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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e244647, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278527

RESUMO

Abstract The essential oil of citronella (Cymbopogon winterianus) has several biological activities, among them the insect repellent action. Some studies showed that cinnamic acid esters can be applied as natural pesticides, insecticides and fungicides. In this context, the objective of the present work was to evaluate the production of esters from citronella essential oil with cinnamic acid via enzymatic esterification. Besides, the essential oil toxicity before and after esterification against Artemia salina and larvicidal action on Aedes aegypti was investigated. Esters were produced using cinnamic acid as the acylating agent and citronella essential oil (3:1) in heptane and 15 wt% NS 88011 enzyme as biocatalysts, at 70 °C and 150 rpm. Conversion rates of citronellyl and geranyl cinnamates were 58.7 and 69.0% for NS 88011, respectively. For the toxicity to Artemia salina LC50 results of 5.29 μg mL-1 were obtained for the essential oil and 4.36 μg mL-1 for the esterified oils obtained with NS 88011. In the insecticidal activity against Aedes aegypti larvae, was obtained LC50 of 111.84 μg mL-1 for the essential oil of citronella and 86.30 μg mL-1 for the esterified oils obtained with the enzyme NS 88011, indicating high toxicity of the esters. The results demonstrated that the evaluated samples present potential of application as bioinsecticide.


Resumo O óleo essencial de citronela (Cymbopogon winterianus) possui diversas atividades biológicas, entre elas a ação repelente a insetos. Alguns estudos mostraram que os ésteres do ácido cinâmico podem ser aplicados como pesticidas naturais, inseticidas e fungicidas. Nesse contexto, o objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar a produção de ésteres a partir do óleo essencial de citronela com ácido cinâmico via esterificação enzimática. Além disso, foi investigada a toxicidade do óleo essencial antes e após a esterificação contra Artemia salina e a ação larvicida sobre Aedes aegypti. Os ésteres foram produzidos utilizando ácido cinâmico como agente acilante e óleo essencial de citronela (3: 1) em heptano e 15% em peso da enzima NS 88011 como biocatalisadores, a 70 ° C e 150 rpm. As taxas de conversão de cinamatos de citronelil e geranil foram 58,7 e 69,0% para NS 88011, respectivamente. Para a toxicidade sobre Artemia salina foram obtidos CL50 de 5,29 μg mL-1 para o óleo essencial e 4,36 μg mL-1 para os óleos esterificados com NS 88011. Na atividade inseticida contra larvas de Aedes aegypti, obteve-se CL50 de 111,84 μg mL-1 para o óleo essencial de citronela e 86,30 μg mL-1 para os óleos esterificados com a enzima NS 88011, indicando alta toxicidade dos ésteres. Os resultados demonstraram que as amostras avaliadas apresentam potencial de aplicação como bioinseticida.

2.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e244647, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34190758

RESUMO

The essential oil of citronella (Cymbopogon winterianus) has several biological activities, among them the insect repellent action. Some studies showed that cinnamic acid esters can be applied as natural pesticides, insecticides and fungicides. In this context, the objective of the present work was to evaluate the production of esters from citronella essential oil with cinnamic acid via enzymatic esterification. Besides, the essential oil toxicity before and after esterification against Artemia salina and larvicidal action on Aedes aegypti was investigated. Esters were produced using cinnamic acid as the acylating agent and citronella essential oil (3:1) in heptane and 15 wt% NS 88011 enzyme as biocatalysts, at 70 °C and 150 rpm. Conversion rates of citronellyl and geranyl cinnamates were 58.7 and 69.0% for NS 88011, respectively. For the toxicity to Artemia salina LC50 results of 5.29 µg mL-1 were obtained for the essential oil and 4.36 µg mL-1 for the esterified oils obtained with NS 88011. In the insecticidal activity against Aedes aegypti larvae, was obtained LC50 of 111.84 µg mL-1 for the essential oil of citronella and 86.30 µg mL-1 for the esterified oils obtained with the enzyme NS 88011, indicating high toxicity of the esters. The results demonstrated that the evaluated samples present potential of application as bioinsecticide.


