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1.
Comput Biol Chem ; 83: 107114, 2019 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31493741

RESUMO

Pittosporum senacia (PS) Putt. (Pittosporaceae), indigenous to the Mascarene Islands, is a common ingredient in traditional medicines. However, there is currently a dearth of studies to validate some of these traditional claims. Given the broad traditional uses of PS against several diseases, we aimed to provide a comprehensive insight into the biological and chemical profile of P. senacia. The antioxidant, enzyme inhibitory activity, anticancer, and phytochemical composition of the methanolic extract of P. senacia leaf extracts were studied. The possible interaction and binding mode of the most abundant phytochemicals were studied via in silico docking experiments on tyrosinase and α-glucosidase. The mechanism behind the cytotoxic property of P. senacia extract for MDA-MB-231 was also examined using different methods including 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) cell viability test checking apoptosis-associated genes, and wound healing assays. Twenty-six compounds were identified, of which caffeoylquinic acid derivatives, ferulic acid derivative, cinnamoylquinic acid derivative and two other polyphenols (oleuropeine and isoramnetin glucoside) being abundant, have been tested using in silico studies, against α-glucosidase and tyrosinase. The extract (IC50 = 118.8 µg/ml) exhibited time and dose dependent anti-proliferative effect on human breast cancer cell line, MDA-MB-231. According to the expression profile of apoptosis inhibitors and apoptosis promoters genes, expression of Bax and Bak genes were significantly increased compared to Bcl-2 and Birc5 genes. Based on wound healing analysis, cell migration was inhibited after the application of the plant extract. The present findings suggested that PS might be a good candidate as sources of bioactive compounds for designing functional applications.

2.
Food Res Int ; 125: 108610, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31554064

RESUMO

Ocimum americanum L. (Lamiaceae) is a common food condiment and also used in traditional medicine in the management of several human diseases. Nonetheless, there has been no effort to delineate the biological and phytochemical profiles of leaves and flowers prepared by different extractive solvents (ethyl acetate, methanol (MeOH), and water). The pharmacological potential of O. americanum extracts on pro-oxidant/pro-inflammatory mediators in rat colon specimens treated with lipopolysaccharide was investigated. In parallel, the inhibitory effects of the extracts on fungal and bacterial strains involved in ulcerative colitis were studied. Qualitative phytochemical analysis showed the presence of phenols, flavonoids, and tannins. Water extracts of flowers and leaves showed strong reducing and radicals scavenging potential. Both MeOH and ethyl acetate extracts of the leaves and flowers were able to inhibit acetylcholinesterase, butyrylcholinesterase, and tyrosinase. All the extracts inhibited the selected bacterial and fungal strains, while only ethyl acetate flower extract displayed antioxidant/anti-inflammatory effects in rat colon. The water and MeOH extracts stimulated colon lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and serotonin (5-HT) and induced spontaneous migration of HCT116 cells. Future investigations should focus on the biological activity of isolated phytochemicals from the leaves and flowers of O. americanum, in order to clarify the mechanism(s) of action substantiating the observed pharmacological properties.

3.
Chem Biodivers ; 2019 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31545879

RESUMO

Cissampelos sympodialis Eichler is well studied and investigated for its antiasthmatic properties, but there are no data in the literature describing antibacterial properties of alkaloids isolated from this botanical species. This work reports the isolation and characterization of phanostenine obtained from roots of C. sympodialis and describes for the first time its antimicrobial and antibiotic modulatory properties. Phanostenine was first isolated from Cissampelos sympodialis and its antibacterial activities were determined. Chemical structures of the alkaloid isolate were determined using spectroscopic and chemical analyses. Phanostenine was also tested for its antibacterial activity against standard strains and clinical isolates of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined in a microdilution assay and for the evaluation of antibiotic resistance-modifying activity. MIC of the antibiotics was determined in the presence or absence of phanostenine at sub-inhibitory concentrations. The evaluation of antibacterial activity by microdilution assay showed activity for all strains with better values against S. aureus ATCC 12692 and E. coli 27 (787.69 mm). The evaluation of aminoglycoside antibiotic resistance-modifying activity showed reduction in the MIC of the aminoglycosides (amikacin, gentamicin and neomycin) when associated with phanostenine, MIC reduction of antibiotics ranging from 21 % to 80 %. The data demonstrated that phanostenine possesses a relevant ability to modify the antibiotic activity in vitro. We can suggest that phanostenine presents itself as a promising tool as an adjuvant for novel antibiotics formulations against bacterial resistance.

