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1.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 29(1): 51-60, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32788663

RESUMO

RASopathies are caused by variants in genes encoding components or modulators of the RAS/MAPK signaling pathway. Noonan syndrome is the most common entity among this group of disorders and is characterized by heart defects, short stature, variable developmental delay, and typical facial features. Heterozygous variants in SOS2, encoding a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for RAS, have recently been identified in patients with Noonan syndrome. The number of published cases with SOS2-related Noonan syndrome is still limited and little is known about genotype-phenotype correlations. We collected previously unpublished clinical and genotype data from 17 individuals carrying a disease-causing SOS2 variant. Most individuals had one of the previously reported dominant pathogenic variants; only four had novel changes at the established hotspots for variants that affect protein function. The overall phenotype of the 17 patients fits well into the spectrum of Noonan syndrome and is most similar to the phenotype observed in patients with SOS1-related Noonan syndrome, with ectodermal anomalies as common features and short stature and learning disabilities as relatively infrequent findings compared to the average Noonan syndrome phenotype. The spectrum of heart defects in SOS2-related Noonan syndrome was consistent with the known spectrum of cardiac anomalies in RASopathies, but no specific heart defect was particularly predominating. Notably, lymphatic anomalies were extraordinarily frequent, affecting more than half of the patients. We therefore conclude that SOS2-related Noonan syndrome is associated with a particularly high risk of lymphatic complications that may have a significant impact on morbidity and quality of life.

2.
Clin Genet ; 99(1): 199-207, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33009816

RESUMO

Ververi-Brady syndrome (VBS, # 617982) is a rare developmental disorder, and loss-of-function variants in QRICH1 were implicated in its etiology. Furthermore, a recognizable phenotype was proposed comprising delayed speech, learning difficulties and dysmorphic signs. Here, we present four unrelated individuals with one known nonsense variant (c.1954C > T; p.[Arg652*]) and three novel de novo QRICH1 variants, respectively. These included two frameshift mutations (c.832_833del; p.(Ser278Leufs*25), c.1812_1813delTG; p.(Glu605Glyfs*25)) and interestingly one missense mutation (c.2207G > A; p.[Ser736Asn]), expanding the mutational spectrum. Enlargement of the cohort by these four individuals contributes to the delineation of the VBS phenotype and suggests expressive speech delay, moderate motor delay, learning difficulties/mild ID, mild microcephaly, short stature and notable social behavior deficits as clinical hallmarks. In addition, one patient presented with nephroblastoma. The possible involvement of QRICH1 in pediatric cancer assumes careful surveillance a key priority for outcome of these patients. Further research and enlargement of cohorts are warranted to learn about the genetic architecture and the phenotypic spectrum in more detail.

3.
Am J Med Genet A ; 2020 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33283961

RESUMO

Cell division cycle 42 (CDC42) is a small Rho GTPase, which serves as a fundamental intracellular signal node regulating actin cytoskeletal dynamics and several other integral cellular processes. CDC42-associated disorders encompass a broad clinical spectrum including Takenouchi-Kosaki syndrome, autoinflammatory syndromes and neurodevelopmental phenotypes mimicking RASopathies. Dysregulation of CDC42 signaling by genetic defects in either DOCK6 or ARHGAP31 is also considered to play a role in the pathogenesis of Adams-Oliver syndrome (AOS). Here, we report a mother and her child carrying the previously reported pathogenic CDC42 variant c.511G>A (p.Glu171Lys). Both affected individuals presented with short stature, distinctive craniofacial features, pectus deformity as well as heart and eye anomalies, similar to the recently described Noonan syndrome-like phenotype associated with this variant. Remarkably, one of the patients additionally exhibited aplasia cutis congenita of the scalp. Multi-gene panel sequencing of the known AOS-causative genes and whole exome sequencing revealed no second pathogenic variant in any disease-associated gene explaining the aplasia cutis phenotype in our patient. This observation further expands the phenotypic spectrum of CDC42-associated disorders and underscores the role of CDC42 dysregulation in the pathogenesis of aplasia cutis congenita.