Assuntos
Aedes , Cymbopogon , Repelentes de Insetos , Inseticidas , Óleos Voláteis , Animais , Esterificação , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Larva , Óleos Voláteis/toxicidade
3.
Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon) ; 50: 63-69, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28987873

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anterior cruciate ligament injury results in altered kinematics and kinetics in the knee and hip joints that persist despite surgical reconstruction and rehabilitation. Abnormal movement patterns and a history of osteoarthritis are risk factors for articular cartilage degeneration in additional joints. The purpose of this study was to determine if hip joint biomechanics early after anterior cruciate ligament injury and reconstruction differ between patients with and without post-traumatic knee osteoarthritis 5years after reconstruction. The study's rationale was that individuals who develop knee osteoarthritis after anterior cruciate ligament injury may also demonstrate large alterations in hip joint biomechanics. METHODS: Nineteen athletes with anterior cruciate ligament injury completed standard gait analysis before (baseline) and after (post-training) extended pre-operative rehabilitation and at 6months, 1year, and 2years after reconstruction. Weightbearing knee radiographs were completed 5years after reconstruction to identify medial compartment osteoarthritis. FINDINGS: Five of 19 patients had knee osteoarthritis at 5years after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Patients with knee osteoarthritis at 5years walked with smaller sagittal plane hip angles (P: 0.043) and lower sagittal (P: 0.021) and frontal plane (P: 0.042) external hip moments in the injured limb before and after reconstruction compared to those without knee osteoarthritis. INTERPRETATION: The current findings suggest hip joint biomechanics may be altered in patients who develop post-traumatic knee osteoarthritis. Further study is needed to confirm whether the risk of non-traumatic hip pathology is increased after anterior cruciate ligament injury and if hip joint biomechanics influence its development.


Assuntos
Lesões do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/fisiopatologia , Articulação do Quadril/fisiopatologia , Osteoartrite do Joelho/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Lesões do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/etiologia , Lesões do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/cirurgia , Reconstrução do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/métodos , Atletas , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Biofísica , Cartilagem Articular/cirurgia , Feminino , Marcha/fisiologia , Articulação do Quadril/cirurgia , Humanos , Joelho/cirurgia , Articulação do Joelho/cirurgia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteoartrite do Joelho/etiologia , Osteoartrite do Joelho/cirurgia , Caminhada , Suporte de Carga , Adulto Jovem
4.
Osteoarthritis Cartilage ; 23(5): 803-14, 2015 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25952351

RESUMO

A Task Force of the Osteoarthritis Research Society International (OARSI) has previously published a set of guidelines for the conduct of clinical trials in osteoarthritis (OA) of the hip and knee. Limited material available on clinical trials of rehabilitation in people with OA has prompted OARSI to establish a separate Task Force to elaborate guidelines encompassing special issues relating to rehabilitation of OA. The Task Force identified three main categories of rehabilitation clinical trials. The categories included non-operative rehabilitation trials, post-operative rehabilitation trials, and trials examining the effectiveness of devices (e.g., assistive devices, bracing, physical agents, electrical stimulation, etc.) that are used in rehabilitation of people with OA. In addition, the Task Force identified two main categories of outcomes in rehabilitation clinical trials, which include outcomes related to symptoms and function, and outcomes related to disease modification. The guidelines for rehabilitation clinical trials provided in this report encompass these main categories. The report provides guidelines for conducting and reporting on randomized clinical trials. The topics include considerations for entering patients into trials, issues related to conducting trials, considerations for selecting outcome measures, and recommendations for statistical analyses and reporting of results. The focus of the report is on rehabilitation trials for hip, knee and hand OA, however, we believe the content is broad enough that it could be applied to rehabilitation trials for other regions as well.