4.
Biomolecules ; 9(9)2019 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31527522

RESUMO

The endocannabinoid system represents an integrated neuronal network involved in the control of several organisms' functions, such as feeding behavior. A series of hybrids of 5-(4-chlorophenyl)-1-(2,4-dichloro-phenyl)-4-methyl-N-(piperidin-1-yl)-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxamide (mimonabant), a well-known inverse agonist of the type-1 cannabinoid receptor (CB1), once used as an antiobesity drug, and the N-(2S)-substitutes of 1-[(4-fluorophenyl)methyl]indazole-3-carboxamide with 1-amino-3-methyl-1-oxobutane (AB-Fubinaca), 1-amino-3,3-dimethyl-1-oxobutane (ADB-Fubinaca), and 3-methylbutanoate (AMB-Fubinaca), endowed with potent agonistic activity towards cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2 were in solution as C-terminal amides, acids, methyl esters and N-methyl amides. These compounds have been studied by binding assays to cannabinoid receptors and by functional receptor assays, using rat brain membranes in vitro. The most active among them as an agonist, (S)-1-(2,4-dichlorobenzyl)-N-(3,3-dimethyl-1-(methylamino)-1-oxobutan-2-yl)-1H-indazole-3-carboxamide (LONI11), and an antagonist, (S)-2-(1-(2,4-dichlorobenzyl)-1H-indazole-3-carboxamido)-3-methylbutanoic acid (LONI4), were tested in vivo in mic, to evaluate their ability to stimulate or suppress feeding behavior after intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration. For a LONI11 formalin test and a tail flick test after an administration by the subcutaneous (s.c.) and intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) routes, respectively, were also carried out in vivo in mice to investigate the antinociceptive property at the central and peripheral levesl. We observed a significant orexant effect for LONI11 and an intense anorexant effect for (S)-methyl 2-(1-(2,4-dichlorobenzyl)-1H-indazole-3-carboxamido)-3,3-dimethylbutanoate (LONI2) and LONI4. In zymosan-induced edema and hyperalgesia, LONI11 reduced the percent of paw volume increase and paw latency after s.c. administration, also suggesting a possible peripheral anti-inflammatory activity.

5.
J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem ; 34(1): 1511-1525, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31422706

RESUMO

A series of benzo[b]thiophen-3-ols were synthesised and investigated as potential human monoamine oxidase (hMAO) inhibitors in vitro as well as ex vivo in rat cortex synaptosomes by means of evaluation of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid/dopamine (DOPAC/DA) ratio and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity. Most of these compounds possessed high selectivity for the MAO-B isoform and a discrete antioxidant and chelating potential. Molecular docking studies of all the compounds underscored potential binding site interactions suitable for MAO inhibition activity, and suggested structural requirements to further improve the activity of this scaffold by chemical modification of the aryl substituents. Starting from this heterocyclic nucleus, novel lead compounds for the treatment of neurodegenerative disease could be developed.


Assuntos
Desenho de Drogas , Inibidores da Monoaminoxidase/farmacologia , Monoaminoxidase/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares , Estrutura Molecular , Inibidores da Monoaminoxidase/síntese química , Inibidores da Monoaminoxidase/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
6.
Nat Prod Res ; : 1-5, 2019 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31441666

RESUMO

Lagochilus species are mainly distributed in Central Asia and widely used in folk medicine as a sedative and haemostatic. The present investigation reports on the extraction by hydrodistillation and the chemical composition of three Lagochilus species (L. gypsaceus, L. inebrians and L. setulosus) essential oils from Uzbekistan. The chemical composition of these essential oils was determined by GC-MS. The results showed that the studied essential oils are made up mainly of linalool (11.97%), ß-ionone (11.75%), trans-chrysanthenyl acetate (7.15%), α-terpineol (7.40%) for L. gypsaceus; trans-chrysanthenyl acetate (9.40%), eugenol (7.01%), trans-verbenol (3.85%), bicyclo[3.1.1]hept-3-en-2-one (3.76%), pinocarvone (3.43%) for L. inebrians; and finally 2,4-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl)phenol (19.78%), bicyclo[3.1.1]hept-2-en-4-ol (5.43%), hexadecanoic acid (5.39%), limonene (5.19%), 2-hexenal (5.03%) for L. setulosus. The best antioxidant and tyrosinase inhibitory activity was observed for the essential oil of L. inebrians. However, L. setulosus essential oil exhibited the strongest inhibitory effect against amylase.