5.
Clin Dysmorphol ; 2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33038106

RESUMO

Recessive mutations in FRAS1-related extracellular matrix 1 (FREM1) are associated with two rare genetic disorders, Manitoba-oculo-tricho-anal (MOTA) and bifid nose with or without anorectal and renal anomalies. Fraser syndrome is a more severe disorder that shows phenotypic overlap with both MOTA and anorectal and renal anomalies and results from mutations in FRAS1, FREM2 and GRIP1. Heterozygous missense mutations in FREM1 were reported in association with isolated trigonocephaly with dominant inheritance and incomplete penetrance. Moreover, large deletions encompassing FREM1 have been reported in association with a syndromic form of trigonocephaly and were designated as trigonocephaly type 2. Trigonocephaly results from premature closure of the metopic suture and typically manifests as a form of nonsyndromic craniosynostosis. We report on 20 patients evaluated for developmental delay and without abnormal metopic suture. Chromosomal microarray analysis revealed heterozygous FREM1 deletions in 18 patients and in 4 phenotypically normal parents. Two patients were diagnosed with MOTA and had homozygous FREM1 deletions. Therefore, although our results are consistent with the previous reports of homozygous deletions causing MOTA, we report no association between heterozygous FREM1 deletions and trigonocephaly in this cohort.

6.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33082526

RESUMO

The RASopathies are a group of clinically and genetically heterogeneous developmental disorders caused by dysregulation of the RAS/MAPK signalling pathway. Variants in several components and regulators of this pathway have been identified as the pathogenetic cause. In 2015, missense variants in A2ML1 were reported in three unrelated families with clinical diagnosis of Noonan syndrome (NS) and a zebrafish model was presented showing heart and craniofacial defects similar to those caused by a NS-associated Shp2 variant. However, a causal role of A2ML1 variants in NS has not been confirmed since. Herein, we report on 15 individuals who underwent screening of RASopathy-associated genes and were found to carry rare variants in A2ML1, including variants previously proposed to be causative for NS. In cases where parental DNA was available, the respective A2ML1 variant was found to be inherited from an unaffected parent. Seven index patients carrying an A2ML1 variant presented with an alternate disease-causing genetic aberration. These findings underscore that current evidence is insufficient to support a causal relation between variants in A2ML1 and NS, questioning the inclusion of A2ML1 screening in diagnostic RASopathy testing.

7.
JCI Insight ; 5(21)2020 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32990679

RESUMO

Somatic KRAS mutations are highly prevalent in many cancers. In addition, a distinct spectrum of germline KRAS mutations causes developmental disorders called RASopathies. The mutant proteins encoded by these germline KRAS mutations are less biochemically and functionally activated than those in cancer. We generated mice harboring conditional KrasLSL-P34Rand KrasLSL-T58I knock-in alleles and characterized the consequences of each mutation in vivo. Embryonic expression of KrasT58I resulted in craniofacial abnormalities reminiscent of those seen in RASopathy disorders, and these mice exhibited hyperplastic growth of multiple organs, modest alterations in cardiac valvulogenesis, myocardial hypertrophy, and myeloproliferation. By contrast, embryonic KrasP34R expression resulted in early perinatal lethality from respiratory failure due to defective lung sacculation, which was associated with aberrant ERK activity in lung epithelial cells. Somatic Mx1-Cre-mediated activation in the hematopoietic compartment showed that KrasP34R and KrasT58I expression had distinct signaling effects, despite causing a similar spectrum of hematologic diseases. These potentially novel strains are robust models for investigating the consequences of expressing endogenous levels of hyperactive K-Ras in different developing and adult tissues, for comparing how oncogenic and germline K-Ras proteins perturb signaling networks and cell fate decisions, and for performing preclinical therapeutic trials.

