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1.
Eur J Neurol ; 2021 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33811783

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although functional recovery is most pronounced in the first 6 months after stroke, improvement is possible also in the late phase. We explored the value of plasma neurofilament light chain (NfL), a biomarker of axonal injury and secondary neurodegeneration, for the prediction of functional improvement in late phase after stroke. METHODS: We measured baseline plasma NfL levels in 115 participants of a trial on the efficacy of multimodal rehabilitation in late phase after stroke. We determined the association between NfL levels, impairment in balance, gait and cognitive domains, and improvement 3 and 9 months later. RESULTS: Plasma NfL levels were associated with the degree of impairment in all three domains. Individuals with meaningful improvement in balance and gait capacity had higher plasma NfL levels compared with non-improvers (P=0.001 and P=0.018, respectively). Higher NfL levels were associated with improvement in balance (OR 2.34, CI: 1.35-4.27, P=0.004) and gait (OR 2.27, CI: 1.25-4.32, P=0.009). Elevated plasma NfL levels showed a positive predictive value for cognitive improvement, and this effect was specific for the intervention targeting the cognitive domain. The association of NfL levels with cognitive improvement withstood correction for baseline impairment, age and total years of schooling (OR 7.54, CI: 1.52-45.66, P=0.018). CONCLUSIONS: In addition to its established role as a biomarker in the acute phase, elevated circulating NfL levels may predict functional improvement in late phase after stroke. Our results should prompt further studies into the use of plasma NfL as a biomarker in late phase after stroke.

2.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(4): e214138, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33797551

RESUMO

Importance: Circulating levels of neurofilament light (NfL) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) are important in the course of brain injury in adults, but longitudinal postnatal circulating levels in preterm infants have not been investigated. Objectives: To examine postnatal longitudinal serum levels of NfL and GFAP in preterm infants during the first 15 weeks of life and to explore possible associations between these biomarkers, neonatal morbidities, and neurodevelopmental outcomes at 2 years. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study used data from 3 clinical studies, including 221 infants born before 32 weeks gestational age (GA) from 1999 to 2015; neurodevelopmental outcomes were evaluated in 120 infants. Data were collected at tertiary-level neonatal intensive care units in Gothenburg, Lund, and Uppsala, Sweden. Data analysis was conducted from January to October 2020. Exposure: Preterm birth. Main Outcomes and Measures: Serum NfL and GFAP levels, retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), intraventricular hemorrhage, and Bayley Scales of Infant Development II and III at 2 years of age, analyzed by multivariate logistic regression measured by odds ratio (OR), and receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis. Area under the curve (AUC) was also measured. Results: The 221 included infants (108 [48.9%] girls) had a mean (SD) GA at birth of 26.5 (2.1) weeks and a mean (SD) birth weight of 896 (301) grams. NfL levels increased after birth, remaining high during the first 4 weeks of life before declining to continuously low levels by postnatal age 12 weeks (median [range] NfL level at birth: 58.8 [11.5-1371.3] ng/L; 1 wk: 83.5 [14.1-952.2] ng/L; 4 wk: 24.4 [7.0-306.0] ng/L; 12 wk: 9.1 [3.7-57.0] ng/L). In a binary logistic regression model adjusted for GA at birth, birth weight SD score, Apgar status at 5 minutes, and mode of delivery, the NfL AUC at weeks 2 to 4 was independently associated with any ROP (OR, 4.79; 95% CI, 2.17-10.56; P < .001). In an exploratory analysis adjusted for GA at birth and sex, NfL AUC at weeks 2 to 4 was independently associated with unfavorable neurodevelopmental outcomes at 2 years corrected age (OR per 10-unit NfL increase, 1.07; 95% CI, 1.02-1.13; P = .01). Longitudinal GFAP levels were not significantly associated with neonatal morbidity or neurodevelopmental outcome. Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, high NfL levels during the first weeks of life were associated with ROP and poor neurodevelopmental outcomes at 2 years of age. Associations between NfL and later neurovascular development in infants born prematurely should be investigated further.