7.
Int J Environ Health Res ; : 1-13, 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31411055

RESUMO

In the present study, two medicinal plants from Africa, namely Bersama abyssinica Fresen. and Scoparia dulcis L., were extracted using ethyl acetate, methanol, and water. The antioxidant, enzyme (α-amylase, α-glucosidase, acetyl- and butyrylcholinesterase, lipase, and tyrosinase) inhibitory action, and phytochemical profiles of extracts of Bersama abyssinica and Scoparia dulcis were determined. The aqueous (180.62 and 61.81 mg gallic acid equivalent/g extract, for B. abyssinica and S. dulcis respectively) and methanol (75.21 and 57.81 mg rutin equivalent/g extract, for B. abyssinica and S. dulcis, respectively) extracts contained high concentrations of phenolic and flavonoids, respectively. The ethyl acetate extracts of both plants were potent inhibitors of α-glucosidase and tyrosinase. Several phytochemical groups were determined by HPLC-MS/MS. The study tend to suggest that B. abyssinica and S. dulcis are potential candidates for the development of novel therapeutical agents.

8.
J Food Biochem ; 43(11): e13003, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31393014

RESUMO

The phytochemical, antiradical, and enzyme inhibition profile of three solvent extracts (ethyl acetate, methanol, water) of Origanum sipyleum were assessed. We also performed a pharmacological study in order to explore protective effects induced by extracts in inflamed colon. LC-MS analysis revealed that the extracts contained different classes of phenolics. The aqueous extract showed the highest antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory effects. Total phenol and flavonoid contents were highest in aqueous and ethyl acetate extract, respectively. All extracts were effective in reducing colon pro-oxidant and pro-inflammatory biomarkers. The extracts revealed also able to inhibit fungal and bacterial species involved in ulcerative colitis, including Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Staphylococcus thyphimurium. Finally, we also showed the antiproliferative effects exerted by the EA extracts on human colon cancer HCT116 cell line. Concluding, our results indicated that O. sipyleum extracts displayed promising therapeutic properties which warrants further validation. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: The present phytochemical and biological studies, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobic assessments, showed significant protective effects exerted by O. sipyleum extracts in an experimental model of ulcerative colitis. The results are intriguing and suggest potential applications O. sipyleum extracts as sources of natural agents for the management of clinical symptoms related to ulcerative colitis, characterized by increased burden of oxidative stress and microbiome dysbiosis.

9.
Phytomedicine ; : 153066, 2019 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31447278

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diabetic complications-coronary atherosclerosis is closely related to the increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by hyperglycemia. ROS are reported to induce the abnormal proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) under high glucose conditions. Leaf and seed extracts from Moringa oleifera are found to exhibit antioxidant activity. However, few studies are evaluating the antioxidant activities of chemical compounds isolated from the M. oleifera especially in cardiovascular field. PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to explore the antioxidative effect during hyperglycemia of niazirin from M. oleifera. STUDY DESIGN: A cell model was applied. METHODS: After the taking the in vitro antioxidant experiment including ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonate) (ABTS) assay and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. Cell viability was carried out using high glucose-induced VSMCs model. ROS production was tested by 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCF-DA) assay. The protein kinase C zeta (PKCζ) and NADPH oxidase 4 (Nox 4) expression in vitro and in vivo were measured by western blot analysis. RESULTS: Niazirin showed good free radical scavenging activity. Niazirin significantly attenuated the proliferation of high glucose-induced VSMCs. Furthermore, it could decrease the ROS and malondialdehyde (MDA) productions, while increased total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), superoxide dismutase (SOD) as well as glutathione peroxidase (GPx) levels in high glucose-induced VSMCs and streptozotocin-induced mice. In addition, niazirin could eliminate the high glucose-induced PKCζ activation, indicated by Thr410 phosphorylation and inhibition of the Nox4 protein expression in vitro and in vivo. CONCLUSION: Niazirin from M. oleifera exhibited notably antioxidant activities and could be utilized as a potential natural antioxidant in preventing diabetic atherosclerosis.

