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1.
Front Biosci (Landmark Ed) ; 26: 537-551, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33049682

RESUMO

Consumption of a high-fat diet has adverse impacts on metabolism, neurobehavioral, and neurochemical homeostasis in both humans and experimental animals. Here, we examined the effects of two different cultivars of Corylus avellana L. in a mouse model of metabolic syndrome. Corylus avellana L. reduced weight gain in mice that were treated with a high-fat diet, improved their behavioral parameters as exemplified by locomotion and rearing, working-memory, and reduced grooming and anxiety indices. Both Corylus avellana L. varieties reduced blood glucose levels and lipid peroxidation, improved lipid profile, and antioxidant status in mice placed on a high fat diet. Finally, brain acetylcholinesterase activity was also reduced, dopamine level was increased, while caspase-3 level in the brain was reduced. Thus, the Corylus avellana L. cultivars improve metabolic, behavioral, and neurochemical homeostasis in a diet with a high-fat content.

2.
Food Chem ; 338: 127724, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32795878

RESUMO

Peppermint is widely used medicinal plant with distinguished bioactive potential, therefore, the aim of present work was to develop novel peppermint extracts with high activity by application of traditional and emerging separation techniques. Conventional hydrodistillation and microwave-assisted hydrodistillation (MWHD) were applied for recovery of essential oil (EO), while organic solvent extraction using Soxhlet apparatus, microwave-assisted and ultrasound-assisted process and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) were applied for non-selective recovery of peppermint lipophilic extracts. Extracts were characterized in terms of terpenoids profile with special emphasis on content of major compounds (mentol, menthone, isomenthol and eucalyptol). Antioxidant activity (DPPH, ABTS, CUPRAC, FRAP, chelating and phosphomolybdenum assay) and enzyme-inhibitory assays (acetylcholinesterase, butyrylcholinesterase, tyrosinase, amylase and glucosidase inhibition) were used for screening of peppermint bioactivity. MWHD was recognized as alternative for traditional process in EO recovery, while SFE extracts were useful for green production of solvent-free peppermint extracts rich in terpenoids and other lipophilic bioactives.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33059570

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Brain derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) serves as a modulator for neurotransmitter by participating in neuronal plasticity, essential for their growth and neuronal survival. It also shows a wide range of expression pattern in the systemic and peripheral tissues, thereby, its biological actions are not just limited to the CNS but may a vital role in peripheral disorders, such as diabetes mellitus (DM). OBJECTIVE: Platelets serve as one of the major sources of BDNF, which regulates the energy homeostasis and glucose metabolism by participating in the expression of specific pro-survival genes. It also prevents ß cells exhaustion, thus may prove to be a key factor for management of DM. CONCLUSION: The current article reviews the intricate role of BDNF in Type 2 DM (T2DM) by involving platelet reactivity and its association with these selected inflammatory platelet activator mediators. Besides, certain adipocytokines, such as adiponectin and leptin, are also involved in the metabolism of glucose during diabetes, which has been clearly proven by recent experimental studies and thus relating BDNF with adipocytokines. It is also involved in modulation of secretion of various neurotransmitters, peptides and hormones like gherin, leptin and insulin, suggesting its association with T2DM. Thus, based on various evidences, BDNF can be categorised as a potential biomarker in predicting the development of T2DM and may have distinctive role in the management of this disorder.

4.
J Sci Food Agric ; 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33006768

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study provides an insight into the impact of ultrasound-assisted extraction with water as solvent (UAEW) and extraction by supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2 ) with 5% EtOH on antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory activity in regard to the chemical profile of the edible and medicinal mushroom, Pleurotus pulmonarius. RESULTS: Extraction efficiency was between 0.36% and 63.32%, depending on the extraction technique. The main compounds in the extracts were fatty acids. Supercritical CO2 extraction with co-solvent was the most suitable method for obtaining extracts that were rich in ergosterol content, reaching a value of 40.1 mg g-1 . The UAEW of crude mushroom powder ensured the highest yield, as well as the extracts with best antioxidative activity. The measurements of enzyme inhibitory activity revealed that all types of investigated extracts exhibited only tyrosinase and amylase inhibition at a significant level. CONCLUSION: Based on our results, the extraction methods significantly affected the chemical profile and bioactivity of P. pulmonarius. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.

