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1.
J Neuroinflammation ; 16(1): 186, 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31601232

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Blood markers indicative of neurodegeneration (neurofilament light chain; NFL), Alzheimer's disease amyloid pathology (amyloid-ß; Aß), and neuroinflammation (kynurenine pathway; KP metabolites) have been investigated independently in neurodegenerative diseases. However, the association of these markers of neurodegeneration and AD pathology with neuroinflammation has not been investigated previously. Therefore, the current study examined whether NFL and Aß correlate with KP metabolites in elderly individuals to provide insight on the association between blood indicators of neurodegeneration and neuroinflammation. METHODS: Correlations between KP metabolites, measured using liquid chromatography and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry, and plasma NFL and Aß concentrations, measured using single molecule array (Simoa) assays, were investigated in elderly individuals aged 65-90 years, with normal global cognition (Mini-Mental State Examination Score ≥ 26) from the Kerr Anglican Retirement Village Initiative in Ageing Health cohort. RESULTS: A positive correlation between NFL and the kynurenine to tryptophan ratio (K/T) reflecting indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase activity was observed (r = .451, p < .0001). Positive correlations were also observed between NFL and kynurenine (r = .364, p < .0005), kynurenic acid (r = .384, p < .0001), 3-hydroxykynurenine (r = .246, p = .014), anthranilic acid (r = .311, p = .002), and quinolinic acid (r = .296, p = .003). Further, significant associations were observed between plasma Aß40 and the K/T (r = .375, p < .0005), kynurenine (r = .374, p < .0005), kynurenic acid (r = .352, p < .0005), anthranilic acid (r = .381, p < .0005), and quinolinic acid (r = .352, p < .0005). Significant associations were also observed between plasma Aß42 and the K/T ratio (r = .215, p = .034), kynurenic acid (r = .214, p = .035), anthranilic acid (r = .278, p = .006), and quinolinic acid (r = .224, p = .027) in the cohort. On stratifying participants based on their neocortical Aß load (NAL) status, NFL correlated with KP metabolites irrespective of NAL status; however, associations between plasma Aß and KP metabolites were only pronounced in individuals with high NAL while associations in individuals with low NAL were nearly absent. CONCLUSIONS: The current study shows that KP metabolite changes are associated with biomarker evidence of neurodegeneration. Additionally, the association between KP metabolites and plasma Aß seems to be NAL status dependent. Finally, the current study suggests that an association between neurodegeneration and neuroinflammation manifests in the periphery, suggesting that preventing cytoskeleton cytotoxicity by KP metabolites may have therapeutic potential.

2.
Neurobiol Aging ; 83: 42-53, 2019 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31585366

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD) neuropathology is extremely heterogeneous, and the evolution from preclinical to mild cognitive impairment until dementia is driven by interacting genetic/biological mechanisms not fully captured by current clinical/research criteria. We characterized the heterogeneous "construct" of AD through a cerebrospinal fluid biomarker-guided stratification approach. We analyzed 5 validated pathophysiological cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers (Aß1-42, t-tau, p-tau181, NFL, YKL-40) in 113 participants (healthy controls [N = 20], subjective memory complainers [N = 36], mild cognitive impairment [N = 20], and AD dementia [N = 37], age: 66.7 ± 10.4, 70.4 ± 7.7, 71.7 ± 8.4, 76.2 ± 3.5 years [mean ± SD], respectively) using Density-Based Spatial Clustering of Applications with Noise, which does not require a priori determination of the number of clusters. We found 5 distinct clusters (sizes: N = 38, 16, 24, 14, and 21) whose composition was independent of phenotypical groups. Two clusters showed biomarker profiles linked to neurodegenerative processes not associated with classical AD-related pathophysiology. One cluster was characterized by the neuroinflammation biomarker YKL-40. Combining nonlinear data aggregation with informative biomarkers can generate novel patient strata which are representative of cellular/molecular pathophysiology and may aid in predicting disease evolution and mechanistic drug response.