10.
J Food Biochem ; 43(3): e12766, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31353569

RESUMO

The present study evaluated the biological potential of methanol and aqueous extracts of the twigs and fruits of Cotoneaster integerrimus Medik. Lethality bioassays performed on Artemia salina showed that aqueous and methanol C. integerrimus extracts were non-toxic in the concentration range (0.1-20 mg/ml), with a LC50 ≥ 2.5 mg/ml, for each single extract. The protective effect of the extracts was assessed in vitro against hydrogen peroxide-induced lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α gene expression in colon cancer HCT116 cell line. All the extracts downregulated (H2 O2 )-induced TNFα gene expression, in HCT116. By contrast, it was observed that the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced increase in colon nitrite, prostaglandin E2 , and 8-iso-PGF2α levels were counteracted mostly by the methanol twig extract. The present study showed protective effects induced by C. integerrimus in vitro and ex vivo, thus supporting potential application in the management of chronic inflammatory diseases. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: In the present study, protective effects of C. integerrimus are highlighted using in vitro and ex-vivo models of hydrogen peroxide-induced LDH activity in HCT116 cell and on LPS-induced inflammation in rat colon. Based on our results, this edible and traditionally used species could be considered as a valuable source of natural agents to combat inflammatory diseases, particularly ulcerative colitis. Results amassed herein advocates for further bioprospection of this species that could open new avenues for the development of nutraceuticals and functional foods geared toward the management of chronic inflammatory diseases.

11.
J Food Biochem ; 43(7): e12859, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31353706

RESUMO

The available cultivable plant-based food resources in developing tropical countries are inadequate to supply proteins for both human and animals. Such limition of available plant food sources are due to shrinking of agricultural land, rapid urbanization, climate change, and tough competition between food and feed industries for existing food and feed crops. However, the cheapest food materials are those that are derived from plant sources which although they occur in abundance in nature, are still underutilized. At this juncture, identification, evaluation, and introduction of underexploited millet crops, including crops of tribal utility which are generally rich in protein is one of the long-term viable solutions for a sustainable supply of food and feed materials. In view of the above, the present review endeavors to highlight the nutritional and functional potential of underexploited millet crops. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Millets are an important food crop at a global level with a significant economic impact on developing countries. Millets have advantageous characteristics as they are drought and pest-resistance grains. Millets are considered as high-energy yielding nourishing foods which help in addressing malnutrition. Millet-based foods are considered as potential prebiotic and probiotics with prospective health benefits. Grains of these millet species are widely consumed as a source of traditional medicines and important food to preserve health.

12.
J Food Biochem ; 43(7): e12928, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31353714

RESUMO

The study was aimed to investigate the phenolic compounds of Allium macrochaetum by LC-MS/MS, as well as the antioxidant, antialzheimer, and antimicrobial activities of the extracts, and determination of the essential oil and fatty acid compositions by GC-MS. The results indicate that malic acid and t-caffeic acid are the major compounds in the bulbs. The main components of fatty acids were found to be linolenic (40.72%), oleic (19.79%), and palmitic (18.45%) acids. The allyl disulfide (66.97%) was found as major compound in the essential oil. The ethanol extract of the bulbs exhibited stronger ABTS cation (IC50 : 55.90 ± 1.08 µg/ml) and DPPH free (IC50 : 204.43 ± 2.17 µg/ml) radical scavenging activities than the other extracts. The extract also showed moderate cupric reducing activity with 1.52 absorbance at 100 µg/ml concentration. Only the ethanol extract of the bulbs showed weak inhibition (23.34 ± 0.11%) against butrylcholinesterase enzyme at 200 µg/ml. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Allium macrochaetum is a wild and edible garlic species which grown in Turkey, Iran, Iraqi, and Syria. A. macrochaetum has been used by local people in Turkish folk medicine as an antibiotic, and for the treatment of alopecia. The health benefits and nutritional values of A. macrochaetum were clarified in the first time. Phenolic compounds of A. macrochaetum were detected by LC-MS/MS. The essential oil and fatty acid compositions of A. macrochaetum were identified by GC-MS. Antioxidant, antialzheimer, and antimicrobial activities potential of A. macrochaetum were determined.