5.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 20(1): 313, 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33066787

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ethnobotanical and plant-based products allow for the isolation of active constituents against a number of maladies. Monotheca buxifolia is used by local communities due to its digestive and laxative properties, as well as its ability to cure liver, kidney, and urinary diseases. There is a need to explore the biological activities and chemical constituents of this medicinal plant. METHODS: In this work, the biochemical potential of M. buxifolia (Falc.) A. DC was explored and linked with its biological activities. Methanol and chloroform extracts from leaves and stems were investigated for total phenolic and flavonoid contents. Ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS) was used to determine secondary-metabolite composition, while high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detection (HPLC-PDA) was used for polyphenolic quantification. In addition, we carried out in vitro assays to determine antioxidant potential and the enzyme-inhibitory response of M. buxifolia extracts. RESULTS: Phenolics (91 mg gallic-acid equivalent (GAE)/g) and flavonoids (48.86 mg quercetin equivalent (QE)/g) exhibited their highest concentration in the methanol extract of stems and the chloroform extract of leaves, respectively. UHPLC-MS analysis identified a number of important phytochemicals, belonging to the flavonoid, phenolic, alkaloid, and terpenoid classes of secondary metabolites. The methanol extract of leaves contained a diosgenin derivative and polygalacin D, while kaempferol and robinin were most abundant in the chloroform extract. The methanol extract of stems contained a greater peak area for diosgenin and kaempferol, whereas this was true for lucidumol A and 3-O-cis-coumaroyl maslinic acid in the chloroform extract. Rutin, epicatechin, and catechin were the main phenolics identified by HPLC-PDA analysis. The methanol extract of stems exhibited significant 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical-scavenging activities (145.18 and 279.04 mmol Trolox equivalent (TE)/g, respectively). The maximum cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) (361.4 mg TE/g), ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) (247.19 mg TE/g), and total antioxidant potential (2.75 mmol TE/g) were depicted by the methanol extract of stems. The methanol extract of leaves exhibited stronger inhibition against acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and glucosidase, while the chloroform extract of stems was most active against butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) (4.27 mg galantamine equivalent (GALAE)/g). Similarly, the highest tyrosinase (140 mg kojic-acid equivalent (KAE)/g) and amylase (0.67 mmol acarbose equivalent (ACAE)/g) inhibition was observed for the methanol extract of stems. CONCLUSIONS: UHPLC-MS analysis and HPLC-PDA quantification identified a number of bioactive secondary metabolites of M. buxifolia, which may be responsible for its antioxidant potential and enzyme-inhibitory response. M. buxifolia can be further explored for the isolation of its active components to be used as a drug.

6.
J Food Biochem ; : e13463, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32931607

RESUMO

The side effects of synthetic antioxidants make it necessary to find a natural alternative. Therefore, the current study investigates the potential of T. spruneriana as a new alternative in terms of natural bioactive components. In this context, antioxidant activity, enzyme inhibition, and phenolic compounds of different extracts including ethanol, methanol, ethyl acetate, and aqueous were identified. The results show that the ethyl acetate (113.59 ± 2.73 mg GAE/g) has the highest phenolic content, but ethanol extract has the highest scavenging activity for DPPH and TAC. The ethanol extract showed stronger inhibition on cholinesterase and α-amylase compared to other extracts. Besides, 12 bioactive compounds were characterized in T. spruneriana extracts by HPLC-DAD. Our findings support that T. spruneriana could be considered as a new source of active phytochemicals, as well as provide remarkable data on biological activities of some main enzymes playing role in the healing of hyperpigmentation, Alzheimer, and diabetes. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: This study reports the total content, types and amounts of bioactive compounds and potential beneficial bioactivities of the different extracts of T. spruneriana. Trigonella is abundant in nature and spread over a wide geographical area, and is used in making cheese, pastries, spices, and sausages in different countries, as well as for antidiabetic purposes. Trigonella leaves are a good source of bioactive compounds that contain compounds like quercetin, catechin, cinnamic acid, and coumaric acid, along with it have also a high content of soluble fibers and is suggested for body weight control. Apart from being the first study conducted to point out the potential of T. spruneriana as being a natural food additive, this study also demonstrated its medicinal importance by revealing the anti-hyperpigmentation, antidiabetic, neuroprotective, and antioxidant properties of T. spruneriana.

