomics to evaluate mitigation effects against salinity. Growth parameters, physiological measurements, leaf relative water content, and osmotic potential as well as gas exchange parameters were also measured. As expected, salinity produced a significant decline in the physiological and biochemical parameters of lettuce. However, the treatments with exogenous phenolics, particularly HES and HES + CA, allowed lettuce to cope with salt stress condition. Interestingly, the treatments triggered a broad metabolic reprogramming that involved secondary metabolism and small molecules such as electron carriers, enzyme cofactors, and vitamins. Under salinity conditions, CA and HES + CA distinctively elicited secondary metabolism, nitrogen-containing compounds, osmoprotectants, and polyamines.

19.
Plants (Basel) ; 10(10)2021 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34685855

RESUMO

The widespread genus Cirsium Mill. (Asteraceae) is renowned in traditional medicine. In the present study, an innovative biochemometric-assisted metabolite profiling of the flower heads, aerial parts and roots of Cirsium appendiculatum Griseb. (Balkan thistle) in relation to their antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory potential was developed. The workflow combines ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS) with partial least-square analysis to discriminate the herbal extracts and identify the most prominent biological activities. The annotation and dereplication of 61 secondary metabolites were evidenced, including 15 carboxylic (including hydroxybenzoic and hydroxycinnamic) acids and their glycosides, 11 acylquinic acids, 26 flavonoids and 9 fatty acids. All compounds were reported for the first time in the studied species. The root extract revealed the highest cupric and ferric reducing power (618.36 ± 5.17 mg TE/g and 269.89 ± 8.50 mg TE/g, respectively) and antioxidant potential in phosphomolybdenum (3.36 ± 0.15 mmol TE/g) as well as the most prominent enzyme inhibitory potential on α-glucosidase (0.72 ± 0.07 mmol ACAE/g), acetylcholinesterase (4.93 ± 0.25 mg GALAE/g) and butyrylcholinesterase (3.80 ± 0.26 mg GALAE/g). Nevertheless, the flower heads were differentiated by their higher metal chelating activity (32.53 ± 3.51 mg EDTAE/g) and total flavonoid content (46.59 ± 0.89 mgRE/g). The partial least-square discriminant and heat-map analysis highlighted the root extract as the most active and a promising source of bioactive compounds for the therapeutic industry.

20.
Food Sci Nutr ; 9(10): 5854-5868, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34646551

RESUMO

Myricetin is a critical nutritive component of diet providing immunological protection and beneficial for maintaining good health. It is found in fruits, vegetables, tea, and wine. The families Myricaceae, Polygonaceae, Primulaceae, Pinaceae, and Anacardiaceae are the richest sources of myricetin. Different researchers explored the therapeutic potential of this valuable constituent such as anticancer, antidiabetic, antiobesity, cardiovascular protection, osteoporosis protection, anti-inflammatory, and hepatoprotective. In addition to these, the compound has been tested for cancer and diabetic mellitus during clinical trials. Health benefits of myricetin are related to its impact on different cell processes, such as apoptosis, glycolysis, cell cycle, energy balance, lipid level, serum protein concentrations, and osteoclastogenesis. This review explored the potential health benefits of myricetin with a specific emphasis on its mechanism of action, considering the most updated and novel findings in the field.

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