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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34625821

RESUMO

Aging is associated with gut microbiota alterations, characterized by changes in intestinal microbial diversity and composition. However, no study has yet focused on investigating age-related changes in the low-abundant but potentially beneficial subpopulations of gut lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and Bifidobacterium. Our study found that the subjects' age correlated negatively with the alpha diversity of the gut bifidobacterial microbiota, and such correlation was not observed in the gut LAB subpopulation. Principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) and analysis of distribution of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) revealed that the structure and composition of the gut bifidobacterial subpopulation of the longevous elderly group were rather different from that of the other three age groups. The same analyses were applied to identify age-dependent characteristics of the gut LAB subpopulation, and the results revealed that the gut LAB subpopulation of young adults was significantly different from that of all three elderly groups. Our study identified several potentially beneficial bacteria (e.g., Bifidobacterium breve and Bifidobacterium longum) that were enriched in the longevous elderly group (P < 0.05), and the relative abundance of Bifidobacterium adolescentis decreased significantly with the increase in age (P < 0.05). Although both bifidobacteria and LAB are generally considered as health-promoting taxa, their age-dependent distribution varied from each other, suggesting their different life stage changes and potentially different functional roles. This study provided novel species-level gut bifidobacterial and LAB microbiota profiles of a large cohort of subjects and identified several age-or longevity-associated features and biomarkers. KEY POINTS: • The alpha diversity of the gut bifidobacterial microbiota decreased with age, while LAB did not change. • The structure and composition of the gut bifidobacterial subpopulation of the longevous elderly group were rather different from that of the other three age groups. • Several potentially beneficial bacteria (e.g., Bifidobacterium breve and Bifidobacterium longum) that were enriched in the longevous elderly group.

2.
Microbiome ; 9(1): 180, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34470652

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Probiotics have been used to regulate the gut microbiota and physiology in various contexts, but their precise mechanisms of action remain unclear. RESULTS: By population genomic analysis of 418 Bifidobacterium longum strains, including 143 newly sequenced in this study, three geographically distinct gene pools/populations, BLAsia1, BLAsia2, and BLothers, were identified. Genes involved in cell wall biosynthesis, particularly peptidoglycan biosynthesis, varied considerably among the core genomes of the different populations, but accessory genes that contributed to the carbohydrate metabolism were significantly distinct. Although active transmission was observed inter-host, inter-country, inter-city, intra-community, and intra-family, a single B. longum clone seemed to reside within each individual. A significant negative association was observed between host age and relative abundance of B. longum, while there was a strong positive association between host age and strain genotype [e.g., single nucleotide polymorphisms in the arginine biosynthesis pathway]. Further animal experiments performed with the B. longum isolates via using a D-galactose-induced aging mouse model supported these associations, in which B. longum strains with different genotypes in arginine biosynthesis pathway showed divergent abilities on protecting against host aging possibly via their different abilities to modify the metabolism of gut microbes. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first known example of research on the evolutionary history and transmission of this probiotic species. Our results propose a new mechanistic insight for promoting host longevity via the informed use of specific probiotics or molecules. Video abstract.


Assuntos
Bifidobacterium longum , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Probióticos , Sulfaleno , Envelhecimento , Animais , Galactose , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Humanos , Camundongos
3.
NPJ Biofilms Microbiomes ; 7(1): 71, 2021 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34489454

RESUMO

The gut microbiota could affect human health and disease. Although disease-associated microbiota alteration has been extensively investigated in the Chinese population, a nationwide Chinese gut microbiota baseline is still lacking. Here we performed 16 S rRNA gene sequencing on fecal samples from 2678 healthy Chinese individuals, who belonged to eight ethnic groups and resided in 63 counties/cities of 28 provinces. We identified four enterotypes, three of which were enriched for Prevotella, Bacteroides, and Escherichia, respectively, whereas the fourth one had no dominant genus. By assessing the association between the gut microbiota and 20 variables belonging to six categories, geography, demography, diet, urbanization, lifestyle, and sampling month, we revealed that geography explained the largest microbiota variation, and clarified the distinct patterns in the associations with staple food type, ethnicity, and urban/rural residence. Specifically, the gut microbiota of Han Chinese and ethnic minority groups from the same sites was more alike than that of the same ethnic minority groups from different sites. Individuals consuming wheat as staple food were predicted to have more microbial genes involving in glucan 1,3-beta-glucosidase and S-adenosyl-L-methionine biosynthesis than those who consumed rice, based on functional prediction. Besides, an appreciable effect of urbanization on decreased intra-individual diversity, increased inter-individual diversity, and increased proportion of the Bacteroides enterotype was observed. Collectively, our study provided a nationwide gut microbiota baseline of the Chinese population and knowledge on important covariates, which are fundamental to translational microbiota research.