7.
J Fungi (Basel) ; 6(3)2020 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32916827

RESUMO

This study aimed to determine the chemical composition and biologic activities of eight mushroom species (Amanita crocea, Hemileccinum depilatum, Cyclocybe cylindracea, Lactarius deliciosus, Hygrocybe acutoconica, Neoboletus erythropus, Russula aurea and Russula sanguinea). The antioxidant, enzyme inhibitory and mutagenic/antimutagenic activities were evaluated to provide data on the biologic activities. With respect to the chemical composition, LC-MS/MS technique was used to determine individual phenolic compounds present in the extracts. Antioxidant properties were investigated by different chemical methods including radical quenching (DPPH and ABTS), reducing power (CUPRAC and FRAP), phosphomolybdenum and metal chelating. In the enzyme inhibitory assays, cholinesterases, tyrosinase, amylase and glucosidase were used. Mutagenic and antimutagenic properties were evaluated by the Ames assay. In general, the best antioxidant abilities were observed from H. depilatum and N. erythropus, which also showed highest level of phenolics. The best cholinesterase inhibition ability was found from C. cylindracea (1.02 mg GALAE/g for AChE; 0.99 mg GALAE/g for BChE). Tyrosinase inhibition ability varied from 48.83 to 54.18 mg KAE/g. The extracts exhibited no mutagenic effects and showed significant antimutagenic potential. H. acutoconica, in particular depicted excellent antimutagenicity with a ratio of 97% for TA100 and with a rate of 96% for TA98 strain against mutagens in the presence of metabolic activation system. Results presented in this study tend to show that the mushroom species could be exploited as potential sources of therapeutic bioactive agents, geared towards the management of oxidative stress, global health problems and cancer.

8.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 191: 113614, 2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32980793

RESUMO

The present study outlines the phenolic composition and pharmacological properties of different extracts of Digitalis cariensis Boiss. ex Jaub. & Spach root and aerial parts. The metabolic profiles of the studied extracts were characterized by UHPLC-MS. The in vitro antioxidant and enzyme (acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), tyrosinase, α-amylase, and α-glucosidase) inhibitory potential of the extracts were determined. Bioinformatics and docking investigations were also conducted to support the enzyme inhibition test and predict putative targets for potential pharmacological applications. Overall, the methanolic extract followed by the water extract of the D. cariensis root were found to be superior source of antioxidant compounds except for metal chelating ability, in which the water extract of the root (26.34 ± 1.54 mg EDTAE/g) and aerial parts (16.47 ± 0.88 mg EDTAE/g) have showed the highest activity. The tested extracts were potent against AChE (9.11 ± 0.27-9.79 ± 0.28 mg GEs/g extract), α-amylase (0.12 ± 0.01- 0.50 ± 0.01 mmol ACEs/g extract) and α-glucosidase (0.28 ± 0.01-17.29 ± 0.24 mmol ACEs/ g extract). Notable activity against tyrosinase was displayed by the methanolic extracts (Root-MeOH: 123.71 ± 2.70 and aerial parts - MeOH: 137.96 ± 1.07 mg KAE/g extract), while none of the extracts were potent against BChE. According to docking investigations, the observed anti-tyrosinase effect could be related, at least partially, to the presence of luteolin, rosmarinic acid and kaempferol in the extracts. Results amassed herein is the first report on the biological attributes of D. cariensis, which validate the pharmacological uses of this plant.