4.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31594235

RESUMO

Observations in autopsied brain tissue indicate that overactivation of the classical renin-angiotensin system (cRAS) and underactivity within regulatory RAS pathways (rRAS) are associated with pathology in Alzheimer's disease (AD). The primary aim of this study was to investigate whether cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) markers of RAS are altered in AD in relation to established CSF markers of disease pathology (lower Aß42 and elevated tau) and CSF markers of capillary dysfunction. We studied 40 controls and 40 AD cases grouped according to a biomarker profile (i.e., AD cases t-tau>400 pg/mL, pTau >60 pg/mL, and Aß42 <550 pg/mL). Angiotensin-II converting enyme-1 (ACE1) and ACE2 enzyme activity was measured using fluorogenic peptide substrates; sPDGFRß and albumin level by sandwich ELISA and angiotensin-I (Ang-I), Ang-II, and Ang-(1-7) by direct ELISA. CSF Aß42, total, and phosphorylated tau levels were previously measured by INNOTEST sandwich ELISA. CSF ACE1 activity was significantly elevated in AD (p = 0.008) and positively correlated with ACE2 in AD (r = 0.420, p = 0.007). CSF ACE1 weakly correlated with t-tau (r = 0.294, p = 0.066) and p-tau (r = 0.329, p = 0.038) but not with Aß42 in the controls but not in AD. ACE1 correlated positively with sPDGFRß (r = 0.426, p = 0.007), a marker of pericyte injury, and ACE2 correlated positively with albumin (r = 0.422, p = 0.008), a marker of blood-brain barrier integrity. CSF Ang-I, Ang-II, and Ang-(1-7) levels were unchanged in AD. This cross-sectional CSF study indicates RAS dysfunction in relation to capillary damage in AD.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31530945

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Delirium following cardiac surgery is a relevant complication in the majority of elderly patients but its prediction is challenging. Cardiopulmonary bypass, essential for many interventions in cardiac surgery, is responsible for a severe inflammatory response leading to neuroinflammation and subsequent delirium. Neurofilament light protein (NfL) and tau protein (tau) are specific biomarkers to detect neuroaxonal injury as well as glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), a marker of astrocytic activation. METHODS: We thought to examine the perioperative course of these markers in a case series of each three cardiac surgery patients under off-pump cardiac arterial bypass without evolving delirium (OPCAB-NDEL), patients with a procedure under cardio-pulmonary bypass (CPB) without delirium (CPB-NDEL) and delirium after a CPB procedure (CPB-DEL). Delirium was diagnosed by the Confusion Assessment Method for the ICU and chart reviews. RESULTS: We observed increased preoperative levels of tau in patients with later delirium, whereas values of NfL and GFAP did not differ. In the postoperative course, all biomarkers increased multi-fold. NfL levels sharply increased in patients with CPB reaching the highest levels in the CPB-DEL group. CONCLUSION: Tau and NfL might be of benefit to identify patients in cardiac surgery at risk for delirium and to detect patients with the postoperative emergence of delirium.

6.
Epilepsy Behav ; : 106520, 2019 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31526644

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to assess the incidence of acute symptomatic seizures and poststroke epilepsy (PSE) in a well-characterized cohort of patients treated with mechanical thrombectomy. In addition, we aimed to describe the dynamics of blood markers of brain injury in patients that developed PSE. METHODS: Participants of the prospective AnStroke Trial of anesthesia method during mechanical thrombectomy were included and acute symptomatic seizures and PSE ascertained by medical records review. Blood markers neurofilament light (NFL), tau, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), S100 calcium-binding protein B (S100B), and neuron-specific enolase (NSE) were assessed. RESULTS: A total of 90 patients with acute anterior ischemic stroke were included. Median National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) at admission to hospital was 18 (IQR 15-22). Recanalization was achieved in 90%. No patients had epilepsy prior to the ischemic stroke. Four patients (4.4%) had acute symptomatic seizures and four patients (4.4%) developed PSE during the follow-up time (to death or last medical records review) of 0-4.5 years (median follow-up 1070 days IQR 777-1306), resulting in a two-year estimated PSE risk of 5.3% (95%CI: 0.2-10.4%). Blood markers of brain injury (NFL, tau, GFAP, S100B, and NSE) were generally above the cohort median in patients that developed PSE. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of PSE after mechanical thrombectomy was low in our cohort. All blood biomarkers displayed interesting sensitivity and specificity. However, the number of PSE cases was small and more studies are needed on risk factors for PSE after mechanical thrombectomy. The potential of blood markers of brain injury markers to contribute to assessment of PSE risk should be explored further. This article is part of the Special Issue "Seizures & Stroke".