4.
Front Immunol ; 12: 626217, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34276643

RESUMO

Alterations in the microbiome of the gut and oral cavity are involved in the etiopathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We aimed to assess whether both microbiome compositions in feces and saliva were specific in patients with SLE. A total of 35 patients with SLE, as well as sex- and age-matched asymptomatic subjects as healthy control (HC) group were recruited. Fecal swabs and saliva samples were collected from the participants. 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing was performed on the samples. Compared with the HC group, reduced bacterial richness and diversity were detected in the feces of patients with SLE, and increased bacterial diversity in their saliva. Both feces and saliva samples explained the cohort variation. The feces were characterized by enrichment of Lactobacillus, and depletion of an unclassified bacterium in the Ruminococcaceae family and Bifidobacterium. Lack of Bifidobacterium was observed in patients with arthritis. Akkermansia and Ruminococcus negatively correlated with the serum levels of C3. In saliva, Veillonella, Streptococcus, and Prevotella were dominant, and Bacteroides was negatively associated with disease activity. These findings can assist us to comprehensively understand the bacterial profiles of different body niches in SLE patients.


Assuntos
Bactérias/genética , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/microbiologia , Microbiota/genética , Saliva/microbiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Bactérias/classificação , Estudos de Coortes , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Variação Genética , Humanos , Masculino , Microbiota/fisiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Boca/microbiologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
Food Funct ; 2021 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34308455

RESUMO

The role of supplementation with different Bacteroides fragilis (B. fragilis) strains in alleviating ulcerative colitis (UC) is unclear due to the controversial results from animal experiments. In this study, three B. fragilis strains were evaluated for their ability to alleviate dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced UC in C57BL/6J mice. We analyzed the anti-inflammatory effects of different B. fragilis strains and the changes they caused in the intestinal microbiota composition, intestinal epithelial permeability, cytokine concentrations, protein expression of nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) and the underlying specific genes. The results showed that when orally administered, the different B. fragilis strains exerted different effects on the assessed parameters of the mice. The results of real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunofluorescence staining showed that the supplementation of B. fragilis FSHCM14E1, but not FJSWX11BF, enhanced the expression of the tight-junction proteins ZO-1, occludin and claudin-1. Western blot analysis showed that the anti-inflammatory effects of B. fragilis FSHCM14E1 were related to the NF-κB pathway. Genomic analysis suggested that the anti-inflammatory effects of FSHCM14E1 may be mediated through specific genes associated with defense mechanisms and the secretion of SCFAs. Overall, this study indicates the therapeutic potential of B. fragilis FSHCM14E1 for the prevention of UC.

6.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34207960

RESUMO

Psoriasis is an immune-mediated systemic disease that may be treated with probiotics. In this study, probiotic strains that could or could not decrease interleukin (IL)-17 levels were applied to imiquimod (IMQ)-induced psoriasis-like mice via oral administration. Bifidobacteriumadolescentis CCFM667, B. breve CCFM1078, Lacticaseibacillusparacasei CCFM1074, and Limosilactobacillus reuteri CCFM1132 ameliorated psoriasis-like pathological characteristics and suppressed the release of IL-23/T helper cell 17 (Th17) axis-related inflammatory cytokines, whereas B. animalis CCFM1148, L. paracasei CCFM1147, and L. reuteri CCFM1040 neither alleviated the pathological characteristics nor reduced the levels of inflammatory cytokines. All effective strains increased the contents of short-chain fatty acids, which were negatively correlated with the levels of inflammatory cytokines. By performing 16S rRNA gene sequencing, the diversity of gut microbiota in psoriasis-like mice was found to decrease, but all effective strains made some specific changes to the composition of gut microbiota compared to the ineffective strains. Furthermore, except for B. breve CCFM1078, all other effective strains decreased the abundance of the family Rikenellaceae, which was positively correlated with psoriasis-like pathological characteristics and was negatively correlated with propionate levels. These findings demonstrated effects of strain-specificity, and how probiotics ameliorated psoriasis and provide new possibilities for the treatment of psoriasis.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Psoríase/dietoterapia , Psoríase/microbiologia , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bifidobacterium/fisiologia , Citocinas/imunologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Imiquimode , Interleucinas/análise , Interleucinas/metabolismo , Lactobacillaceae/fisiologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Probióticos/farmacologia , Psoríase/imunologia , Psoríase/patologia , Pele/imunologia , Pele/patologia , Células Th17/imunologia
7.
Microb Genom ; 7(6)2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34100697