9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(17)2020 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32872273

RESUMO

Current pharmacotherapy of Parkinson's disease (PD) is symptomatic and palliative, with levodopa/carbidopa therapy remaining the prime treatment, and nevertheless, being unable to modulate the progression of the neurodegeneration. No available treatment for PD can enhance the patient's life-quality by regressing this diseased state. Various studies have encouraged the enrichment of treatment possibilities by discovering the association of the effects of the endocannabinoid system (ECS) in PD. These reviews delineate the reported evidence from the literature on the neuromodulatory role of the endocannabinoid system and expression of cannabinoid receptors in symptomatology, cause, and treatment of PD progression, wherein cannabinoid (CB) signalling experiences alterations of biphasic pattern during PD progression. Published papers to date were searched via MEDLINE, PubMed, etc., using specific key words in the topic of our manuscript. Endocannabinoids regulate the basal ganglia neuronal circuit pathways, synaptic plasticity, and motor functions via communication with dopaminergic, glutamatergic, and GABAergic signalling systems bidirectionally in PD. Further, gripping preclinical and clinical studies demonstrate the context regarding the cannabinoid compounds, which is supported by various evidence (neuroprotection, suppression of excitotoxicity, oxidative stress, glial activation, and additional benefits) provided by cannabinoid-like compounds (much research addresses the direct regulation of cannabinoids with dopamine transmission and other signalling pathways in PD). More data related to endocannabinoids efficacy, safety, and pharmacokinetic profiles need to be explored, providing better insights into their potential to ameliorate or even regress PD.

10.
Mol Biol Rep ; 2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32886327

RESUMO

Obesity is a curable disorder which is a global health concern, linked to an excess amount of fat. It is caused by inherited and environmental factors and can be grim to maintain through dieting only. The importance of peculiar Wnt/ß-catenin signaling has directed considerable efforts in the future production of therapeutic approaches in metabolic complications, including obesity. The article aims to examine the prospects of Wnt/ß-catenin signaling cascade in obesity via directing effects of Wnt/ß-catenin cascade in regulating appetite. A deep research on the literature available to date, for Wnt/ß-catenin cascade in obesity is conducted using various medical databases like PubMed, MEDLINE from the internet. The articles published in English language were mainly preferred. Obesity has developed endemic worldwide, which initiates various obesity-related comorbidities. Obesity is implied by excessive deposition of fat primarily in the adipose tissue. Numerous studies have shown the vital impact of the Wnt/ß-catenin signaling pathway in the growth of body part and biological homeostasis, while latent data illustrate the inherited variations in the Wnt/ß-catenin cascade, correlating to several complications. The current article enlightens the stimulation of the Wnt/ß-catenin cascade in obesity, mainly depot-explicit impact among adipose tissue during high caloric intake regulation and WAT browning event. Taken all together these data illustrate Wnt/ß-catenin signaling cascade subsidizes to obesity promoted insulin resistance independent proliferation of adipose tissue.

11.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 265: 113338, 2020 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32920137

RESUMO

Medicinal plants remain an invaluable source for therapeutics of diseases that affect humanity. Sideritis bilgeriana (Lamiaceae) is medicinal plant used in Turkey folk medicine to reduce inflammation and pain, but few studies scientific corroborates its medicinal use so creating a gap between popular use and scientific evidence. Thus, we aimed to evaluate the pharmacological effects of the methanolic extract of S. bilgeriana (MESB) in rodents nociception models and also performed its phytochemical analysis. Firstly, a screening was carried out that enabled the identification of the presence of phenolic compounds and flavonoids. In view of this, a chromatographic method by HPLC-DAD-UV was developed that made it possible to identify chlorogenic acid and its quantification in MESB. MESB-treated mice (MESB 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o.) reduced mechanical hyperalgesia and myeloperoxidase activity (p < 0.01), and also showed a reduced pain behavior in capsaicin test. In the carrageenan-induced pleurisy test, MESB (100 mg/kg p.o.) significantly reduced the leukocyte (polymorphonuclear) count in the pleural cavity and equally decreased the TNF-α and IL-1ß levels (p < 0.001). In the PSNL model, mechanical hyperalgesia was reduced on the first evaluation day and during the 7 days of evaluation compared to the vehicle group (p < 0.001). Thermal hyperalgesia was also reduced 1 h after treatment compared to the vehicle group (p < 0.001) and reversed the loss of force initially displayed by the animals, thus inferring an analgesic effect in the muscle strength test. Analysis of the marrow of these animals showed a decrease in the level of pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6 (p < 0.001) and factor NF-κB, in relation to the control group (p < 0.05). Moreover, the MESB treatment produced no noticeable side effects, no disturb in motor performance and no signs of gastric or hepatic injury. Together, the results suggests that MESB could be useful to management of inflammation and neuropathic pain mainly by the management of pro-inflammatory mediators (NF-κB, TNF-α, IL-1ß and IL-6), so reinforcing its use in popular medicine and corroborating the need for further chemical and pharmacological studies for the species.