8.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4625, 2020 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32934225

RESUMO

A hallmark of neurodegeneration is defective protein quality control. The E3 ligase Listerin (LTN1/Ltn1) acts in a specialized protein quality control pathway-Ribosome-associated Quality Control (RQC)-by mediating proteolytic targeting of incomplete polypeptides produced by ribosome stalling, and Ltn1 mutation leads to neurodegeneration in mice. Whether neurodegeneration results from defective RQC and whether defective RQC contributes to human disease have remained unknown. Here we show that three independently-generated mouse models with mutations in a different component of the RQC complex, NEMF/Rqc2, develop progressive motor neuron degeneration. Equivalent mutations in yeast Rqc2 selectively interfere with its ability to modify aberrant translation products with C-terminal tails which assist with RQC-mediated protein degradation, suggesting a pathomechanism. Finally, we identify NEMF mutations expected to interfere with function in patients from seven families presenting juvenile neuromuscular disease. These uncover NEMF's role in translational homeostasis in the nervous system and implicate RQC dysfunction in causing neurodegeneration.


Assuntos
Doenças Neuromusculares/metabolismo , Ribossomos/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Mutação , Doenças Neuromusculares/genética , Doenças Neuromusculares/patologia , Proteólise , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/química , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo , Ribossomos/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/química , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Alinhamento de Sequência
9.
Am J Hum Genet ; 107(3): 499-513, 2020 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32721402

RESUMO

Signal transduction through the RAF-MEK-ERK pathway, the first described mitogen-associated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade, mediates multiple cellular processes and participates in early and late developmental programs. Aberrant signaling through this cascade contributes to oncogenesis and underlies the RASopathies, a family of cancer-prone disorders. Here, we report that de novo missense variants in MAPK1, encoding the mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 (i.e., extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 2, ERK2), cause a neurodevelopmental disease within the RASopathy phenotypic spectrum, reminiscent of Noonan syndrome in some subjects. Pathogenic variants promote increased phosphorylation of the kinase, which enhances translocation to the nucleus and boosts MAPK signaling in vitro and in vivo. Two variant classes are identified, one of which directly disrupts binding to MKP3, a dual-specificity protein phosphatase negatively regulating ERK function. Importantly, signal dysregulation driven by pathogenic MAPK1 variants is stimulus reliant and retains dependence on MEK activity. Our data support a model in which the identified pathogenic variants operate with counteracting effects on MAPK1 function by differentially impacting the ability of the kinase to interact with regulators and substrates, which likely explains the minor role of these variants as driver events contributing to oncogenesis. After nearly 20 years from the discovery of the first gene implicated in Noonan syndrome, PTPN11, the last tier of the MAPK cascade joins the group of genes mutated in RASopathies.


Assuntos
Carcinogênese/genética , Proteína Quinase 1 Ativada por Mitógeno/genética , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Síndrome de Noonan/genética , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/genética , Masculino , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/patologia , Síndrome de Noonan/fisiopatologia , Fenótipo , Proteína Tirosina Fosfatase não Receptora Tipo 11/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma , Proteínas ras/genética
10.
Anticancer Res ; 40(6): 3423-3427, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32487640

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is an autosomal dominant hereditary disease with complete penetrance and a very variable phenotype. Recent research has shown that postzygotic NF1 gene mutations occur to a far greater extent than previously thought. The phenotype of affected individuals reflects the time of somatic mutation and the phenotype is correspondingly diverse. This report describes histological and genetic findings in a case of mosaic NF1, the clinical control of which documents almost stationary skin findings over a period of 9 years. CASE REPORT: The 55-year-old female first presented for advice on a strip of nodular skin tumours of the calf skin. She had no hallmarks of NF1. It was only 9 years later that she had the skin tumours removed, all of which were partially diffuse and partially plexiform neurofibroma. The genetic examination showed an atypical large deletion of the NF1 gene in the skin tumours, but not in overlying skin or blood. CONCLUSION: Segmental NF1 is a distinct type of mosaic/somatic NF1 mutation. The phenotype of diffuse and plexiform skin neurofibromas can resemble cutaneous neurofibroma. Surgical therapy for segmental neurofibromatosis does not differ from the concepts for treating nerve sheath tumours in NF1 patients with a germline NF1 mutation.