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31529404

RESUMO

Imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) is a promising new chemical imaging modality that generates a large body of complex imaging data, which in turn can be approached using multivariate analysis approaches for image analysis and segmentation. Processing IMS raw data is critically important for proper data interpretation and has significant effects on the outcome of data analysis, in particular statistical modeling. Commonly, data processing methods are chosen based on rational motivations rather than comparative metrics, though no quantitative measures to assess and compare processing options have been suggested. We here present a data processing and analysis pipeline for IMS data interrogation, processing and ROI annotation, segmentation, and validation. This workflow includes (1) objective evaluation of processing methods for IMS datasets based on multivariate analysis using PCA. This was then followed by (2) ROI annotation and classification through region-based active contours (AC) segmentation based on the PCA component scores matrix. This provided class information for subsequent (3) OPLS-DA modeling to evaluate IMS data processing based on the quality metrics of their respective multivariate models and for robust quantification of ROI-specific signal localization. This workflow provides an unbiased strategy for sensitive annotation of anatomical regions of interest combined with quantitative comparison of processing procedures for multivariate analysis allowing robust ROI annotation and quantification of the associated molecular histology.

8.
Alzheimers Res Ther ; 11(1): 82, 2019 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31521194

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence implicates dysfunctional proteostasis and the involvement of the autophagic and endo-lysosomal system and the ubiquitin-proteasome system in neurodegenerative diseases. In Alzheimer's disease (AD), there is an accumulation of autophagic vacuoles within the neurons. In Parkinson's disease (PD), susceptibility has been linked to genes encoding proteins involved in autophagy and lysosomal function, as well as mutations causing lysosomal disorders. Furthermore, both diseases are characterized by the accumulation of protein aggregates. METHODS: Proteins associated with endocytosis, lysosomal function, and the ubiquitin-proteasome system were identified in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and targeted by combining solid-phase extraction and parallel reaction monitoring mass spectrometry. In total, 50 peptides from 18 proteins were quantified in three cross-sectional cohorts including AD (N = 61), PD (N = 21), prodromal AD (N = 10), stable mild cognitive impairment (N = 15), and controls (N = 68). RESULTS: A pilot study, including subjects selected based on their AD CSF core biomarker concentrations, showed increased concentrations of several targeted proteins in subjects with core biomarker levels indicating AD pathology compared to controls. Next, in a clinically characterized cohort, lower concentrations in CSF of proteins in PD were found compared to subjects with prodromal AD. Further investigation in an additional clinical study again revealed lower concentrations in CSF of proteins in PD compared to controls and AD. CONCLUSION: In summary, significantly different peptide CSF concentrations were identified from proteins AP2B1, C9, CTSB, CTSF, GM2A, LAMP1, LAMP2, TCN2, and ubiquitin. Proteins found to have altered concentrations in more than one study were AP2B1, CTSB, CTSF, GM2A, LAMP2, and ubiquitin. Interestingly, given the genetic implication of lysosomal function in PD, we did identify the CSF concentrations of CTSB, CTSF, GM2A, and LAMP2 to be altered. However, we also found differences in proteins associated with endocytosis (AP2B1) and the ubiquitin-proteasome system (ubiquitin). No difference in any peptide CSF concentration was found in clinically characterized subjects with AD compared to controls. In conclusion, CSF analyses of subjects with PD suggest a general lysosomal dysfunction, which resonates well with recent genetic findings, while such changes are minor or absent in AD.