12.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 190: 113537, 2020 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32889505

RESUMO

Rhaponticoides iconiensis (Hub.-Mor.) M.V.Agab. & Greuter. (Asteraceae) is an endemic species spread in several small populations in the province of Konya (Turkey). It is critically endangered with an extremely high risk of extinction. Recently, based on the molecular phylogenetic and eco geographical studies on Cardueae-Centaureinae, the genus Rhaponticoides Vaill. was separated from Centaurea L. Antioxidant properties and enzyme inhibition, as well as the phenolic and flavonoid contents, of the methanol (Soxhlet extraction and maceration) and water (infusion) extracts of R. iconiensis leaves, roots, and flower heads were determined. The methanol extracts of R. iconiensis leaves contained the highest amount of phenolic (52.37 and 54.37 mg gallic acid equivalent/g) and flavonoids (74.13 and 80.75 mg rutin equivalent/g). Accordingly, the leaves methanol extracts showed the highest antioxidant potential. Interestingly, the roots methanol extracts were the most potent acetylcholinesterase (4.75 mg galantamine equivalent/g) and butyrylcholinesterase inhibitors (5.26 and 5.14 mg galantamine equivalent/g). The leaves and roots methanol extracts exhibited high α-glucosidase (2.48-3.08 mmol acarbose equivalent/g) and α-amylase (0.17-0.70 mmol acarbose equivalent/g) inhibition. The highest tyrosinase inhibition was recorded for leaves methanol extracts (138.79 and 140.34 mg kojic acid equivalent/g). 87 natural products (including hydroxybenzoic, hydroxycinnamic and acylquinic acids, flavones, flavonols, flavanones and anthocyanins) were unambiguously identified or tentatively annotated in the studied extracts. Findings presented in the present study appraise the bioactivity of R. iconiensis, an understudied species.

13.
Curr Pharm Des ; 2020 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32951574

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity, metabolic disorders and diabetes mellitus are allied with increased cardiovascular risk. Given the vasoconstrictor activity of endothelin, enhanced endothelin has been hypothesized to take part in the disorder of adiposity associated vascular homeostasis. Moreover, elevated endothelin subsidizes endothelin dysregulated related to obesity, diabetes mellitus whereas alleviating the endothelin vasoconstrictor tone amends the unreliable endothelium - dependent vasodilation. OBJECTIVE: The main objective of the current manuscript is to enumerate the intrinsic role of endothelin in obesity and related complications. METHODS: A deep research on the literature available till date for endothelin in obesity as conducted using various medical sites like PubMed, MEDLINE from internet and data was collected. The articles were majorly preferred in English language. RESULTS: The substantial effect of obesity on the progression of cardiac disorders has generated persistent efforts to expose the action associating with excessive adiposity to vascular dysregulation. Reduced vasodilator activity has been predicted as an early hemodynamic defect in obese individuals, also elevated vasoconstrictor tone elicits to vascular impairment. In certain, upregulation of endothelin activity, constantly reported in obese subjects, hasten obesity and its related complication, specifying the inflammatory and mitogenic activities of endothelin. Recently, various gut hormones, in association with their role as an accent of food intake, energy homeostasis, and triglycerides metabolism have reported numerous vascular properties. They escalate the bioavailability of vasodilators mediator i.e. nitric oxide and prevent the endothelin activity. These characteristics make gut hormones a favorable approach for targeting both metabolic and cardiovascular conditions of obesity. CONCLUSION: The present review demonstrates the intrinsic role of endothelin as a novel molecule in the progression of obesity and focuses on the status of endothelin inhibitors as a therapeutic potential in preventing obesity and related complications.