3.
ACS Chem Neurosci ; 2021 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33825443

RESUMO

Beta-amyloid (Aß1-42) triggers the phosphorylation of tau protein in Alzheimer's disease (AD), but the relationship between phosphorylated tau (p-tau) and Aß1-42 in the blood is not elucidated. We investigated the association in individuals with AD (n = 62, including amnesic mild cognitive impairment and dementia), Parkinson's disease (n = 30), frontotemporal dementia (n = 25), and cognitively unimpaired controls (n = 41) using immunomagnetic reduction assays to measure plasma Aß1-42 and p-tau181 concentrations. Correlation and regression analyses were performed to examine the relation between plasma levels, demographic factors, and clinical severity. Both plasma Aß1-42 and p-tau concentrations were significantly higher in AD and frontotemporal dementia than in the controls and Parkinson's disease. A significant positive association was found between plasma p-tau and Aß1-42 in controls (r = 0.579, P < 0.001) and AD (r = 0.699, P < 0.001) but not in frontotemporal dementia or Parkinson's disease. Plasma p-tau was significantly associated with clinical severity in the AD in terms of scores of clinical dementia rating (r = 0.288, P = 0.025) and mini-mental state examination (r = -0.253, P = 0.049). Regression analysis showed that plasma Aß1-42 levels explain approximately 47.7% of the plasma p-tau levels in the AD after controlling age, gender, and clinical severity. While in non-AD participants, the clinical dementia rating explained about 47.5% of the plasma p-tau levels. The disease-specific association between plasma Aß1-42 and p-tau levels in AD implies a possible synergic effect in mechanisms involving these two pathological proteins' genesis.

4.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 2021 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33814433

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Delirium is associated with an increased risk of incident dementia and accelerated progression of existing cognitive symptoms. Reciprocally, dementia increases the risk of delirium. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentration of the dendritic protein neurogranin has been shown to increase in early Alzheimer's disease (AD), likely reflecting synaptic dysfunction and/or degeneration. OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the involvement of synaptic dysfunction in delirium pathophysiology, we tested the association between CSF neurogranin concentration and delirium in hip fracture patients with different AD-biomarker profiles, while comparing them to cognitively unimpaired older adults (CUA) and AD patients. METHODS: The cohort included hip fracture patients with (n = 70) and without delirium (n = 58), CUA undergoing elective surgery (n = 127), and AD patients (n = 46). CSF was collected preoperatively and diagnostically in surgery and AD patients respectively. CSF neurogranin concentrations were analyzed in all samples with an in-house ELISA. Delirium was assessed pre-and postoperatively in hip fracture patients by trained investigators using the Confusion Assessment Method. Hip fracture patients were further stratified based on pre-fracture dementia status, delirium subtype, and AD fluid biomarkers. RESULTS: No association was found between delirium and CSF neurogranin concentration (main analysis: delirium versus no delirium, p = 0.68). Hip fracture patients had lower CSF neurogranin concentration than AD patients (p = 0.001) and CUA (p = 0.035) in age-adjusted sensitivity analyses. CONCLUSION: The findings suggest that delirium is not associated with increased CSF neurogranin concentration in hip fracture patients, possibly due to advanced neurodegenerative disease and age and/or because synaptic degeneration is not an important pathophysiological process in delirium.

5.
Alzheimers Dement ; 2021 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33792144

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This study sought to discover and replicate plasma proteomic biomarkers relating to Alzheimer's disease (AD) including both the "ATN" (amyloid/tau/neurodegeneration) diagnostic framework and clinical diagnosis. METHODS: Plasma proteins from 972 subjects (372 controls, 409 mild cognitive impairment [MCI], and 191 AD) were measured using both SOMAscan and targeted assays, including 4001 and 25 proteins, respectively. RESULTS: Protein co-expression network analysis of SOMAscan data revealed the relation between proteins and "N" varied across different neurodegeneration markers, indicating that the ATN variants are not interchangeable. Using hub proteins, age, and apolipoprotein E ε4 genotype discriminated AD from controls with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.81 and MCI convertors from non-convertors with an AUC of 0.74. Targeted assays replicated the relation of four proteins with the ATN framework and clinical diagnosis. DISCUSSION: Our study suggests that blood proteins can predict the presence of AD pathology as measured in the ATN framework as well as clinical diagnosis.