RESUMO

Although the beneficial effects of probiotics are likely to be associated with their ability to colonize the gut, little is known about the characteristics of good colonizers. In a systematic analysis of the comparative genomics, we tried to elucidate the genomic contents that account for the distinct host adaptability patterns of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species. The Bifidobacterium species, with species-level phylogenetic structures affected by recombination among strains, broad mucin-foraging activity, and dietary-fibre-degrading ability, represented niche conservatism and tended to be host-adapted. The Lactobacillus species stretched across three lifestyles, namely free-living, nomadic and host-adapted, as characterized by the variations of bacterial occurrence time, guanine-cytosine (GC) content and genome size, evolution event frequency, and the presence of human-adapted bacterial genes. The numbers and activity of host-adapted factors, such as bile salt hydrolase and intestinal tissue-anchored elements, were distinctly distributed among the three lifestyles. The strains of the three lifestyles could be separated with such a collection of colonization-related genomic content (genes, genome size and GC content). Thus, our work provided valuable information for rational selection and gut engraftment prediction of probiotics. Here, we have found many interesting predictive results for bacterial gut fitness, which will be validated in vitro and in vivo.

8.
Food Funct ; 12(15): 6740-6754, 2021 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34105590

RESUMO

Research studies have shown that Lactobacillus fermentum generally exists in the human gut and has potential health benefits on host health due to its antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. However, the lack of an effective culture medium for the isolation of L. fermentum has presented a significant obstacle on the path to screen L. fermentum strains from the human intestinal tract with a large diversity of commensal microbes. In this study, a total of 51 Lactobacillus species are detected in 200 human fecal samples and we aim to distinguish L. fermentum from these common existing Lactobacillus species and design a more efficient culture medium for isolating L. fermentum strains from the human gut. Based on antibiotic susceptibility and sugar utilization tests, a new optimized medium called LFMATA containing arabinose as the carbon source and 20 mg L-1 vancomycin, 64 mg L-1 gentamicin and 256 mg L-1 streptomycin was developed. Genotype and phenotype analysis for antibiotic resistance and carbohydrate metabolism showed that though glycometabolism-related genes (araA, xylA, manX, bglX, treP and rbsK) correlated with the carbon utilization of Lactobacillus, the genes conferring resistance to streptomycin (gidB and rpsL) and gentamicin (tlyA) were not directly associated with the antibiotic resistance of Lactobacillus strains. This new selective medium greatly increased the efficiency of screening L. fermentum strains from human fecal samples, with the rate of L. fermentum isolation on LFMATA being 10-fold higher than that on LAMVAB.

9.
Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek ; 114(8): 1225-1235, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34129122

RESUMO

A novel strictly anaerobic, Gram-negative bacterium, designated as strain FXJYN30E22T, was isolated from the feces of a healthy woman in Yining county, Xinjiang province, China. This strain was non-spore-forming, bile-resistant, non-motile and rod-shaped. It was found to belong to a single separate group in the Phocaeicola genus based on its 16 S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequence. Alignments of 16 S rRNA gene sequences showed only a low sequence identity (≤ 95.5 %) between strain FXJYN30E22T and all other Phocaeicola strains in public data bases. The genome (43.0% GC) of strain FXJYN30E22T was sequenced, and used for phylogenetic analysis which showed that strain FXJYN30E22T was most closely related to the type strain Phocaeicola massiliensis JCM 13223T. The average nucleotide identity (ANI) value and digital DNA-DNA hybridization (dDDH) between FXJYN30E22T and P. massiliensis JCM 13223T were 90.4 and 41.9 %, which were lower than the generally accepted species boundaries (94.0 and 70 %, respectively). The major cellular fatty acids and polar lipids were anteiso-branched C15:0 and phosphatidylethanolamine, respectively. The result of genome annotation and KEGG analysis showed that strain FXJYN30E22T contains a number of genes in polysaccharide and fatty acid synthesis that indicated adaptation to the human gut system. Furthermore, a pbpE (penicillin-binding protein) gene was found in the genome of strain FXJYN30E22T but in no other Phocaeicola species, which suggested this gene might be contribute to the adaptive capacity of strain FXJYN30E22T. Based on our data, strain FXJYN30E22T (= CGMCC1.17870T/KCTC25195T) was classified as a novel Phocaeicola species, and the name Phocaeicola faecalis sp. nov., was proposed.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Ácidos Graxos , Anaerobiose , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Fosfolipídeos , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
10.
Food Res Int ; 144: 110331, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34053534