14.
Curr Gene Ther ; 20(3): 207-222, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32811394

RESUMO

The limitations of conventional treatment therapies in Parkinson's disorder, a common neurodegenerative disorder, lead to the development of an alternative gene therapy approach. Multiple treatment options targeting dopaminergic neuronal regeneration, production of enzymes linked with dopamine synthesis, subthalamic nucleus neurons, regulation of astrocytes and microglial cells and potentiating neurotrophic factors, were established. Viral vector-based dopamine delivery, prodrug approaches, fetal ventral mesencephalon tissue transplantation and dopamine synthesizing enzyme encoding gene delivery are significant therapies evidently supported by numerous trials. The review primarily elaborates on the significant role of glial cell-line derived neurotrophic factor in alleviating motor symptoms and the loss of dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson's disease. Neuroprotective and neuroregenerative effects of GDNF were established via preclinical and clinical study outcomes. The binding of GDNF family ligands with associated receptors leads to the formation of a receptor-ligand complex activating Ret receptor of tyrosine kinase family, which is only expressed in dopaminergic neurons, playing an important role in Parkinson's disease, via its association with the essential protein encoded genes. Furthermore, the review establishes delivery aspects, like ventricular delivery of recombinant GDNF, intraparenchymal and intraputaminal delivery using infusion catheters. The review highlights problems and challenges of GDNF delivery, and essential measures to overcome them, like gene therapy combinations, optimization of delivery vectors, newer targeting devices, motor symptoms curbing focused ultrasound techniques, modifications in patient selection criteria and development of novel delivery strategies based on liposomes and encapsulated cells, to promote safe and effective delivery of neurotrophic factor and establishment of routine treatment therapy for patients.

15.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 9(8)2020 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764410

RESUMO

Currently, there is a growing interest in screening and quantifying antioxidants from biological samples in the quest for natural and effective antioxidants to combat free radical-related pathological complications. Antioxidant assays play a crucial role in high-throughput and cost-effective assessment of antioxidant capacities of natural products such as medicinal plants and food samples. However, several investigators have expressed concerns about the reliability of existing in vitro assays. Such concerns arise mainly from the poor correlation between in vitro and in vivo results. In addition, in vitro assays have the problem of reproducibility. To date, antioxidant capacities are measured using a panel of assays whereby each assay has its own advantages and limitations. This unparalleled review hotly disputes on in vitro antioxidant assays and elaborates on the chemistry behind each assay with the aim to point out respective principles/concepts. The following critical questions are also addressed: (1) What make antioxidant assays coloured? (2) What is the reason for working at a particular wavelength? (3) What are the advantages and limitations of each assay? and (4) Why is a particular colour observed in antioxidant-oxidant chemical reactions? Furthermore, this review details the chemical mechanism of reactions that occur in each assay together with a colour ribbon to illustrate changes in colour. The review ends with a critical conclusion on existing assays and suggests constructive improvements on how to develop an adequate and universal antioxidant assay.

16.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 9(8)2020 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32823710