6.
Alzheimers Dement ; 2021 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33792168

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: There is increasing evidence that phosphorylated tau (P-tau181) is a specific biomarker for Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology, but its potential utility in non-White patient cohorts and patients with concomitant cerebrovascular disease (CeVD) is unknown. METHODS: Single molecule array (Simoa) measurements of plasma P-tau181, total tau, amyloid beta (Aß)40 and Aß42, as well as derived ratios were correlated with neuroimaging modalities indicating brain amyloid (Aß+), hippocampal atrophy, and CeVD in a Singapore-based cohort of non-cognitively impaired (NCI; n = 43), cognitively impaired no dementia (CIND; n = 91), AD (n = 44), and vascular dementia (VaD; n = 22) subjects. RESULTS: P-tau181/Aß42 ratio showed the highest area under the curve (AUC) for Aß+ (AUC = 0.889) and for discriminating between AD Aß+ and VaD Aß- subjects (AUC = 0.903). In addition, P-tau181/Aß42 ratio was associated with hippocampal atrophy. None of the biomarkers was associated with CeVD. DISCUSSION: Plasma P-tau181/Aß42 ratio may be a noninvasive means of identifying AD with elevated brain amyloid in populations with concomitant CeVD.

7.
World J Biol Psychiatry ; : 1-16, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33792486

RESUMO

SummaryObjective: Pediatric Acute-onset Neuropsychiatric Syndrome (PANS) is characterized by an acute onset of obsessive compulsive disorder, combined with at least two other neuropsychiatric symptoms with acute onset. Diagnostic criteria also require that no specific medical etiology is identified. Although there are no verified etiological biomarkers, PANS is assumed to be a neuroinflammatory disorder with a possible autoimmune etiology. Neurochemical markers such as neurofilament light (NfL, a neuronal injury marker) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, an astrocytic activation marker) have not been published for this patient group.Method: Blood samples from 17 children meeting diagnostic criteria for PANS, after assessment at a child neuropsychiatry clinic were analysed for serum concentrations of NfL and GFAP. Ten age-matched children without any neurological or psychiatric disorder served as a comparison group.Results: No difference was found in mean NfL and mean GFAP serum concentrations between children with PANS and controls.Conclusion: Neuronal injury and astrocyte activation do not seem to be a major event in PANS. The study group was small, and even if findings may be reassuring for parents and patients, they should be interpreted with caution and verified in larger cohort and possibly with other markers in both serum and CSF.

8.
Alzheimers Res Ther ; 13(1): 68, 2021 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33773595

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Plasma glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) is a marker of astroglial activation and astrocytosis. We assessed the ability of plasma GFAP to detect Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology in the form of AD-related amyloid-ß (Aß) pathology and conversion to AD dementia in a mild cognitive impairment (MCI) cohort. METHOD: One hundred sixty MCI patients were followed for 4.7 years (average). AD pathology was defined using cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Aß42/40 and Aß42/total tau (T-tau). Plasma GFAP was measured at baseline and follow-up using Simoa technology. RESULTS: Baseline plasma GFAP could detect abnormal CSF Aß42/40 and CSF Aß42/T-tau with an AUC of 0.79 (95% CI 0.72-0.86) and 0.80 (95% CI 0.72-0.86), respectively. When also including APOE ε4 status as a predictor, the accuracy of the model to detect abnormal CSF Aß42/40 status improved (AUC = 0.86, p = 0.02). Plasma GFAP predicted subsequent conversion to AD dementia with an AUC of 0.84 (95% CI 0.77-0.91), which was not significantly improved when adding APOE ε4 or age as predictors to the model. Longitudinal GFAP slopes for Aß-positive and MCI who progressed to dementia (AD or other) were significantly steeper than those for Aß-negative (p = 0.007) and stable MCI (p < 0.0001), respectively. CONCLUSION: Plasma GFAP can detect AD pathology in patients with MCI and predict conversion to AD dementia.