9.
Psychoneuroendocrinology ; 109: 104415, 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31472432

RESUMO

Growth factors, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and epidermal growth factor (EGF), and neurotrophic factors, including brain-derived neurotophic factor (BDNF), have attracted attention in studies of the biological effects of long-term stress exposure due to their neuroprotective roles. This study investigated whether circulating levels of EGF, VEGF and BDNF were altered in individuals with stress-related exhaustion disorder. Forty patients diagnosed with exhaustion disorder and 40 healthy subjects (50% women) provided fasting blood samples for analysis of EGF, VEGF, and BDNF in plasma. We found significantly lower levels of EGF, VEGF, and BDNF in patients with ED compared to healthy controls. This pattern was seen in both male and female patients. Given the important roles of BDNF and VEGF for brain plasticity and neurogenesis, decreased levels after long-term stress exposure could indicate increased risk of neuronal damage and cognitive impairments in this patient group.

10.
Brain ; 142(9): 2581-2589, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31497858

RESUMO

Autopsy measures of Alzheimer's disease neuropathology have been leveraged as endophenotypes in previous genome-wide association studies (GWAS). However, despite evidence of sex differences in Alzheimer's disease risk, sex-stratified models have not been incorporated into previous GWAS analyses. We looked for sex-specific genetic associations with Alzheimer's disease endophenotypes from six brain bank data repositories. The pooled dataset included 2701 males and 3275 females, the majority of whom were diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease at autopsy (70%). Sex-stratified GWAS were performed within each dataset and then meta-analysed. Loci that reached genome-wide significance (P < 5 × 10-8) in stratified models were further assessed for sex interactions. Additional analyses were performed in independent datasets leveraging cognitive, neuroimaging and CSF endophenotypes, along with age-at-onset data. Outside of the APOE region, one locus on chromosome 7 (rs34331204) showed a sex-specific association with neurofibrillary tangles among males (P = 2.5 × 10-8) but not females (P = 0.85, sex-interaction P = 2.9 × 10-4). In follow-up analyses, rs34331204 was also associated with hippocampal volume, executive function, and age-at-onset only among males. These results implicate a novel locus that confers male-specific protection from tau pathology and highlight the value of assessing genetic associations in a sex-specific manner.

11.
Sci Transl Med ; 11(508)2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484787

RESUMO

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) can trigger progressive neurodegeneration, with tau pathology seen years after a single moderate-severe TBI. Identifying this type of posttraumatic pathology in vivo might help to understand the role of tau pathology in TBI pathophysiology. We used flortaucipir positron emission tomography (PET) to investigate whether tau pathology is present many years after a single TBI in humans. We examined PET data in relation to markers of neurodegeneration in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), structural magnetic resonance imaging measures, and cognitive performance. Cerebral flortaucipir binding was variable, with many participants with TBI showing increases in cortical and white matter regions. At the group level, flortaucipir binding was increased in the right occipital cortex in TBI when compared to healthy controls. Flortaucipir binding was associated with increased total tau, phosphorylated tau, and ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase L1 CSF concentrations, as well as with reduced fractional anisotropy and white matter tissue density in TBI. Apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 genotype affected the relationship between flortaucipir binding and time since injury, CSF ß amyloid 1-42 (Aß42) concentration, white matter tissue density, and longitudinal Mini-Mental State Examination scores in TBI. The results demonstrate that tau PET is a promising approach to investigating progressive neurodegeneration associated with tauopathy after TBI.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31508810

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mortality is high after an acute hip fracture (AHF) surgery. Are cognitive impairment and/or altered levels of Alzheimer's Disease (AD)-biomarkers in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) predictors of mortality in AHF-patients, as retrospective studies indicate? METHODS: Prospective single-center study including 373 AHF-patients, operated in spinal anesthesia. Cognitive status was evaluated by Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR); CSF was analyzed for AD-biomarker concentrations (total tau (T-tau), phosphorylated tau (P-tau), amyloid beta ratio (Aß42/Aß40). CDR and biomarker levels were related to mortality up to one-year post-surgery, using univariate logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Survival analyses showed that mortality was associated to the degree of dementia. In the entire patient cohort 30-, 90-, and 365-day mortality rates were 7.2%, 15.5%, and 25.5%, respectively, but only 2.7%, 5.5%, and 12.6%, for cognitively intact vs. 16.3%, 31.7%, and 42.3% for demented patients (OR=2.2-2.8 [CI=1.6-4.9]; p=0.0001). High CSF T-tau (OR=1.19 [CI=1.05-1.33]; p=0.004) and low Aß42/Aß40-ratio (OR=0.85 [CI=0.74-0.97]; p=0.017) were associated with increased 90-day mortality. Analysis of 4 subgroups (Cognitive impairment +/- and Biomarkers +/-) showed significant associations of dementia and CSF biomarker concentrations to mortality after an AHF. Even cognitively intact patients presenting with abnormal AD-biomarkers showed an increased 90-day mortality which, however, was statistically insignificant. CONCLUSIONS: Cognitive impairment and altered CSF biomarker concentrations indicative of AD pathology can predict increased mortality in patients with an AHF, and so probably even before clinical dementia diagnosis by early biomarker analysis; a notion that may have substantial clinical implications by improving perioperative treatment and postoperative rehabilitation.