RESUMO

Tricholosporum goniospermum (Bres.) Guzmán ex T.J. Baroni is an excellent edible mushroom whose compounds and biological properties are still unknown. In this study, n-hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts from fruiting bodies and liquid-cultured mycelia were compared for the analysis of phenolic compounds, the evaluation of scavenger (DPPH, ABTS) and reducing (CUPRAC, FRAP) activities, and the enzyme inhibition of α-amylase, acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) and tyrosinase. Additionally, T. goniospermum extracts were evaluated for antibacterial and antimycotic activities against Gram+ and Gram- bacteria, and clinical yeast and fungal dermatophytes. Finally, based on the extract content in phenolic compounds, in silico studies, including the docking approach, were conducted to predict the putative targets (namely tyrosinase, lanosterol-14-α-demethylase, the multidrug efflux system transporters of E. coli (mdtK) and P. aeruginosa (pmpM), and S. aureus ß-lactamase (ORF259)) underlying the observed bio-pharmacological and microbiological effects. The methanolic extract from mycelia was the richest in gallic acid, whereas the ethyl acetate extract from fruiting bodies was the sole extract to show levels of catechin. Specifically, docking runs demonstrated an affinity of catechin towards all docked proteins, in the micromolar range. These in silico data are consistent, at least in part, with the highest activity of ethyl acetate extract as an antimicrobial and anti-tyrosinase (554.30 mg KAE/g for fruiting bodies and 412.81 mg KAE/g for mycelia) agent. The ethyl acetate extracts were also noted as being the most active (2.97 mmol ACAE/g for fruiting bodies and 2.25 mmol ACAE/g for mycelia) on α-amylase. BChE inhibitory activities varied from 2.61 to 26.78 mg GALAE/g, while the tested extracts were not active on AChE. In conclusion, all mushroom extracts tested in this study had potent antimicrobial activities. Particularly, among the tested extracts, the ethyl acetate extract showed the highest efficacy as both an antimicrobial and anti-tyrosinase agent. This could be related, albeit partially, to its content of catechin. In this regard, the bioinformatics analyses showed interactions of catechin with tyrosinase and specific microbial proteins involved in the resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs, thus suggesting innovative pharmacological applications of T. goniospermum extracts.

17.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 9(8)2020 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32823935

RESUMO

The differences in the composition of essential oils obtained from the aerial parts of six Ferula species viz., F. caratavica (Fc), F. kuchistanica (Fk), F. pseudoreoselinum (Fp), F. samarcandica (Fs), F. tenuisecta (Ft) and F. varia (Fv) were detected both qualitatively and semi-quantitatively using GC-MS and GC-FID analyses. One hundred and six metabolites were identified that account for 92.1, 96.43, 87.43, 95.95, 92.90 and 89.48% of Fc, Fk, Fp, Fs, Ft and Fv whole essential oils, respectively. The data from the GC-MS analyses were subjected to unsupervised pattern recognition chemometric analysis utilizing principal component analysis (PCA) to improve the visualization of such differences among the six species. Fk and Ft are very closely related to each other and were gathered together in one cluster. The antioxidant potential was assessed in vitro using different assays including 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS), cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC), ferric reducing power (FRAP) and phosphomolybdenum (PM) assays. Ft and Fp exhibited the most notable antioxidant properties as evidenced by their pronounced activities in most of the antioxidant assays performed, followed by Fc. Fk showed the most effective tyrosinase inhibitory potential, which was estimated as 119.67 mgKAE/g oil, while Fp exhibited the most potent α-amylase inhibitory potential, which was equivalent to 2.61 mmol ACAE/g oil. Thus, it was concluded that Ferula species could serve as a promising natural antioxidant drug that could be included in different products and spices to alleviate hyperglycemia and used as a natural ingredient in pharmaceutical cosmetics to counteract hyperpigmentation.

18.
Biology (Basel) ; 9(8)2020 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32824439

RESUMO

The members of the genus Astragalus have great interest as traditional drugs in several folk systems including Turkey. In this sense, the present paper was aimed to explore the biological properties and chemical profiles of different parts (aerial parts, leaves, flowers, stems, and roots) of A. macrocephalus subsp. finitimus. Antioxidant (radical quenching, reducing power, and metal chelating) and enzyme inhibitory (α-amylase and tyrosinase) effects were investigated for biological properties. Regarding chemical profiles, individual phenolic compounds were detected by LC-MS, as well as total amounts. The leaves extract exhibited the strongest antioxidant abilities when compared with other parts. However, flowers extract had the best metal chelating ability. Hyperoside, apigenin, p-coumaric, and ferulic acids were identified as main compounds in the tested parts. Regarding enzyme inhibitory properties, tyrosinase inhibitory effects varied from IC50: 1.02 to 1.41 mg/mL. In addition, the best amylase inhibition effect was observed by leaves (3.36 mg/mL), followed by aerial parts, roots, stems, and flowers. As a result, from multivariate analysis, the tested parts were classified in three cluster. Summing up the results, it can be concluded that A. macrocephalus subsp. finitimus could be a precious source of natural bioactive agents in pharmaceutical, nutraceutical, and cosmeceutical applications.