9.
Alzheimers Res Ther ; 13(1): 69, 2021 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33781319

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To investigate the association of plasma pTau181, assessed with a new immunoassay, with neurodegeneration of white matter and gray matter cross-sectionally and longitudinally, in aging and Alzheimer's disease. METHODS: Observational data was obtained from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative, in which participants underwent plasma assessment and magnetic resonance imaging. Based on their clinical diagnosis, participants were classified as cognitively unimpaired and cognitively impaired. Linear regressions and linear mixed-effect models were used to test the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between baseline plasma pTau181 and neurodegeneration using voxel-based morphometry. RESULTS: We observed a negative correlation at baseline between plasma pTau181 and gray matter volume in cognitively unimpaired individuals. In cognitively impaired individuals, we observed a negative association between plasma pTau181 and both gray and white matter volume. In longitudinal analyses conducted in the cognitively unimpaired group, plasma pTau181 was negatively correlated with gray matter volume, starting 36 months after baseline assessments. Finally, in cognitively impaired individuals, plasma pTau181 concentrations were negatively correlated with both gray and white matter volume as early as 12 months after baseline, and neurodegeneration increased in an incremental manner until 48 months. CONCLUSIONS: Higher levels of plasma pTau181 correlate with neurodegeneration and predict further brain atrophy in aging and Alzheimer's disease. Plasma pTau181 may be useful in predicting AD-related neurodegeneration, comparable to positron emission tomography or cerebrospinal fluid assessment with high specificity for AD neurodegeneration.

10.
Lupus Sci Med ; 8(1)2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33685997

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Women with SLE face an increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes compared with healthy women, but the underlying immunological mechanisms are unknown. Given the recognised association of neutrophil activation with SLE pathogenesis, we examined whether there is increased neutrophil activation and inflammation in blood and placenta in SLE relative to healthy pregnancy. METHODS: At delivery, peripheral blood, maternal-derived intervillous blood and placentas were collected from 12 SLE and 10 healthy control pregnancies. The proportion of low-density granulocytes (LDGs) and the activation status of LDG and normal-density granulocytes were examined with flow cytometry. The chemokines CXCL8 and CXCL1 were quantified with a cytometric bead-based assay and interferon alpha (IFNα) protein levels with a Simoa method. IFNα-stimulated maternal-derived decidual stromal cells were examined for CXCL8 gene expression with qPCR. A pathologist, blinded to the patient background, examined all placentas. RESULTS: Women with SLE had significantly higher proportions of LDG in peripheral blood compared with controls (p=0.02), and LDG in both peripheral and intervillous blood were more activated in SLE relative to healthy pregnancies (peripheral blood: p=0.002 and intervillous blood: p=0.05). There were higher levels of CXCL8 and CXCL1 in intervillous compared with peripheral blood in women with SLE (p=0.004 and p=<0.0001, respectively) but not in controls. In SLE pregnancy, IFNα was detectable in 6 out of 10 intervillous blood samples but only in one control. Stimulation with IFNα upregulated CXCL8 gene expression in decidual stromal cells from both SLE and healthy pregnancy. Histological chorioamnionitis was present in 6 out of 12 placentas from women with SLE and in 1 out of 10 controls. CONCLUSIONS: In women with SLE, locally produced chemokines in the placenta are increased and may attract and activate neutrophils. This in turn could contribute to placental inflammation and dysfunction and increased risk of placenta-related pregnancy complications.

11.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 6357, 2021 03 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33737684