Assuntos
Mosaicismo , Neurofibroma Plexiforme/diagnóstico , Neurofibroma Plexiforme/genética , Neurofibromatose 1/diagnóstico , Neurofibromatose 1/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética , Biópsia , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Testes Genéticos , Humanos , Perna (Membro)/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32488952

RESUMO

Fraser syndrome (FS) is a rare autosomal recessive multiple congenital malformation syndrome characterized by cryptophthalmos, cutaneous syndactyly, renal agenesis, ambiguous genitalia, and laryngotracheal anomalies. It is caused by biallelic mutations of FRAS1, FREM2, and GRIP1 genes, encoding components of a protein complex that mediates embryonic epithelial-mesenchymal interactions. Anecdotal reports have described abnormal orodental findings in FS, but no study has as yet addressed the orodental findings of FS systematically. We reviewed dental radiographs of 10 unrelated patients with FS of different genetic etiologies. Dental anomalies were present in all patients with FS and included hypodontia, dental crowding, medial diastema, and retained teeth. A very consistent pattern of shortened dental roots of most permanent teeth as well as altered length/width ratio with shortened dental crowns of upper incisors was also identified. These findings suggest that the FRAS1-FREM complex mediates critical mesenchymal-epithelial interactions during dental crown and root development. The orodental findings of FS reported herein represent a previously underestimated manifestation of the disorder with significant impact on orodental health for affected individuals. Integration of dentists and orthodontists into the multidisciplinary team for management of FS is therefore recommended.

12.
Hum Mutat ; 41(9): 1615-1628, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32579715

RESUMO

Serine biosynthesis disorders comprise a spectrum of very rare autosomal recessive inborn errors of metabolism with wide phenotypic variability. Neu-Laxova syndrome represents the most severe expression and is characterized by multiple congenital anomalies and pre- or perinatal lethality. Here, we present the mutation spectrum and a detailed phenotypic analysis in 15 unrelated families with severe types of serine biosynthesis disorders. We identified likely disease-causing variants in the PHGDH and PSAT1 genes, several of which have not been reported previously. Phenotype analysis and a comprehensive review of the literature corroborates the evidence that serine biosynthesis disorders represent a continuum with varying degrees of phenotypic expression and suggest that even gradual differences at the severe end of the spectrum may be correlated with particular genotypes. We postulate that the individual residual enzyme activity of mutant proteins is the major determinant of the phenotypic variability, but further functional studies are needed to explore effects at the enzyme protein level.

13.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 15(1): 144, 2020 06 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32513286

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With the development of molecular high-throughput assays (i.e. next generation sequencing), the knowledge on the contribution of genetic and epigenetic alterations to the etiology of inherited endocrine disorders has massively expanded. However, the rapid implementation of these new molecular tools in the diagnostic settings makes the interpretation of diagnostic data increasingly complex. MAIN BODY: This joint paper of the ENDO-ERN members aims to overview chances, challenges, limitations and relevance of comprehensive genetic diagnostic testing in rare endocrine conditions in order to achieve an early molecular diagnosis. This early diagnosis of a genetically based endocrine disorder contributes to a precise management and helps the patients and their families in their self-determined planning of life. Furthermore, the identification of a causative (epi)genetic alteration allows an accurate prognosis of recurrence risks for family planning as the basis of genetic counselling. Asymptomatic carriers of pathogenic variants can be identified, and prenatal testing might be offered, where appropriate. CONCLUSIONS: The decision on genetic testing in the diagnostic workup of endocrine disorders should be based on their appropriateness to reliably detect the disease-causing and -modifying mutation, their informational value, and cost-effectiveness. The future assessment of data from different omic approaches should be embedded in interdisciplinary discussions using all available clinical and molecular data.

14.
Br J Cancer ; 123(4): 619-623, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32451468

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) is a cancer predisposition syndrome caused by defects on chromosome 11p15.5. The quantitative cancer risks in BWS patients depend on the underlying (epi)genotype but have not yet been assessed in a population-based manner. METHODS: We identified a group of 321 individuals with a molecularly confirmed diagnosis of BWS and analysed the cancer incidence up to age 15 years and cancer spectrum by matching their data with the German Childhood Cancer Registry. RESULTS: We observed 13 cases of cancer in the entire BWS cohort vs 0.4 expected. This corresponds to a 33-fold increased risk (standardised incidence ratio (SIR) = 32.6; 95% confidence interval = 17.3-55.7). The specific cancers included hepatoblastoma (n = 6); nephroblastoma (n = 4); astrocytoma (n = 1); neuroblastoma (n = 1) and adrenocortical carcinoma (n = 1). The cancer SIR was highest in patients with a paternal uniparental disomy of 11p15.5 (UPDpat). A high cancer risk remained when cases of cancer diagnosed prior to the BWS diagnosis were excluded. CONCLUSIONS: This study confirms an increased cancer risk in children with BWS. Our findings suggest that the highest cancer risk is associated with UPDpat. We were unable to confirm an excessive cancer risk in patients with IC1 gain of methylation (IC1-GOM) and this finding requires further investigation.