13.
BMC Neurol ; 19(1): 223, 2019 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31493787

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hip fracture represents a substantial acute inflammatory trauma, which may constitute a significant insult to the degenerating brain. Research suggests that an injury of this kind can affect memory and thinking in the future but it is unclear whether, and how, inflammatory trauma injures the brain. The impact of Acute SystematiC inflammation upon cerebRospinal fluId and blood BiomarkErs of brain inflammation and injury in Dementia: a study in acute hip fracture patients (ASCRIBED) explores this relationship, to understand the effect of inflammation on the progression of dementia. METHODS: This protocol describes a multi-centre sample collection observational study. The study utilises the unique opportunity provided by hip fracture operations undertaken via spinal anaesthesia to collect cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood, to investigate the impact of acute brain inflammation caused by hip fracture on the exacerbation of dementia. We will recruit 200 hip fracture patients with a diagnosis or evidence of dementia; and 200 hip fracture patients without dementia. We will also recruit 'Suitable informants', individuals in regular contact with the patient, to provide further proxy evidence of a patient's potential cognitive decline. We will compare these 400 samples with existing CSF and blood samples from a cohort of dementia patients who had not experienced a systemic inflammatory response due to injury. This will provide a comparison between patients with and without dementia who are suffering a systemic inflammatory response; with stable patients living with dementia. DISCUSSION: We will test the hypothesis that hip fracture patients living with dementia show elevated markers of brain inflammation, as well as neuronal injury and Alzheimer-related plaque pathology, in comparison to (1) stable patients living with dementia and (2) hip fracture patients without dementia, as measured by biomarkers in CSF and blood. The findings will address the hypothesis that systemic inflammatory events can exacerbate underlying dementia and inform the search for new treatments targeting inflammation in dementia. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN43803769 . Registered 11 May 2017.

14.
Infect Dis (Lond) ; : 1-9, 2019 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31556765

RESUMO

Background: Despite suppressive antiretroviral therapy (ART), many HIV-infected individuals have low-level persistent immune activation in the central nervous system (CNS). There have been concerns regarding the CNS efficacy of tenofovir alafenamide fumarate (TAF) because of its low cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations and because it is a substrate of the active efflux transporter P-glycoprotein. Our aim was to investigate whether switching from emtricitabine (FTC)/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) or abacavir (ABC)/lamivudine (3TC) to FTC/TAF would lead to changes in residual intrathecal immune activation, viral load, or neurocognitive function. Methods: Twenty HIV-1-infected neuro-asymptomatic adults (11 on ABC/3TC and 9 on FTC/TDF) were included in this prospective study. At baseline, all participants changed their nucleoside analogues to FTC/TAF without any other changes in their ART regimen. We performed lumbar punctures, venipunctures, and neurocognitive testing at baseline and after three and 12 months. Results: During follow-up, there were no significant changes in CSF or plasma HIV RNA, CSF neopterin, CSF ß2-microglobulin, IgG index, albumin ratio, CSF NFL, or neurocognitive function in assessed by Cogstate in any of the groups. Conclusion: This small pilot study indicates that switching to FTC/TAF from ABC/3TC or FTC/TDF has neither a positive, nor a negative effect on the HIV infection in the CNS.