RESUMO

The recent SARS-CoV-2 pandemic manifests itself as a mild respiratory tract infection in most individuals, leading to COVID-19 disease. However, in some infected individuals, this can progress to severe pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), leading to multi-organ failure and death. This study explores the proteomic differences between mild, severe, and critical COVID-19 positive patients to further understand the disease progression, identify proteins associated with disease severity, and identify potential therapeutic targets. Blood protein profiling was performed on 59 COVID-19 mild (n = 26), severe (n = 9) or critical (n = 24) cases and 28 controls using the OLINK inflammation, autoimmune, cardiovascular and neurology panels. Differential expression analysis was performed within and between disease groups to generate nine different analyses. From the 368 proteins measured per individual, more than 75% were observed to be significantly perturbed in COVID-19 cases. Six proteins (IL6, CKAP4, Gal-9, IL-1ra, LILRB4 and PD-L1) were identified to be associated with disease severity. The results have been made readily available through an interactive web-based application for instant data exploration and visualization, and can be accessed at https://phidatalab-shiny.rosalind.kcl.ac.uk/COVID19/ . Our results demonstrate that dynamic changes in blood proteins associated with disease severity can potentially be used as early biomarkers to monitor disease severity in COVID-19 and serve as potential therapeutic targets.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Central/virologia , Proteoma , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Gliose/virologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/sangue
12.
Alzheimers Res Ther ; 13(1): 54, 2021 03 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33653397

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increased knowledge of the evolution of molecular changes in neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) is important for the understanding of disease pathophysiology and also crucial to be able to identify and validate disease biomarkers. While several biological changes that occur early in the disease development have already been recognized, the need for further characterization of the pathophysiological mechanisms behind AD still remains. METHODS: In this study, we investigated cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of 104 proteins in 307 asymptomatic 70-year-olds from the H70 Gothenburg Birth Cohort Studies using a multiplexed antibody- and bead-based technology. RESULTS: The protein levels were first correlated with the core AD CSF biomarker concentrations of total tau, phospho-tau and amyloid beta (Aß42) in all individuals. Sixty-three proteins showed significant correlations to either total tau, phospho-tau or Aß42. Thereafter, individuals were divided based on CSF Aß42/Aß40 ratio and Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) score to determine if early changes in pathology and cognition had an effect on the correlations. We compared the associations of the analysed proteins with CSF markers between groups and found 33 proteins displaying significantly different associations for amyloid-positive individuals and amyloid-negative individuals, as defined by the CSF Aß42/Aß40 ratio. No differences in the associations could be seen for individuals divided by CDR score. CONCLUSIONS: We identified a series of transmembrane proteins, proteins associated with or anchored to the plasma membrane, and proteins involved in or connected to synaptic vesicle transport to be associated with CSF biomarkers of amyloid and tau pathology in AD. Further studies are needed to explore these proteins' role in AD pathophysiology.

13.
Alzheimers Dement ; 2021 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33663013

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The association between cerebral amyloid-ß accumulation and downstream CSF biomarkers is not fully understood, particularly in asymptomatic stages. METHODS: In 318 cognitively unimpaired participants, we assessed the association between amyloid-ß PET (Centiloid), and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers of several pathophysiological pathways. Interactions by Alzheimer's disease risk factors (age, sex and APOE-ε4), and the mediation effect of tau and neurodegeneration were also investigated. RESULTS: Centiloids were positively associated with CSF biomarkers of tau pathology (p-tau), neurodegeneration (t-tau, NfL), synaptic dysfunction (neurogranin) and neuroinflammation (YKL-40, GFAP, sTREM2), presenting interactions with age (p-tau, t-tau, neurogranin) and sex (sTREM2, NfL). Most of these associations were mediated by p-tau, except for NfL. The interaction between sex and amyloid-ß on sTREM2 and NfL was also tau-independent. DISCUSSION: Early amyloid-ß accumulation has a tau-independent effect on neurodegeneration and a tau-dependent effect on neuroinflammation. Besides, sex has a modifier effect on these associations independent of tau.

14.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2021 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33674752