Assuntos
Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto/normas , Osteoartrite/reabilitação , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Pesquisa de Reabilitação , Humanos
5.
Eur J Phys Rehabil Med ; 49(6): 877-92, 2013 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24172642

RESUMO

Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is the gold standard treatment for end-stage knee osteoarthritis. Most patients report successful long-term outcomes and reduced pain after TKA, but recovery is variable and the majority of patients continue to demonstrate lower extremity muscle weakness and functional deficits compared to age-matched control subjects. Given the potential positive influence of postoperative rehabilitation and the lack of established standards for prescribing exercise paradigms after TKA, the purpose of this study was to systematically review randomized, controlled studies to determine the effectiveness of postoperative outpatient care on short- and long-term functional recovery. Nineteen studies were identified as highly relevant for the review and four categories of postoperative intervention were discussed: 1) strengthening exercises; 2) aquatic therapy; 3) balance training; and 4) clinical environment. Optimal outpatient physical therapy protocols should include: strengthening and intensive functional exercises given through land-based or aquatic programs, the intensity of which is increased based on patient progress. Due to the highly individualized characteristics of these types of exercises, outpatient physical therapy performed in a clinic under the supervision of a trained physical therapist may provide the best long-term outcomes after the surgery. Supervised or remotely supervised therapy may be effective at reducing some of the impairments following TKA, but several studies without direct oversight produced poor results. Most studies did not accurately describe the "usual care" or control groups and information about the dose, frequency, intensity and duration of the rehabilitation protocols were lacking from several studies.


Assuntos
Artroplastia do Joelho/reabilitação , Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Hidroterapia/métodos , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Equilíbrio Postural/fisiologia , Bases de Dados Bibliográficas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Amplitude de Movimento Articular/fisiologia
6.
Osteoarthritis Cartilage ; 18(4): 510-4, 2010 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20060949

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: While joint arthroplasty improves the functional ability of persons with severe knee osteoarthritis (OA), the long-term effects of surgical intervention on body mass have not been evaluated. The objective of this study was to determine if a reduction in body mass index (BMI) was present following unilateral total knee arthroplasty (TKA) compared to an age-matched healthy control group who did not have surgery. METHOD: One hundred and six adults with unilateral, end-stage knee OA and thirty-one persons without knee pain participated in the prospective longitudinal study. Subjects with OA underwent primary unilateral TKA and received post-operative out-patient physical therapy. Height, weight, quadriceps strength and self-perceived functional ability were measured at baseline and at a 2-year follow-up. RESULTS: There was a significant interaction effect between body mass over time and subject group (P=0.017). BMI showed a significant increase over 2 years for the surgical group (P<0.001), but not for the control group (P=0.842). Sixty-six percent of the persons in the surgical group gained weight over the 2 years with an average weight gain of 6.4 kg, or 14 pounds, 2 years after their initial physical therapy visit. Educational level, marital status, income level and activity level prior to surgery were not related to post-surgical weight gain. CONCLUSION: The majority of subjects gain weight after surgery and this cannot be attributed to the effects of aging. Weight gain after TKA should be treated as an independent concern and management of orthopedic impairments will not result in weight loss. Post-operative care should include access to nutrition or weight management professionals in addition to medical and physical therapy services.


Assuntos
Artroplastia do Joelho , Osteoartrite do Joelho/cirurgia , Ganho de Peso , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Osteoartrite do Joelho/fisiopatologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Músculo Quadríceps/fisiologia , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Inquéritos e Questionários
7.
Gait Posture ; 27(4): 710-4, 2008 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17723303

RESUMO

The determination of gait events such as heel strike and toe-off provide the basis for defining stance and swing phases of gait cycles. Two algorithms for determining event times for treadmill and overground walking based solely on kinematic data are presented. Kinematic data from treadmill walking trials lasting 20-45s were collected from three subject populations (healthy young, n=7; multiple sclerosis, n=7; stroke, n=4). Overground walking trials consisted of approximately eight successful passes over two force plates for a healthy subject population (n=5). Time of heel strike and toe-off were determined using the two new computational techniques and compared to events detected using vertical ground reaction force (GRF) as a gold standard. The two algorithms determined 94% of the treadmill events from healthy subjects within one frame (0.0167s) of the GRF events. In the impaired populations, 89% of treadmill events were within two frames (0.0334s) of the GRF events. For overground trials, 98% of events were within two frames. Automatic event detection from the two kinematic-based algorithms will aid researchers by accurately determining gait events during the analysis of treadmill and overground walking.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Pé/fisiologia , Transtornos Neurológicos da Marcha/fisiopatologia , Marcha/fisiologia , Esclerose Múltipla/fisiopatologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Caminhada/fisiologia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Humanos
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