15.
Alzheimers Dement ; 2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31495601

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Plasma proteins have been widely studied as candidate biomarkers to predict brain amyloid deposition to increase recruitment efficiency in secondary prevention clinical trials for Alzheimer's disease. Most such biomarker studies are targeted to specific proteins or are biased toward high abundant proteins. METHODS: 4001 plasma proteins were measured in two groups of participants (discovery group = 516, replication group = 365) selected from the European Medical Information Framework for Alzheimer's disease Multimodal Biomarker Discovery study, all of whom had measures of amyloid. RESULTS: A panel of proteins (n = 44), along with age and apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4, predicted brain amyloid deposition with good performance in both the discovery group (area under the curve = 0.78) and the replication group (area under the curve = 0.68). Furthermore, a causal relationship between amyloid and tau was confirmed by Mendelian randomization. DISCUSSION: The results suggest that high-dimensional plasma protein testing could be a useful and reproducible approach for measuring brain amyloid deposition.

16.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 71(3): 775-783, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31424403

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aberrant amyloid-ß (Aß) deposition in the brain occurs two decades prior to the manifestation of Alzheimer's disease (AD) clinical symptoms and therefore brain Aß load measured using PET serves as a gold standard biomarker for the early diagnosis of AD. However, the uneconomical nature of PET makes blood markers, that reflect brain Aß deposition, attractive candidates for investigation as surrogate markers. OBJECTIVE: Investigation of plasma Aß as a surrogate marker for brain Aß deposition in cognitively normal elderly individuals. METHODS: Plasma Aß40 and Aß42 concentrations were measured using the ultrasensitive Single Molecule Array (Simoa) assay in 95 cognitively normal elderly individuals, who have all undergone PET to assess brain Aß deposition. Based on the standard uptake value ratios (SUVR) obtained from PET imaging, using the tracer 18F-Florbetaben, plasma Aß was compared between 32 participants assessed to have low brain Aß load (Aß-, SUVR <1.35) and 63 assessed to have high brain Aß load (Aß+, SUVR ≥1.35). RESULTS: Plasma Aß42/Aß40 ratios were lower in the Aß+ group compared to the Aß-group. Plasma Aß40 and Aß42 levels were not significantly different between Aß-and Aß+ groups, although a trend of higher plasma Aß40 was observed in the Aß+ group. Additionally, plasma Aß42/Aß40 ratios along with the known AD risk factors, age and APOEɛ4 status, resulted in Aß+ participants being distinguished from Aß-participants based on an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve shown to be 78%. CONCLUSION: Plasma Aß ratios in this study are a potential biomarker for brain Aß deposition and therefore, for preclinical AD. However, this method to measure plasma Aß needs further development to increase the accuracy of this promising AD blood biomarker.

17.
Mult Scler Relat Disord ; 35: 228-232, 2019 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31404762

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prediction of disease activity in patients with a first demyelinating event suggestive of multiple sclerosis (MS) is of high clinical relevance. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) neurofilament light chain (NfL) has shown to have prognostic value in MS patients. In this work, we measured CSF NfL in patients at the first demyelinating event in order to find a cut-off value able to discriminate patients who will have disease activity from those who will remain stable during the follow-up. METHODS: We included CSF samples collected within 30 days after the onset of the first demyelinating event from 32 patients followed-up for 3.8 ±â€¯2.5 years. CSF NfL was measured with a newly developed in-house enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). RESULTS: At the first demyelinating event, patients with subsequent disease activity had significantly higher baseline CSF NfL values compared to clinically and radiologically stable patients (median 812.5 pg/mL, range 205-2359 pg/mL vs 329.5 pg/mL, range 156-3492 pg/mL, p = 0.002). A CSF NfL cut-off value of 500 pg/mL significantly discriminated these two groups of patients with a 90% sensitivity and an 83.3% specificity. CONCLUSION: Our results confirm that CSF NfL is a prognostic marker in the very early phases of MS. The validation of a cut-off value of 500 pg/mL could provide clinicians with a dichotomous variable that can simplify the prognostic assessment of patients at the first demyelinating event.