15.
J Inherit Metab Dis ; 43(5): 1131-1142, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32233035

RESUMO

Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) lyase is a vitamin B6-dependent enzyme that degrades sphingosine-1-phosphate in the final step of sphingolipid metabolism. In 2017, a new inherited disorder was described caused by mutations in SGPL1, which encodes sphingosine phosphate lyase (SPL). This condition is referred to as SPL insufficiency syndrome (SPLIS) or alternatively as nephrotic syndrome type 14 (NPHS14). Patients with SPLIS exhibit lymphopenia, nephrosis, adrenal insufficiency, and/or neurological defects. No targeted therapy for SPLIS has been reported. Vitamin B6 supplementation has therapeutic activity in some genetic diseases involving B6-dependent enzymes, a finding ascribed largely to the vitamin's chaperone function. We investigated whether B6 supplementation might have activity in SPLIS patients. We retrospectively monitored responses of disease biomarkers in patients supplemented with B6 and measured SPL activity and sphingolipids in B6-treated patient-derived fibroblasts. In two patients, disease biomarkers responded to B6 supplementation. S1P abundance and activity levels increased and sphingolipids decreased in response to B6. One responsive patient is homozygous for an SPL R222Q variant present in almost 30% of SPLIS patients. Molecular modeling suggests the variant distorts the dimer interface which could be overcome by cofactor supplementation. We demonstrate the first potential targeted therapy for SPLIS and suggest that 30% of SPLIS patients might respond to cofactor supplementation.

16.
Hum Mutat ; 41(6): 1171-1182, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32112654

RESUMO

Germline PTPN11 mutations cause Noonan syndrome (NS), the most common disorder among RASopathies. PTPN11 encodes SHP2, a protein tyrosine-phosphatase controlling signaling through the RAS-MAPK and PI3K-AKT pathways. Generally, NS-causing PTPN11 mutations are missense changes destabilizing the inactive conformation of the protein or enhancing its binding to signaling partners. Here, we report on two PTPN11 variants resulting in the deletion or duplication of one of three adjacent glutamine residues (Gln255 -to-Gln257 ). While p.(Gln257dup) caused a typical NS phenotype in carriers of a first family, p.(Gln257del) had incomplete penetrance in a second family. Missense mutations involving Gln256 had previously been reported in NS. This poly-glutamine stretch is located on helix B of the PTP domain, a region involved in stabilizing SHP2 in its autoinhibited state. Molecular dynamics simulations predicted that changes affecting this motif perturb the SHP2's catalytically inactive conformation and/or substrate recognition. Biochemical data showed that duplication and deletion of Gln257 variably enhance SHP2's catalytic activity, while missense changes involving Gln256 affect substrate specificity. Expression of mutants in HEK293T cells documented their activating role on MAPK signaling, uncoupling catalytic activity and modulation of intracellular signaling. These findings further document the relevance of helix B in the regulation of SHP2's function.

17.
J Histochem Cytochem ; 68(4): 239-251, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32108534

RESUMO

To preserve material for future genetic studies, human B-lymphocytes from whole blood samples are routinely transformed into lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) by in vitro infection with Epstein-Barr virus. To determine the rate and frequency of chromosomal changes during long-term culture, we established 10 LCLs (from eight individuals). Before transformation, these cases showed a normal karyotype (three cases), a small supernumerary marker chromosome (three cases), or an aberrant karyotype (four cases). Chromosome analyses were performed at 8-week intervals over a period of at least 1 year, up to 3 years. Surprisingly, we demonstrate that chromosomal instability is the rule, rather than the exception, during long-term culture of LCLs. The most commonly observed acquired clonal aberration was trisomy 12, which emerged in all cell lines within 21 to 49 weeks after infection. Telomeric fusions indicating telomere shortening were found after ~21 weeks. After 1 year of cultivation, the proportion of cells with the original karyotype decreased to ≤10% in 7 of the 10 cell lines. To preserve cells with aberrant genomes, we conclude the cultivation time of LCLs must be restricted to the absolute minimum time required.