19.
Foods ; 9(9)2020 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32825768

RESUMO

Considering that functional components of plant foods are mainly secondary-metabolism products, we investigated the shaping of health-promoting compounds in hydroponically grown butterhead lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. capitata) as a function of the strength of the nutrient solution utilized. To this aim, untargeted metabolomics profiling, in vitro antioxidant capacity (total phenolics, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS), cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC), and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays), and the inhibition of selected enzyme activities were investigated in two butterhead lettuce cultivars with different pigmentation, i.e., green and red Salanova. Full-strength nutrition, together with half- and quarter-strength solutions of macronutrients, was tested. Our results indicate that by reducing the nutrients strength, we could elicit a distinctive shaping of the phenolic profile of lettuce. It is noteworthy that only specific classes of phenolics (namely, lignans and phenolic acids, followed by flavones and anthocyanins) were modulated by the induction of nutritional eustress (fold-change values in the range between -5 and +11). This indicates that specific responses, rather than a generalized induction of phenolic compounds, could be observed. Nonetheless, a genotype-dependent response could be observed, with the red cultivar being much more responsive to nutritional deprivation than the green Salanova lettuce. Indeed, analysis of variance (ANOVA) confirmed a genotype x nutrition interaction in red Salanova (p < 0.001). As a consequence of the changes in phenolic composition, also the antioxidant capacity (p < 0.001) and amylase inhibition (p < 0.001) properties were affected by the growing conditions. However, the effect on cholinesterase and tyrosinase inhibition was poorly affected by the nutritional strength. Provided that yields are not compromised, the application of a controlled nutritional eustress in hydroponically cultivated lettuce may represent a valuable strategy to produce food with tailored functional features in a sustainable manner.

20.
Life Sci ; 258: 118164, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32739467

RESUMO

High mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) protein is a diverse, single polypeptide moiety, present in mammalian eukaryotic cells. In response to stimuli, this nuclear protein is actively secreted in to the extracellular compartment or passively released by the necrotic cells, in order to mediate inflammatory responses, by forming complexes with IL-1α, IL-1ß, LPS and other moieties, and binding to RAGE, TLR and other receptor ligands, initiating downstream, signaling processes. This molecule acts as a proinflammatory cytokine and contributes to the progression of diseases like, acute lung injury, autoimmune liver damage, graft rejection immune response and arthritis. Small concentrations of HMGB1 are released during apoptosis, which facilitates oxidative regulation on Cys106, and propagates immune inactivating tolerogenic signals in the body. The review portrays the role of HMGB1 in rheumatoid arthritis, evidently supported by pre-clinical and clinical investigations, demonstrating extensive HMGB1 expression in synovial tissue and fluid as well as serum, excessive expression of transduction receptor signaling molecules, bone remodeling and uncontrolled expression of bone destroying osteoclastogenesis, resulting in destruction of articular cartilage, bone deformation and synovial proliferation, alleviating the pathogenesis in RA disease. Moreover, the review highlights the therapeutic regime targeting HMGB1, facilitating inhibition of its actions and release into the extracellular compartment, to ameliorate the destructive events that prevail in rheumatoid arthritis.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide/patologia , Proteína HMGB1/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Artrite Reumatoide/metabolismo , Artrite Reumatoide/fisiopatologia , Remodelação Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Cartilagem Articular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cartilagem Articular/metabolismo , Cartilagem Articular/patologia , Cartilagem Articular/fisiopatologia , Proteína HMGB1/análise , Humanos , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/patologia , Inflamação/fisiopatologia , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Osteogênese/efeitos dos fármacos
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