13.
Molecules ; 24(14)2019 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31315236

RESUMO

Ethyl acetate (EA), methanol (MeOH), and aqueous extracts of aerial parts of Anthemis tinctoria var. pallida (ATP) and A. cretica subsp. tenuiloba (ACT) were investigated for their phenol and flavonoid content, antioxidant, and key enzyme inhibitory potentials. All extracts displayed antiradical effects, with MeOH and aqueous extracts being a superior source of antioxidants. On the other hand, EA and MeOH extracts were potent against AChE and BChE. Enzyme inhibitory effects against tyrosinase and α-glucosidase were observed, as well. We also studied Anthemis extracts in an ex vivo experimental neurotoxicity paradigm. We assayed extract influence on oxidative stress and neurotransmission biomarkers, including lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and serotonin (5-HT), in isolated rat cortex challenged with K+ 60 mM Krebs-Ringer buffer (excitotoxicity stimulus). An untargeted proteomic analysis was finally performed in order to explore the putative mechanism in the brain. The pharmacological study highlighted the capability of ACT water extract to blunt K+ 60 mM increase in LDH level and 5-HT turnover, and restore physiological activity of specific proteins involved in neuron morphology and neurotransmission, including NEFMs, VAMP-2, and PKCγ, thus further supporting the neuroprotective role of ACT water extract.

14.
Food Res Int ; 123: 414-424, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31284993

RESUMO

Bunium species have been reported to be used both as food and in traditional medicines. The scientific community has attempted to probe into the pharmacological and chemical profiles of this genus. Nonetheless, many species have not been investigated fully to date. In this study, we determined the phenolic components, antimicrobial, antioxidant, and enzyme inhibitory activities of aerial parts of four Bunium species (B. sayai, B. pinnatifolium, B. brachyactis and B. macrocarpum). Results showed that B. microcarpum and B. pinnatifolium were strong antioxidants as evidenced in the DPPH, ABTS, CUPRAC, and FRAP assays. B. brachyactis was the most effective metal chelator, and displayed high enzyme inhibition against cholinesterase, tyrosinase, amylase, glucosidase, and lipase. The four species showed varied antimicrobial activity against each microorganism. Overall, they showed high activity against P. mirabilis and E. coli (MIC and MBC <1 mg mL-1). B. brachyactis was more effective against Aspergillus versicolor compared to the standard drug ketoconazole. B. brachyactis was also more effective than both ketoconazole and bifonazole against Trichoderma viride. B. sayai was more effective than ketoconazole in inhibiting A. fumigatus. B. sayai was most non-toxic to HEK 293 (cellular viability = 117%) and HepG2 (cellular viability = 104%). The highest level of TPC was observed in B. pinnatifolium (35.94 mg GAE g-1) while B. microcarpum possessed the highest TFC (39.21 mg RE g-1). Seventy four compounds were detected in B. microcarpum, 70 in B. brachyactis, 66 in B. sayai, and 51 in B. pinnatifolium. Quinic acid, chlorogenic acid, pantothenic acid, esculin, isoquercitrin, rutin, apigenin, and scopoletin were present in all the four species. This study showed that the four Bunium species are good sources of biologically active compounds with pharmaceutical and nutraceutical potential.

15.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 131: 110535, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31154083

RESUMO

This study endeavours to investigate the phytochemical composition, biological properties and in vivo toxicity of methanol and dichloromethane extracts of Zaleya pentandra (L.) Jeffrey. Total bioactive contents, antioxidant (phosphomolybdenum and metal chelating, DPPH, ABTS, FRAP and CUPRAC) and enzyme inhibition (cholinesterases, tyrosinase α-amylase, and α-glucosidase) potential were assessed utilizing in vitro bioassays. UHPLC-MS phytochemical profiling was carried out to identify the essential compounds. The methanol extract was found to contain highest phenolic (22.60 mg GAE/g) and flavonoid (31.49 mg QE/g) contents which correlate with its most significant radical scavenging, reducing potential and tyrosinase inhibition. The dichloromethane extract was most potent for phosphomolybdenum, ferrous chelation, α-amylase, α-glucosidase, and cholinesterase inhibition assays. UHPLC-MS analysis of methanol extract unveiled to identify 11 secondary metabolites belonging to five sub-groups, i.e., phenolic, alkaloid, carbohydrate, terpenoid, and fatty acid derivatives. Additionally, in vivo toxicity was conducted for 21 days and the methanol extract at different doses (150, 200, 250 and 300 mg/kg) was administered in experimental chicks divided into five groups each containing five individuals. Different physical, haematological and biochemical parameters along with the absolute and relative weight of visceral body organs were studied. Overall, no toxic effect was noted for the extract at tested doses.