RESUMO

The link between the gut microbiome and bone health has begun to attract widespread interest in recent years. The gut microbiome are vital in many diseases involving bone loss. Probiotics, prebiotics, and dietary supplements have been suggested to protect bone health by altering the composition of the gut microbiota. Notably, studying the relationship between the gut microbiome and bone health can provide a basis for the prevention and treatment of bone diseases. This review focuses on the link between the gut microbiome and bone diseases, exploring current knowledge of the mechanisms by which gut bacteria affect bone health. In addition, the influences of dietary supplements on the interactions between the gut microbiome and bone health are discussed. This knowledge will promote new ideas for gut microbiota-mediated dietary interventions in patients with bone diseases.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Probióticos , Densidade Óssea , Dieta , Humanos , Prebióticos
11.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 655258, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33816357

RESUMO

Constipation is a prevalent gastrointestinal disorder that seriously reduces the quality of life. Clinical studies have shown that a great change or severe imbalance occurs in the intestinal microbiota of people with constipation. This study explored whether bacteriocin-producing and non-bacteriocin-producing Pediococcus acidilactici strains resulted in differences in the alleviation of constipation and changes in the fecal flora in BALB/c mice. The constipation-related indicators, gastrointestinal regulatory peptides and gut microbiota were identified to evaluate their alleviating effects and underlying mechanisms. The time to the first black-stool defecation and the gastrointestinal transit rate in constipated mice were found to be somewhat improved by four P. acidilactici strains (P > 0.05). Moreover, there were significant differences in the level of most gastrointestinal regulatory peptides in the serum, as well as in the composition and abundance of intestinal microbiota in different groups (P < 0.05). At the phylum level, the relative abundance of Firmicutes was significantly increased, but those of Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria were significantly reduced after the administration of four P. acidilactici strains for 14 d (P < 0.05). The levels of Bacteroides and genera from Enterobacteriaceae were significantly decreased, whereas Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus were upregulated when bacteriocin-producing P. acidilactici CCFM18 and CCFM28 strains were provided in the diet (P < 0.05). The results indicated that although constipation-related symptoms were alleviated to only a limited degree, the administration of four P. acidilactici strains effectively regulated the gut flora and provided a potential health benefit to the host, especially the bacteriocin-producing P. acidilactici strains.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Pediococcus acidilactici , Animais , Constipação Intestinal , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Qualidade de Vida
12.
Food Funct ; 12(8): 3476-3492, 2021 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33900330

RESUMO

Bifidobacterium longum (B. longum) species are widely used to prevent and treat ulcerative colitis (UC). In this study, phylogenetic and pan-genomic characterization of 122 B. longum strains was performed on the basis of 936 core genes; among these, four strains from different branches of the phylogenetic tree were selected for an evaluation of anti-inflammatory and immune modulatory activities in a DSS-induced colitis mouse model. Among the tested B. longum strains (B. longum FBJ20M1, B. longum FGDLZ8M1, B. longum FGSZY16M3, and B. longum FJSWXJ2M1), B. longum FGDLZ8M1 was found to most effectively alleviate colitis by reducing the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, restoring the colon length, and maintaining the mucosal integrity. The anti-inflammatory mechanisms of B. longum FGDLZ8M1 were related to the inhibition of NF-κB signaling. Genomic analysis indicated that these protective effects of B. longum FGDLZ8M1 may be related to specific genes associated with carbohydrate transport and metabolism and defense mechanisms (e.g., tolerance to bile salts and acids). Correlation analysis indicated that gastrointestinal transit tolerance was the most strongly associated factor. Our findings may contribute to the rapid screening of lactic acid bacterial strains with UC-alleviating effects.