18.
Neurobiol Dis ; 132: 104560, 2019 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31419548

RESUMO

Body weight has been shown to be a predictor of clinical progression in Huntington's disease (HD). Alongside widespread neuronal pathology, both HD patients and the R6/2 mouse model of HD exhibit weight loss and increased energy expenditure, providing a rationale for targeting whole-body energy metabolism in HD. Leptin-deficient mice display low energy expenditure and increased body weight. We therefore hypothesized that normalizing energy metabolism in R6/2 mice, utilizing leptin- deficiency, would lead to a slower disease progression in the R6/2 mouse. In this study, we show that R6/2 mice on a leptin-deficient genetic background display increased body weight and increased fat mass compared to R6/2 mice, as well as wild type littermates. The increased body weight was accompanied by low energy expenditure, illustrated by a reduction in respiratory exchange rate. Leptin-deficient R6/2 mice had large white adipocytes with white adipocyte gene expression characteristics, in contrast to white adipose tissue in R6/2 mice, where white adipose tissue showed signs of browning. Leptin-deficient R6/2 mice did not exhibit improved neuropathological measures. Our results indicate that lowering energy metabolism in HD, by increasing fat mass and reducing respiratory exchange rate, is not sufficient to affect neuropathology. Further studies targeting energy metabolism in HD are warranted.

19.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 71(1): 281-290, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31381510

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vascular risk factors promote cerebral small vessel disease and neuropathological changes, particularly in white matter where large-caliber axons are located. How Alzheimer's disease pathology influences the brain's vulnerability in this regard is not well understood. OBJECTIVE: Systemic vascular risk was assessed in relation to cerebrospinal fluid concentrations of neurofilament light, a biomarker of large-caliber axonal injury, evaluating for interactions by clinical and protein markers of Alzheimer's disease. METHODS: Among Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative participants with normal cognition (n = 117), mild cognitive impairment (n = 190), and Alzheimer's disease (n = 95), linear regression related vascular risk (as measured by the modified Framingham Stroke Risk Profile) to neurofilament light, adjusting for age, sex, education, and cognitive diagnosis. Interactions were assessed by cognitive diagnosis, and by cerebrospinal fluid markers of Aß42, hyperphosphorylated tau, and total tau. RESULTS: Vascular risk and neurofilament light were not related in the main effect model (p = 0.08). However, interactions emerged for total tau (p = 0.01) and hyperphosphorylated tau (p = 0.002) reflecting vascular risk becoming more associated with cerebrospinal fluid neurofilament light in the context of greater concentrations of tau biomarkers. An interaction also emerged for the Alzheimer's disease biomarker profiles (p = 0.046) where in comparison to the referent 'normal' biomarker group, individuals with abnormal levels of both Aß42 and total tau showed stronger associations between vascular risk and neurofilament light. CONCLUSION: Older adults may be more vulnerable to axonal injury in response to higher vascular risk burdens in the context of concomitant Alzheimer's disease pathology.

20.
Fluids Barriers CNS ; 16(1): 27, 2019 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31462266

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC) hold great promise for use in cell therapy applications and for improved in vitro models of human disease. So far, most hiPSC differentiation protocols to astroglia use undefined, animal-containing culture matrices. Laminins, which play an essential role in the regulation of cell behavior, offer a source of defined, animal-free culture matrix. METHODS: In order to understand how laminins affect astroglia differentiation, recombinant human laminin-521 (LN521), was compared to a murine Engelbreth-Holm-Swarm sarcoma derived laminin (L2020). Astroglia expression of protein and mRNA together with glutamate uptake and protein secretion function, were evaluated. Finally, these astroglia were evaluated in a coculture model of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). RESULTS: Astroglia of good quality were generated from hiPSC on both LN521 and L2020. However, astroglia differentiated on human LN521 showed higher expression of several astroglia specific mRNAs and proteins such as GFAP, S100B, Angiopoietin-1, and EAAT1, compared to astroglia differentiated on murine L2020. In addition, glutamate uptake and ability to induce expression of junction proteins in endothelial cells were affected by the culture matrix for differentiation. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that astroglia differentiated on LN521 display an improved phenotype and are suitable for coculture in a hiPSC-derived BBB model. This provides a starting point for a more defined and robust derivation of astroglia for use in BBB coculture models.

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