RESUMO

Prion diseases are fatal neurodegenerative conditions with highly accurate CSF and imaging diagnostic tests, but major unmet needs for blood biomarkers. Using ultrasensitive immuno-assays, we measured tau and neurofilament light chain (NfL) protein concentrations in 709 plasma samples taken from 377 individuals with prion disease during a 12 year prospective clinical study, alongside healthy and neurological control groups. This provides an unprecedented opportunity to evaluate their potential as biomarkers. Plasma tau and NfL were increased across all prion disease types. For distinguishing sCJD from control groups including clinically-relevant "CJD mimics", both show considerable diagnostic value. In sCJD, NfL was substantially elevated in every sample tested, including during early disease with minimal functional impairment and in all follow-up samples. Plasma tau was independently associated with rate of clinical progression in sCJD, while plasma NfL showed independent association with severity of functional impairment. In asymptomatic PRNP mutation carriers, plasma NfL was higher on average in samples taken within 2 years of symptom onset than in samples taken earlier. We present biomarker trajectories for nine mutation carriers healthy at enrolment who developed symptoms during follow-up. NfL started to rise as early as 2 years before onset in those with mutations typically associated with more slowly progressive clinical disease. This shows potential for plasma NfL as a "proximity marker", but further work is needed to establish predictive value on an individual basis, and how this varies across different PRNP mutations. We conclude that plasma tau and NfL have potential to fill key unmet needs for biomarkers in prion disease: as a secondary outcome for clinical trials (NfL and tau); for predicting onset in at-risk individuals (NfL); and as an accessible test for earlier identification of patients that may have CJD and require more definitive tests (NfL). Further studies should evaluate their performance directly in these specific roles.

15.
Transl Stroke Res ; 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33723754

RESUMO

Stroke is a major public health problem that can cause a long-term disability or death due to brain damage. Serious stroke is frequently caused by a large vessel occlusion in the anterior circulation, which should be treated by endovascular embolectomy if possible. In this study, we investigated the use of the brain damage biomarkers tau, NFL, NSE, GFAp, and S100B to understand the progression of nervous tissue damage and their relationship to outcome in such stroke after endovascular treatment. Blood samples were taken from 90 patients pre-treatment and 2 h, 24 h, 48 h, 72 h and 3 months after endovascular treatment. Stroke-related neurological deficit was estimated using the National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) at admission and at 24 h. Neurological outcome was evaluated at 3 months. After stroke, tau, NFL, GFAp and S100B increased in a time dependent manner, while NSE remained constant over time. At 3 months, tau and GFAp levels were back to normal whereas NFL was still high. Tau, NFL and GFAp correlated well to outcome, as well as to infarct volume and NIHSS at 24 h. The best time for prediction of poor outcome was different for each biomarker. However, the combination of NIHSS at 24 h with either tau, NFL or GFAp at 48 h gave the best prediction. The use of biomarkers in the early setting after endovascular treatment of stroke will lead to a simplified and standardized way to estimate the nervous tissue damage and possibly complement the clinical judgement in foreseeing the need of rehabilitation measures.

16.
Acta Neurol Scand ; 2021 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33734429

RESUMO

Neurofilament light chain (NfL) is an incredibly specific marker of neuronal injury that is not specific for cause or location of the neuronal damage. NfL is increasingly considered as possible biomarker of disease activity in neurological conditions. Several works reviewed the utility of NfL in the different diseases. Nonetheless, NfL is a universal marker of neuronal damage, which interpretation spaces beyond the single disease. Because of this, the interpretation of NfL may benefit by also considering how neurological symptoms relate to its blood concentration. Here, we review how different neurological symptoms can be associated with blood NfL levels with a practical interpretation of it.

17.
Alzheimers Dement ; 2021 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33663022

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We determined whether cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) neurofilament light (NfL), neurogranin (Ng), and total-tau (t-tau) differentially mapped to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measures of cortical thickness, microstructural integrity (corpus callosum and cingulum fractional anisotropy [FA]), and white matter hyperintensities (WMH). METHODS: Analyses included 536 non-demented Mayo Clinic Study of Aging participants with CSF NfL, Ng, t-tau, amyloid beta (Aß)42 and longitudinal MRI scans. Linear mixed models assessed longitudinal associations between CSF markers and MRI changes. RESULTS: Higher CSF NfL was associated with decreasing microstructural integrity and WMH. Higher t-tau was associated with decreasing temporal lobe and Alzheimer's disease (AD) meta region of interest (ROI) cortical thickness. There was no association between Ng and any MRI measure. CSF Aß42 interacted with Ng for declines in temporal lobe and AD meta ROI cortical thickness and cingulum FA. DISCUSSION: CSF NfL predicts changes in white matter integrity, t-tau reflects non-specific changes in cortical thickness, and Ng reflects AD-specific synaptic and neuronal degeneration.