Assuntos
Aizoaceae/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Administração Oral , Animais , Galinhas , Inibidores Enzimáticos/administração & dosagem , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Inibidores Enzimáticos/toxicidade , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/administração & dosagem , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/química , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/farmacologia , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/toxicidade , Metanol/química , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/química
16.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(13): 6001-6010, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31225640

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In this study, we aimed to evaluate the influence of different extraction procedures [decoction, homogenizer-assisted extraction (HAE), infusion, maceration, Soxhlet and ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE)] on the chemical profiling and biological properties of methanol and water extracts of Pulicaria dysenterica (L.) Bernh. The chemical profiles of the extracts were evaluated by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-TOF-MS). The antioxidant properties and enzymes (lipase, α-amylase, α-glucosidase, tyrosinase and cholinesterases) inhibitory potential of the extracts were evaluated. RESULTS: The chemical profiles were dependent on the type of extraction methods as well as on the type of solvent. The methanolic extracts showed higher levels of total phenolic, flavonoid, and phenolic acid content, while the highest total flavonol content was observed in the HAE-water extract. Forty different compounds were identified from P. dysenterica. In relation to the potential in vitro anti-diabetic effects, the highest activity against the studied key enzymes was observed for the macerated extract (α-amylase: 0.58 ± 0.03 and α- glucosidase: 1.65 ± 0.03 mmol ACAE g-1 ). The HAE-methanol extract was the most potent inhibitor of cholisterases, whereas the highest activities against tyrosinase were observed for UAE-methanol extract, followed by macerated and Soxhlet. The inhibitory activity of the studied extracts against lipase were in the order: soxhlet > macerated> HAE-methanol > UAE-methanol. CONCLUSION: This study has established scientific baseline data on the therapeutic properties of P. dysentrica, thereby advocating the need for further investigations in an endeavour to develop novel pharmaceuticals from this plant. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Extratos Vegetais/química , Pulicaria/química , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Flavonoides/química , Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/química , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/isolamento & purificação , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/antagonistas & inibidores , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/química , Análise Multivariada , Fenóis/química , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray , alfa-Amilases/antagonistas & inibidores , alfa-Amilases/química , alfa-Glucosidases/química
17.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 174: 19-33, 2019 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31153134

RESUMO

Africa is famous for its floral biodiversity, exploited by local people for therapeutic purposes. However, such plants need to be scrutinised scientifically for the presence of bioactive compounds and possible biological properties. This study attempts for the first time to highlight the pharmacological and phytochemical profile of extracts prepared from leaves and stem barks of three African plants (Macaranga hurifolia Beille, Sterculia tragacantha Lindl. and Zanthoxylum gilletii (De Wild.) P. G. Waterman. The extracts were tested for antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory effects. Free radical scavenging, metal chelator, reducing power and phosphomolybdenum assays were performed to evaluate antioxidant effects. To identify enzyme inhibitory effects, cholinesterases (acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butrylcholinesterase (BChE)), tyrosinase, α-amylase and α-glucosidase were selected as target enzymes. High performance liquid chromatography-Electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS) technique was also used for chemical profiling. ABTS (2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) and DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging assays showed that the stem barks of all three African plants were better scavenger than leaf extracts. Sterculia tragacantha was found to be a better metal chelator (64.10 ±â€¯4.66 mg EDTAE/g) among the studied plants. All extracts exhibited good clinical enzyme inhibitory activities. The stem bark of S. tragacantha exhibited the best acetylcholinesterase activity compared to the other plants. HPLC-ESI-MS characterization showed that the most abundant compounds in stem bark were flavonoids in M. hurifolia (4.2 ±â€¯0.2 mg/g DE), proanthocyanidins in S. tragacantha (42 ±â€¯1 mg/g DE) and similar concentrations of phenolic acids and flavonoids in Z. gilletii (2.8-3.1 mg/g DE). Based on the biological activity, the most abundant and relevant bioactive compounds in the extracts were studied using molecular modelling approach against tyrosinase. The studied African plants showed good antioxidant and enzymatic propensities and thus can be considered as potential bioresources for future development of nutraceuticals and/or for pharmaceutical applications.