Assuntos
Bifidobacterium longum/fisiologia , Colite Ulcerativa/terapia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios , Bifidobacterium longum/classificação , Bifidobacterium longum/genética , Colite Ulcerativa/imunologia , Colite Ulcerativa/patologia , Colo/imunologia , Colo/patologia , Sulfato de Dextrana , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Filogenia
13.
J Dairy Sci ; 104(7): 7466-7479, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33896630

RESUMO

Bacillus coagulans has been widely studied for its probiotic properties. Therefore, identifying a strain that can be used as an adjunct starter culture for yogurt production would have commercial value. In this study, 30 B. coagulans strains were isolated from vegetable samples from 11 provinces or autonomous regions in China, and their pan-genomic and phylogenetic characteristics were analyzed. Phylogenetic analysis categorized 30 strains into 4 different subphylotypes, including subtype I (11 isolates), subtype II (7 isolates), subtype III (11 isolates), and subtype IV (1 isolate). Four B. coagulans strains (B. coagulans-70, B. coagulans-78, B. coagulans-79, and B. coagulans-100) were randomly selected from each subphylotype of the phylogenetic tree as adjunct starter cultures. Compared with the other tested strains, B. coagulans-70 showed the highest count in yogurt at the end of the manufacturing period. Comparative genome analysis indicated that the different bacterial levels of B. coagulans strains in yogurt may be associated with the abundance of genes related to carbohydrate transport and metabolism (e.g., sucrose utilization). Finally, differences in texture and volatile flavor compound profiles were observed between the yogurt samples. Compared with the other groups, the addition of B. coagulans-70 exerted a positive effect on the appearance and texture of yogurt products. Volatile analysis showed increased quantities of 2-heptanone, 2-nonanone, amyl alcohol, and 2-hydroxy-3-pentanone in the B. coagulans-70 group compared with control yogurts. These results above combined with the results of a sensory evaluation indicated that B. coagulans-70 is the most suitable strain for further use in functional dairy product development.


Assuntos
Bacillus coagulans , Probióticos , Animais , China , Fermentação , Leite , Filogenia , Iogurte
14.
Environ Microbiol ; 23(6): 3164-3181, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33876566

RESUMO

Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) are widespread in human guts, yet their expansion has been linked to colonic diseases. We report the isolation, sequencing and physiological characterization of strain QI0027T , a novel SRB species belonging to the class Desulfovibrionia. Metagenomic sequencing of stool samples from 45 Chinese individuals, and comparison with 1690 Desulfovibrionaceae metagenome-assembled genomes recovered from humans of diverse geographic locations, revealed the presence of QI0027T in 22 further individuals. QI0027T encoded nitrogen fixation genes and based on the acetylene reduction assay, actively fixed nitrogen. Transcriptomics revealed that QI0027T overexpressed 42 genes in nitrogen-limiting conditions compared to cultures supplemented with ammonia, including genes encoding nitrogenases, a urea uptake system and the urease complex. Reanalyses of 835 public stool metatranscriptomes showed that nitrogenase genes from Desulfovibrio bacteria were expressed in six samples suggesting that nitrogen fixation might be active in the gut environment. Although frequently thought of as a nutrient-rich environment, nitrogen fixation can occur in the human gut. Animals are often nitrogen limited and have evolved diverse strategies to capture biologically active nitrogen, ranging from amino acid transporters to stable associations with beneficial microbes that provide fixed nitrogen. QI0027T is the first Desulfovibrio human isolate for which nitrogen fixation has been demonstrated, suggesting that some sulfate-reducing bacteria could also play a role in the availability of nitrogen in the gut.