Assuntos
Instabilidade Cromossômica/genética , Herpesvirus Humano 4/fisiologia , Linfócitos B/metabolismo , Linfócitos B/virologia , Células Cultivadas , Humanos , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Cariotipagem
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31999076

RESUMO

We report on two unrelated families of Polish origin with variable expression of Fraser syndrome (FS; MIM#219000) due to homozygosity for the same pathogenic variant, c.6963_6964dup, of FRAS1. In one family, the disorder presented with perinatal and prenatal lethality. One affected female from family 2 who was followed-up for 32 years, represented a relatively favorable long-term outcome. She displayed the typical craniofacial dysmorphism, including right cryptophthalmos, cutaneous syndactyly, abnormalities of the stomathognatic system, bilateral atresia of the external ear canals resulting in conductive hearing loss, and malformations of the larynx, spleen, kidney, and genitourinary tract. Her intellectual capacities were normal. Our observations illustrate that expression and severity of FS, even when caused by the same pathogenic variant, may be quite different ranging from a lethal disorder to a condition with multiple physical malformations but normal psychomotor development. In addition, we propose that the FRAS1 c.6963_6964dup variant may be a founder mutation in the Polish population. Therefore, it would be reasonable to test specifically for this variant first in any FS1 patient of Polish ancestry.

19.
Hum Mol Genet ; 29(11): 1772-1783, 2020 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31108500

RESUMO

The RASopathies are a group of genetic syndromes caused by upregulated RAS signaling. Noonan syndrome (NS), the most common entity among the RASopathies, is characterized mainly by short stature, cardiac anomalies and distinctive facial features. Mutations in multiple RAS-MAPK pathway-related genes have been associated with NS and related phenotypes. We describe two unrelated patients presenting with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and dysmorphic features suggestive of NS. One of them died in the neonatal period because of cardiac failure. Targeted sequencing revealed de novo MRAS variants, c.203C > T (p.Thr68Ile) and c.67G > C (p.Gly23Arg) as causative events. MRAS has only recently been related to NS based on the observation of two unrelated affected individuals with de novo variants involving the same codons here found mutated. Gly23 and Thr68 are highly conserved residues, and the corresponding codons are known hotspots for RASopathy-associated mutations in other RAS proteins. Functional analyses documented high level of activation of MRAS mutants due to impaired GTPase activity, which was associated with constitutive plasma membrane targeting, prolonged localization in non-raft microdomains, enhanced binding to PPP1CB and SHOC2 protein, and variably increased MAPK and PI3K-AKT activation. This report provides additional evidence that a narrow spectrum of activating mutations in MRAS represents another rare cause of NS, and that MRAS has to be counted among the RASopathy genes predisposing to HCM. Moreover, our findings further emphasize the relevance of the MRAS-SHOC2-PPP1CB axis in the control of MAPK signaling, and the contribution of both MAPK and PI3K-AKT pathways in MRAS functional upregulation.

20.
Am J Med Genet A ; 182(3): 597-606, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31825160

RESUMO

The RASopathies are a group of genetic disorders that result from germline pathogenic variants affecting RAS-mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway genes. RASopathies share RAS/MAPK pathway dysregulation and share phenotypic manifestations affecting numerous organ systems, causing lifelong and at times life-limiting medical complications. RASopathies may benefit from precision medicine approaches. For this reason, the Sixth International RASopathies Symposium focused on exploring precision medicine. This meeting brought together basic science researchers, clinicians, clinician scientists, patient advocates, and representatives from pharmaceutical companies and the National Institutes of Health. Novel RASopathy genes, variants, and animal models were discussed in the context of medication trials and drug development. Attempts to define and measure meaningful endpoints for treatment trials were discussed, as was drug availability to patients after trial completion.

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