18.
Gene Ther ; 2021 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33692503

RESUMO

Mutations in the GJB1 gene, encoding the gap junction (GJ) protein connexin32 (Cx32), cause X-linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT1X), an inherited demyelinating neuropathy. We developed a gene therapy approach for CMT1X using an AAV9 vector to deliver the GJB1/Cx32 gene under the myelin protein zero (Mpz) promoter for targeted expression in Schwann cells. Lumbar intrathecal injection of the AAV9-Mpz.GJB1 resulted in widespread biodistribution in the peripheral nervous system including lumbar roots, sciatic and femoral nerves, as well as in Cx32 expression in the paranodal non-compact myelin areas of myelinated fibers. A pre-, as well as post-onset treatment trial in Gjb1-null mice, demonstrated improved motor performance and sciatic nerve conduction velocities along with improved myelination and reduced inflammation in peripheral nerve tissues. Blood biomarker levels were also significantly ameliorated in treated mice. This study provides evidence that a clinically translatable AAV9-mediated gene therapy approach targeting Schwann cells could potentially treat CMT1X.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33694298

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess associations between head injury (HI) with loss of consciousness (LOC), ageing and markers of later-life cerebral pathology; and to explore whether those effects may help explain subtle cognitive deficits in dementia-free individuals. METHODS: Participants (n = 502, age = 69-71) from the 1946 British Birth Cohort underwent cognitive testing (subtests of Preclinical Alzheimer Cognitive Composite), 18 F-florbetapir Aß-PET and MR imaging. Measures include Aß-PET status, brain, hippocampal and white matter hyperintensity (WMH) volumes, normal appearing white matter (NAWM) microstructure, Alzheimer's disease (AD)-related cortical thickness, and serum neurofilament light chain (NFL). LOC HI metrics include HI occurring: (i) >15 years prior to the scan (ii) anytime up to age 71. RESULTS: Compared to those with no evidence of an LOC HI, only those reporting an LOC HI>15 years prior (16%, n = 80) performed worse on cognitive tests at age 69-71, taking into account premorbid cognition, particularly on the digit-symbol substitution test (DSST). Smaller brain volume (BV) and adverse NAWM microstructural integrity explained 30% and 16% of the relationship between HI and DSST, respectively. We found no evidence that LOC HI was associated with Aß load, hippocampal volume, WMH volume, AD-related cortical thickness or NFL (all p > 0.01). INTERPRETATION: Having a LOC HI aged 50's and younger was linked with lower later-life cognitive function at age ~70 than expected. This may reflect a damaging but small impact of HI; explained in part by smaller BV and different microstructure pathways but not via pathology related to AD (amyloid, hippocampal volume, AD cortical thickness) or ongoing neurodegeneration (serum NFL).

20.
J Affect Disord ; 286: 275-281, 2021 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33756305

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Decreased cholinergic tone associated with increased proinflammatory cytokines has been observed in several human diseases associated with low-grade inflammation. We examined if this attenuated cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway (CAP) mechanism contributed to increased neuroinflammation observed in depression. METHODS: We measured cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cholinergic markers (AChE and BChE activities) in 28 individuals with longstanding late-life major depression (LLMD) and 19 controls and their relationship to central and peripheral levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and IL-8). Additionally, we examined if these cholinergic indices were related to CSF markers of microglial activation and neuroinflammation (sTREM2 and complement C3). RESULTS: Compared with controls, LLMD patients had a significant reduction in CSF BChE levels. Lower CSF BChE and AChE activities were associated with lower CSF markers of microglial and neuroinflammation (sTREM2 and C3). In addition, in LLMD patients we found an inverse relationship between peripheral marker of inflammation (plasma IL-6) and CSF BChE and AChE levels. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest an upregulation of the CAP mechanism in LLMD with an elevation in peripheral markers of inflammation and concomitant reduction in markers of glial activation associated with a higher cholinergic tone. Future studies should confirm these findings in a larger sample including individuals with acute and more severe depressive episodes and across all ages.

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