15.
J Med Food ; 24(3): 319-330, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33739885

RESUMO

Diabetes mellitus is a global health problem, and its prevalence continues to increase. Dietary supplements, including probiotics, prebiotics, and plant extracts, have been shown to alleviate diabetes. In this study, the synergistic effects of two types of dietary supplements were investigated in a mouse model of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Sixty mice were divided into the following six groups: control, model (induced by a high-fat diet and intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin), drug (metformin), probiotic (Lactobacillus spp.), formula A (probiotics, plant extracts, and soybean peptide), and formula B (probiotics, prebiotics, and soybean peptide). All three dietary interventions (probiotic, formula A, and formula B groups) significantly reduced the blood glucose level and oral glucose tolerance level and effectively improved some biochemical parameters (e.g., chronic inflammation, oxidative stress, and blood lipid level) and regulated gut microbiota. Notably, formula B exhibited a better ability on reducing the blood glucose level, regulating the gut microbiota, and increasing the short-chain fatty acid levels compared with the probiotics alone and formula A. Thus, formula B may exert synergistic protective effects against T2DM through a mechanism involving probiotics and prebiotics of gut microbiota regulation. This study provides a theoretical basis for the application of probiotic dietary supplements to the treatment of T2DM.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Probióticos , Animais , Suplementos Nutricionais , Camundongos , Prebióticos
16.
Microorganisms ; 9(2)2021 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33671556

RESUMO

Vascular reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an essential role in cardiovascular diseases and the antioxidative effects of probiotics have been widely reported. To screen the probiotic strains that may prevent cardiovascular diseases, we tested the antioxidative effects of supernatants of different Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus strains on A7R5 cells. Preincubation with supernatants of B. longum CCFM752, L. plantarum CCFM1149, or L. plantarum CCFM10 significantly suppressed the angiotensin II-induced increases in ROS levels and increased catalase (CAT) activity in A7R5, whereas CCFM752 inhibited NADPH oxidase activation and CCFM1149 enhanced the intracellular superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity simultaneously. Treatment with CCFM752, CCFM1149, or CCFM10 supernatants had no significant impact on transcriptional levels of Cat, Sod1, Sod2, Nox1, p22phox, or p47phox, but altered the overall transcriptomic profile and the expression of genes relevant to protein biosynthesis, and up-regulated the 60S ribosomal protein L7a (Rpl7a). A positive correlation between Rpl7a expression and intracellular CAT activity implied that Rpl7a may participate in CAT synthesis in A7R5. Supernatant of CCFM752 could also down-regulate the expression of NADPH oxidase activator 1 (Noxa1) and angiotensinogen in A7R5. Collectively, the probiotic strains CCFM752, CCFM1149, and CCFM10 exhibited antioxidative attributes on A7R5 cells and might help to reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases.

17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(3)2021 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33525627

RESUMO

Hypercholesterolemia is an independent risk factor of cardiovascular disease, which is among the major causes of death worldwide. The aim of this study was to explore whether Bifidobacterium longum strains exerted intra-species differences in cholesterol-lowering effects in hypercholesterolemic rats and to investigate the potential mechanisms. SD rats underwent gavage with each B. longum strain (CCFM 1077, I3, J3 and B3) daily for 28 days. B. longum CCFM 1077 exerted the most potent cholesterol-lowering effect, followed by B. longum I3 and B3, whereas B. longum B3 had no effect in alleviating hypercholesterolemia. Divergent alleviation of different B. longum strains on hypercholesterolemia can be attributed to the differences in bile salt deconjugation ability and cholesterol assimilation ability in vitro. By 16S rRNA metagenomics analysis, the relative abundance of beneficial genus increased in the B. longum CCFM 1077 treatment group. The expression of key genes involved in cholesterol metabolism were also altered after the B. longum CCFM 1077 treatment. In conclusion, B. longum exhibits strain-specific effects in the alleviation of hypercholesterolemia, mainly due to differences in bacterial characteristics, bile salt deconjugation ability, cholesterol assimilation ability, expressions of key genes involved in cholesterol metabolism and alterations of gut microbiota.


Assuntos
Bactérias/classificação , Bifidobacterium longum/fisiologia , Colesterol/efeitos adversos , Hipercolesterolemia/terapia , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Animais , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bifidobacterium longum/classificação , Colesterol/análise , DNA Bacteriano/genética , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fezes/microbiologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Hipercolesterolemia/induzido quimicamente , Hipercolesterolemia/genética , Hipercolesterolemia/microbiologia , Metagenômica , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Especificidade da Espécie
18.
Chemosphere ; 275: 129973, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33639553