18.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 174: 286-299, 2019 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31185340

RESUMO

This study aimed to reveal chemical profiles and biological activities of ethyl acetate (EA), methanol (MeOH), and water extracts of Lotus corniculatus. Ethnobotanical reports have indicated the importance of phytochemical properties of the genus Lotus. In this study, the effects of medicinal plant extracts on antioxidant (DPPH, ABTS, CUPRAC, FRAP, phosphomolybdenum, and metal chelating assays), enzyme inhibitory (on cholinesterase, tyrosinase, a-amylase and a-glucosidase), DNA protection and anticancer properties (including anti-proliferative, cell death and telomerase activity marker gene analysis, apoptotic DNA fragmentation analysis, cell migration test) were evaluated. According to chemical analysis, quercetin derivatives geraldol, isorhamnetin and kaempferol-O-coumaroylhexoside-O-deoxyhexoside isomers were dominant in the extracts. MeOH extracts showed the highest total flavonoids capacity with 21.13 mg RE/g. EA extract showed the strongest anti-amylase activity among the tested extracts. Water extract had the most protective activity against plasmid DNA. To indicate cell survival, MTT test was performed against human MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Half-maximal inhibitory concentration for cells were calculated and used for detection of mechanisms behind the cancer cell death. EA extract showed up-regulation of Bax proapoptotic gene and apoptotic DNA fragmentation activity on highly invasive MDA-MB-231 cells. Beclin-1 and LC3-II autophagy genes were higly expressed after treatment of MCF-7 cells with EA extracts. EA and MeOH extracts inhibited cell migration ability of both cancer cells. Linoleamide, was dominant component in EA extract and caused apoptosis on MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells via increasing intranuclear Ca²+. The detailed mechanism behind the anticancer properties should be further investigated.

19.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 174: 406-413, 2019 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31212141

RESUMO

Ethnobotanical evidences substantiate the use of several Centaurea species to treat and/or manage several human ailments. In the present study, the phytochemical profile of the ethyl acetate, methanol, and aqueous extracts (prepared by infusion and decoction) of Centaurea bornmuelleri Hausskn. aerial parts was established. The enzyme inhibitory and antioxidant properties were also determined by in vitro bioassays. Methanol extract (38.58 mg gallic acid equivalent/g extract) and ethyl acetate extract (38.83 mg rutin equivalent/g extract) possessed the highest concentration of phenolics and flavonoids, respectively. Aqueous extract prepared following traditional infusion method showed potent DPPH (38.54 mg TE/g extract) and ABTS (57.75 mg TE/g extract) scavenging abilities. The methanol extract (101.46 mg TE/g extract) of C. bornmuelleri exhibited potent reducing activity in the CUPRAC assay while the aqueous extract obtained by infusion was more active in the FRAP assay (69.81 mg TE/g extract). Ethyl acetate extract of C. bornmuelleri inhibited both acetylcholinesterase (1.14 mg galantamine equivalent [GALAE]/g extract), butyrylcholinesterase (0.63 mg GALAE/g extract), tyrosinase (69.84 mg kojic acid equivalent/g extract), amylase (19.90 mg acarbose equivalent [ACAE]/g extract), and glucosidase (33.12 mg ACAE/g extract). The phytochemical profile of C. bornmuelleri has been characterized and the main components quantified in order to provide scientific base to design innovative products including pharmaceuticals, cosmetics or nutraceuticals although further investigation concerning the isolation of the main bioactive compounds would be required.

20.
Theranostics ; 9(7): 1923-1951, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31037148

RESUMO

Cardiovascular and metabolic diseases (CVMD) are the leading causes of death worldwide, underscoring the urgent necessity to develop new pharmacotherapies. Berberine (BBR) is an eminent component of traditional Chinese and Ayurvedic medicine for more than 2000 years. Recently, BBR has attracted much interest for its pharmacological actions in treating and/or managing CVMD. Recent discoveries of basic, translational and clinical studies have identified many novel molecular targets of BBR (such as AMPK, SIRT1, LDLR, PCSK9, and PTP1B) and provided novel evidences supporting the promising therapeutic potential of BBR to combat CVMD. Thus, this review provides a timely overview of the pharmacological properties and therapeutic application of BBR in CVMD, and underlines recent pharmacological advances which validate BBR as a promising lead drug against CVMD.

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