RESUMO

Nonylphenol (NP) is widely used in daily production and life due to its good emulsification. In this review, we discuss toxicology studies that examined behavioral disorders caused by NP, the corresponding toxicological mechanisms in the central nervous system (CNS), and strategies for protection. Available in vitro and in vivo evidence suggests that exposure to NP during adulthood or early childhood is associated with cognitive dysfunction, including depression-like behaviors, anxiety-like behaviors, and impaired learning and memory. The main mechanisms underlying NP-related cognitive disorders include inflammation, destruction of synaptic plasticity, and destruction of important signaling pathways that affect the synthesis and secretion of neurotransmitters. The effects and mechanisms of NP exposure on CNS-mediated reproductive function, including interference with the expression of hormones, proteins, and enzymes, are discussed. Other abnormal behaviors such as locomotor activity and swimming behavior are also described. Several measures to prevent NP neurotoxicity are summarized. These measures are based on the toxicological mechanisms underlying NP exposure and include external protection and internal self-regulation of the nervous system. Finally, a new treatment idea is proposed based on the gut-brain axis. Characterizing the behavioral changes and underlying toxicity mechanisms associated with NP exposure and investigating the possible methods of treatment will help to expand the understanding of these mechanisms and could lead to more effective treatments.


Assuntos
Plasticidade Neuronal , Fenóis , Adulto , Ansiedade , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Memória , Fenóis/toxicidade
19.
Food Funct ; 12(6): 2354-2377, 2021 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33629669

RESUMO

Preliminary evidence shows the potential role of probiotics in ameliorating multiple sclerosis (MS); however, the effects of probiotics on MS remain unclear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of probiotics on multiple sclerosis by systematically reviewing the preclinical trials (animal trials) and performing meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane central of randomized clinical trials, EMBASE, Clinical Trials, and a search engine Google Scholar were systematically searched and manually screened updated to November 2020, resulting in eligible 3 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and 22 preclinical studies. Meta-analysis of RCTs enrolling 173 patients with MS receiving probiotics revealed significant beneficial effects of probiotic supplementation on mental health (expanded disability status scale scores: standardized mean difference [SMD] = -1.22; I2 = 92%; 95% CI, -2.40 to -0.03, P = 0.04; Beck depression inventory total scores: SMD = -1.58; I2 = 94%; 95% CI, -3.03 to -0.12; P = 0.03; general health questionnaire scores: SMD = -0.71; I2 = 0%; 95% CI, -1.02 to -0.40; P < 0.00001; depression anxiety and stress scale scores: SMD = -0.72; I2 = 0%; 95% CI, -1.12 to -0.33; P = 0.0003), with very low certainty of evidence. In addition, probiotic intake markedly improved insulin resistance and inflammatory and oxidative stress markers. Preclinical studies have shown that probiotic consumption reduces the incidence and severity of MS, delays MS progression (15 studies), and improves motor impairment (3 studies) with favorable alterations of immune and inflammatory markers (20 studies) and intestinal microbiome compositions (4 studies) in MS. These results indicated that probiotics may have beneficial effects on the prevention and treatment of multiple sclerosis.


Assuntos
Esclerose Múltipla/dietoterapia , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Ratos , Adulto Jovem
20.
Carbohydr Polym ; 258: 117651, 2021 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33593539

RESUMO

Intestinal mucins glycosylation is regulated by host cues and environmental signals from the microbiome and diets. However, the mechanisms responsible for the dialogue between these three factors and mucin glycosylation in the digestive environment of the host are not well understood. In this review, the dynamic alterations of mucin glycosylation induced by immune responses to gut diseases are summarized. The various types of interactions between mucin glycans and gut microbes, including adhesins, glycosidases, metabolic products and surface components, are discussed. The mechanisms that determine how dietary components (fat, fiber, prebiotics, protein, and food additives) affect intestinal mucin glycosylation and maintain mucosal homeostasis are identified. A potential framework for individualized dietary recommendations is proposed for the prevention of abnormal mucin glycosylation driven by immune dysregulation, gut microbiome alterations and other factors. This review may provide a basis for future research on glycosylation-inspired therapies for gut diseases.


Assuntos
Dieta , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Glicosilação , Mucinas/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos/química , Ração Animal , Animais , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Aditivos Alimentares/metabolismo , Homeostase , Humanos , Sistema Imunitário , Inflamação , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Camundongos , Prebióticos , Coelhos
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